Psychiatry - Research Publications

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 2422
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    A multisite longitudinal evaluation of patient characteristics associated with a poor response to non-surgical multidisciplinary management of low back pain in an advanced practice physiotherapist-led tertiary service.
    O'Leary, S ; Raymer, M ; Window, P ; Swete Kelly, P ; Lee, D ; Garsden, L ; Tweedy, R ; Phillips, B ; O'Sullivan, W ; Wake, A ; Smith, A ; Pahor, S ; Pearce, L ; McLean, R ; Thompson, D ; Williams, E ; Nolan, D ; Anning, J ; Seels, I ; Wickins, D ; Marks, D ; Diplock, B ; Parravicini, V ; Parnwell, L ; Vicenzino, B ; Comans, T ; Cottrell, M ; Khan, A ; McPhail, S (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-03)
    BACKGROUND: Non-surgical multidisciplinary management is often the first pathway of care for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). This study explores if patient characteristics recorded at the initial service examination have an association with a poor response to this pathway of care in an advanced practice physiotherapist-led tertiary service. METHODS: Two hundred and forty nine patients undergoing non-surgical multidisciplinary management for their LBP across 8 tertiary public hospitals in Queensland, Australia participated in this prospective longitudinal study. Generalised linear models (logistic family) examined the relationship between patient characteristics and a poor response at 6 months follow-up using a Global Rating of Change measure. RESULTS: Overall 79 of the 178 (44%) patients completing the Global Rating of Change measure (28.5% loss to follow-up) reported a poor outcome. Patient characteristics retained in the final model associated with a poor response included lower Formal Education Level (ie did not complete school) (Odds Ratio (OR (95% confidence interval)) (2.67 (1.17-6.09), p = 0.02) and higher self-reported back disability (measured with the Oswestry Disability Index) (OR 1.33 (1.01-1.77) per 10/100 point score increase, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: A low level of formal education and high level of self-reported back disability may be associated with a poor response to non-surgical multidisciplinary management of LBP in tertiary care. Patients with these characteristics may need greater assistance with regard to their comprehension of health information, and judicious monitoring of their response to facilitate timely alternative care if no benefits are attained.
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    The Relationship between F-2-Isoprostanes Plasma Levels and Depression Symptoms in Healthy Older Adults
    Savage, K ; Gogarty, L ; Lea, A ; Deleuil, S ; Nolidin, K ; Croft, K ; Stough, C (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    The increasing proportion of older citizens in our society reflects a need to better understand age-related biological underpinnings of mood, as depression in older age may be under-diagnosed. Pre-clinical and human studies evidence a relationship between oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers in depression symptoms, and an influence of biological factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI), but focus has been clinical or younger samples, and less is known about patterns in healthy older adults. We investigated these associations with data derived from the Australian Research Council Longevity Study (ARCLI; ANZCTR12611000487910), in 568 healthy adults aged 60-75 years using F2-Isoprostanes plasma levels, and controlling for demographic factors, in assessing mood via the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Chalder Fatigue Scale, and General Health Questionnaire 12. Elevated F2-Isoprostanes contributed to depressed mood on the BDI-II and reduced general health on the GHQ-12. BMI was positively associated with Chalder Fatigue scores, yet better ratings on the GHQ-12. Females had significantly higher F2-Isoprostanes than males. The results suggest that in otherwise healthy older adults, mood and mental health are reduced with increases in oxidative stress markers, exhibiting similar patterns observed in clinical groups. Sex as a factor should be considered when assessing OS levels in systemic pathologies. BMI as a modifiable risk factor for maintenance of mental health, and OS modification through nutrient supplementation, are discussed. The findings contribute to understanding oxidative stress marker patterns in healthy older adults and their potential role in mood symptoms and mental health.
