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    Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology
    Mullins, N ; Forstner, AJ ; O'Connell, KS ; Coombes, B ; Coleman, JR ; Qiao, Z ; Als, TD ; Bigdeli, TB ; Borte, S ; Bryois, J ; Charney, AW ; Drange, OK ; Gandal, MJ ; Hagenaars, SP ; Ikeda, M ; Kamitaki, N ; Kim, M ; Krebs, K ; Panagiotaropoulou, G ; Schilder, BM ; Sloofman, LG ; Steinberg, S ; Trubetskoy, V ; Winsvold, BS ; Won, H-H ; Abramova, L ; Adorjan, K ; Agerbo, E ; Al Eissa, M ; Albani, D ; Alliey-Rodriguez, N ; Anjorin, A ; Antilla, V ; Antoniou, A ; Awasthi, S ; Baek, JH ; Baekvad-Hansen, M ; Bass, N ; Bauer, M ; Beins, EC ; Bergen, SE ; Birner, A ; Pedersen, CB ; Boen, E ; Boks, MP ; Bosch, R ; Brum, M ; Brumpton, BM ; Brunkhorst-Kanaan, N ; Budde, M ; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J ; Byerley, W ; Cairns, M ; Casas, M ; Cervantes, P ; Clarke, T-K ; Cruceanu, C ; Cuellar-Barboza, A ; Cunningham, J ; Curtis, D ; Czerski, PM ; Dale, AM ; Dalkner, N ; David, FS ; Degenhardt, F ; Djurovic, S ; Dobbyn, AL ; Douzenis, A ; Elvsashagen, T ; Escott-Price, V ; Ferrier, IN ; Fiorentino, A ; Foroud, TM ; Forty, L ; Frank, J ; Frei, O ; Freimer, NB ; Frisen, L ; Gade, K ; Garnham, J ; Gelernter, J ; Pedersen, MG ; Gizer, IR ; Gordon, SD ; Gordon-Smith, K ; Greenwood, TA ; Grove, J ; Guzman-Parra, J ; Ha, K ; Haraldsson, M ; Hautzinger, M ; Heilbronner, U ; Hellgren, D ; Herms, S ; Hoffmann, P ; Holmans, PA ; Huckins, L ; Jamain, S ; Johnson, JS ; Kalman, JL ; Kamatani, Y ; Kennedy, JL ; Kittel-Schneider, S ; Knowles, JA ; Kogevinas, M ; Koromina, M ; Kranz, TM ; Kranzler, HR ; Kubo, M ; Kupka, R ; Kushner, SA ; Lavebratt, C ; Lawrence, J ; Leber, M ; Lee, H-J ; Lee, PH ; Levy, SE ; Lewis, C ; Liao, C ; Lucae, S ; Lundberg, M ; MacIntyre, DJ ; Maier, W ; Maihofer, A ; Malaspina, D ; Maratou, E ; Martinsson, L ; Mattheisen, M ; McCarroll, SA ; McGregor, NW ; McGuffin, P ; McKay, JD ; Medeiros, H ; Medland, SE ; Millischer, V ; Montgomery, GW ; Moran, JL ; Morris, DW ; Muhleisen, TW ; O'Brien, N ; O'Donovan, C ; Loohuis, LMO ; Oruc, L ; Papiol, S ; Pardinas, AF ; Perry, A ; Pfennig, A ; Porichi, E ; Potash, JB ; Quested, D ; Raj, T ; Rapaport, MH ; DePaulo, JR ; Regeer, EJ ; Rice, JP ; Rivas, F ; Rivera, M ; Roth, J ; Roussos, P ; Ruderfer, DM ; Sanchez-Mora, C ; Schulte, EC ; Senner, F ; Sharp, S ; Shilling, PD ; Sigurdsson, E ; Sirignano, L ; Slaney, C ; Smeland, OB ; Sobell, JL ; Hansen, CS ; Artigas, MS ; Spijker, AT ; Stein, DJ ; Strauss, JS ; Swiatkowska, B ; Terao, C ; Thorgeirsson, TE ; Toma, C ; Tooney, P ; Tsermpini, E-E ; Vawter, MP ; Vedder, H ; Walters, JTR ; Witt, SH ; Xi, S ; Xu, W ; Yang, JMK ; Young, AH ; Young, H ; Zandi, PP ; Zhou, H ; Zillich, L ; Adolfsson, R ; Agartz, I ; Alda, M ; Alfredsson, L ; Babadjanova, G ; Backlund, L ; Baune, BT ; Bellivier, F ; Bengesser, S ; Berrettini, WH ; Blackwood, DHR ; Boehnke, M ; Borglum, AD ; Breen, G ; Carr, VJ ; Catts, S ; Corvin, A ; Craddock, N ; Dannlowski, U ; Dikeos, D ; Esko, T ; Etain, B ; Ferentinos, P ; Frye, M ; Fullerton, JM ; Gawlik, M ; Gershon, ES ; Goes, F ; Green, MJ ; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M ; Hauser, J ; Henskens, F ; Hillert, J ; Hong, KS ; Hougaard, DM ; Hultman, CM ; Hveem, K ; Iwata, N ; Jablensky, A ; Jones, I ; Jones, LA ; Kahn, RS ; Kelsoe, JR ; Kirov, G ; Landen, M ; Leboyer, M ; Lewis, CM ; Li, QS ; Lissowska, J ; Lochner, C ; Loughland, C ; Martin, NG ; Mathews, CA ; Mayoral, F ; McElroy, SL ; McIntosh, AM ; McMahon, FJ ; Melle, I ; Michie, P ; Milani, L ; Mitchell, PB ; Morken, G ; Mors, O ; Mortensen, PB ; Mowry, B ; Muller-Myhsok, B ; Myers, RM ; Neale, BM ; Nievergelt, CM ; Nordentoft, M ; Nothen, MM ; ODonovan, MC ; Oedegaard, KJ ; Olsson, T ; Owen, MJ ; Paciga, SA ; Pantelis, C ; Pato, C ; Pato, MT ; Patrinos, GP ; Perlis, RH ; Posthuma, D ; Ramos-Quiroga, JA ; Reif, A ; Reininghaus, EZ ; Ribases, M ; Rietschel, M ; Ripke, S ; Rouleau, GA ; Saito, T ; Schall, U ; Schalling, M ; Schofield, PR ; Schulze, TG ; Scott, LJ ; Scott, RJ ; Serretti, A ; Weickert, CS ; Smoller, JW ; Stefansson, H ; Stefansson, K ; Stordal, E ; Streit, F ; Sullivan, PF ; Turecki, G ; Vaaler, AE ; Vieta, E ; Vincent, JB ; Waldman, ID ; Weickert, TW ; Werge, T ; Wray, NR ; Zwart, J ; Biernacka, JM ; Nurnberger, J ; Cichon, S ; Edenberg, HJ ; Stahl, EA ; McQuillin, A ; Di Florio, A ; Ophoff, RA ; Andreassen, OA (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-05-17)
    Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
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    Heterogeneity and Classification of Recent Onset Psychosis and Depression: A Multimodal Machine Learning Approach
    Lalousis, PA ; Wood, SJ ; Schmaal, L ; Chisholm, K ; Griffiths, S ; Reniers, R ; Bertolino, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Brambilla, P ; Kambeitz, J ; Lencer, R ; Pantelis, C ; Ruhrmann, S ; Salokangas, RKR ; Schultze-Lutter, F ; Bonivento, C ; Dwyer, DB ; Ferro, A ; Haidl, T ; Rosen, M ; Schmidt, A ; Meisenzahl, E ; Koutsouleris, N ; Upthegrove, R (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
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    Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis
    Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hayes, RA ; Wood, SJ