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    Mixed Methods Thematic Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Mitochondrial Agents for Bipolar Depression
    Russell, SE ; Wrobel, AL ; Dean, OM ; Berk, M ; Dodd, S ; Ng, CH ; Malhi, GS ; Cotton, SM ; Sarris, J ; Turner, A (KOREAN COLL NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, 2022-05-01)
    Objective: There is often a shortfall in recovery following treatment for an episode of bipolar disorder (BD). Exploration of participant's experience provides vital information to enhance statistical outcomes for novel therapy trials. This study used mixed-methods to explore participants' experience of a trial testing N -acetyl cysteine (NAC) and mitochondrially active nutraceuticals for BD depression. Methods: Case: report forms from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of BD depression (n = 148) were analysed using a pragmatic adaption of grounded theory and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic analysis of 148 study participants indicated numerous changes in participant experience over time. For example, perceived environmental stressors reported by participants decreased over the trial in both treatment groups. Quantitative analysis of the themes revealed more positive theme reports in the combination treatment arm compared to the placebo arm and there were more negative themes identified in the placebo arm, compared to the NAC arm. Conclusion: This approach revealed additional results not elucidated in the primary quantitative analysis. This emphasises the value of mixed-methods research in capturing participants' experiences in RCTs and detecting possible latent benefits and risks. Such methods can detect latent target signals in novel therapy trials conducted in BD and generate novel hypotheses.
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    ENIGMA HALFpipe: Interactive, reproducible, and efficient analysis for resting-state and task-based fMRI data
    Waller, L ; Erk, S ; Pozzi, E ; Toenders, YJ ; Haswell, CC ; Buettner, M ; Thompson, PM ; Schmaal, L ; Morey, RA ; Walter, H ; Veer, IM (WILEY, 2022-03-19)
    The reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging has led to an increased demand for standardized data processing workflows. Within the ENIGMA consortium, we developed HALFpipe (Harmonized Analysis of Functional MRI pipeline), an open-source, containerized, user-friendly tool that facilitates reproducible analysis of task-based and resting-state fMRI data through uniform application of preprocessing, quality assessment, single-subject feature extraction, and group-level statistics. It provides state-of-the-art preprocessing using fMRIPrep without the requirement for input data in Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) format. HALFpipe extends the functionality of fMRIPrep with additional preprocessing steps, which include spatial smoothing, grand mean scaling, temporal filtering, and confound regression. HALFpipe generates an interactive quality assessment (QA) webpage to rate the quality of key preprocessing outputs and raw data in general. HALFpipe features myriad post-processing functions at the individual subject level, including calculation of task-based activation, seed-based connectivity, network-template (or dual) regression, atlas-based functional connectivity matrices, regional homogeneity (ReHo), and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), offering support to evaluate a combinatorial number of features or preprocessing settings in one run. Finally, flexible factorial models can be defined for mixed-effects regression analysis at the group level, including multiple comparison correction. Here, we introduce the theoretical framework in which HALFpipe was developed, and present an overview of the main functions of the pipeline. HALFpipe offers the scientific community a major advance toward addressing the reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging, providing a workflow that encompasses preprocessing, post-processing, and QA of fMRI data, while broadening core principles of data analysis for producing reproducible results. Instructions and code can be found at https://github.com/HALFpipe/HALFpipe.
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    Codes of ethics for psychiatrists: past, present and prospect
    Bloch, S ; Kenn, F ; Lim, I (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-02-08)
    BACKGROUND: Codes of ethics in medicine have an ancient tradition, extending back to the Oath of Hippocrates. Yet it was only in the early 1970s that the speciality of psychiatry developed a specific code to address the unique ethical dilemmas and complexities arising in psychiatric practice. As the 50th anniversary of the publication of psychiatry's first code of ethics approaches, it is timely to reflect on the progress, role, and impact of such codes.Our aim is to provide a historically informed review of codes of ethics in psychiatry - their origins and evolution, the current picture, and the possibilities for future development. METHODS: We conducted a selective review of relevant literature (including all codes of ethics accessible on the websites of World Psychiatric Association members states), analysis of the form and content of codes and related documents in psychiatry, and interviews of psychiatrists who have played central roles in their evolution. RESULTS: Of the 143 WPA member states, only 15 codes of ethics for psychiatrists were identified, and few of these were associated with professional disciplinary processes. We found that these codes are rarely revised and sometimes supplemented with other statements and guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: While there are difficulties in measuring the direct effectiveness of codes of ethics on the practice of psychiatrists, we conclude that these codes help to (1) promote professional solidarity and autonomy, (2) enhance moral sensitivity, and (3) aid in psychiatric education and training.
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    Music and Psychology & Social Connections Program: Protocol for a Novel Intervention for Dyads Affected by Younger-Onset Dementia
    Loi, SM ; Flynn, L ; Cadwallader, C ; Stretton-Smith, P ; Bryant, C ; Baker, FA (MDPI, 2022-04-01)
    Psychosocial interventions targeting the specific needs of people affected by younger-onset dementia are lacking. Younger-onset dementia refers to dementia where symptom onset occurs at less than 65 years old. Because of its occurrence in middle age, the impact on spouses is particularly marked and dyadic-based interventions are recommended. Music And Psychology & Social Connections (MAPS) is a novel online intervention, informed by the theory of adaptive coping by Bannon et al. (2021) for dyads affected by younger-onset dementia. MAPS combines therapeutic songwriting, cognitive behaviour therapy, and a private social networking group that focuses on the dyads. This will be a randomised controlled trial with a waitlist control. The primary aims are to assess whether MAPS improves depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms in caregivers, with secondary aims to assess whether MAPS improves depressive symptoms in people with younger-onset dementia. The trial also aims to assess dyadic social connectedness; caregiver coping skills; and neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with younger-onset dementia. We will recruit 60 dyads to participate in a group-based weekly online program for 8 weeks facilitated by a credentialed music therapist and psychologist. Sessions 1 and 8 will include both caregivers and people with younger-onset dementia and Sessions 2–7 will involve separate group sessions for caregivers and those with dementia. There will be focus groups for qualitative feedback. Due to its online administration, MAPS has the potential to reach many dyads affected by younger-onset dementia.
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    Secure attachment primes reduce fear consolidation
    Toumbelekis, M ; Liddell, BJ ; Bryant, RA (WILEY, 2021-05-05)
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that attachment security primes can inhibit fear acquisition. This current study aimed to examine whether a brief imaginal prime of one's attachment figure could impact on fear consolidation. METHODS: A total of 75 participants underwent fear conditioning on Day 1 and fear recall was tested on Day 2. Immediately following conditioning, half the participants were instructed to imagine an attachment figure while the other half imagined a nonattachment positive situation. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective expectancy of shock ratings were used as the measures of fear learning across trials. RESULTS: The attachment group showed significantly lower levels of fear recall on Day 2 at both physiological and subjective levels. Furthermore, this effect was moderated by attachment anxiety, such that it was greatest for individuals who were securely attached. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that attachment relationships are protective during the consolidation of fear memories, and may have implications for how social attachments may impact how anxiety disorders can develop.
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    Investigating neural circuits of emotion regulation to distinguish euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.
    Rai, S ; Griffiths, K ; Breukelaar, IA ; Barreiros, AR ; Chen, W ; Boyce, P ; Hazell, P ; Foster, S ; Malhi, GS ; Bryant, RA ; Harris, AWF ; Korgaonkar, MS (Wiley, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are initially diagnosed as having major depressive disorder (MDD), and emotional lability is a key aspect of both sets of mood disorders. However, it remains unknown whether differences in the regulation of emotions through cognitive reappraisal may serve to distinguish BD and MDD. Therefore, we examined this question in euthymic BD and MDD patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight euthymic BD, 33 euthymic MDD and 37 healthy control (HC) participants, matched for age, gender and depression severity, engaged in an emotion regulation (ER) cognitive reappraisal task during an fMRI scan were examined. Participants either reappraised (Think condition) or passively watched negative (Watch condition) or neutral (Neutral condition) pictures and rated their affect. Activation and connectivity analyses were used to examine group differences in reappraisal (Think vs Watch) and reactivity (Watch vs Neutral) conditions in ER-specific neural circuits. RESULTS: Irrespective of group, participants rated most negatively the images during the Watch condition relative to Think and Neutral conditions, and more negatively to Think relative to Neutral. Notably, BD participants exhibited reduced subgenual anterior cingulate activation (sgACC) relative to MDD during reappraisal, but exhibited greater sgACC activation relative to MDD during reactivity, whereas MDD participants elicited greater activation in right amygdala relative to BD during reactivity. We found no group differences in task-related connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Euthymic BD and MDD patients engage differential brain regions to process and regulate emotional information. These differences could serve to distinguish the clinical groups and provide novel insights into the underlying pathophysiology of BD.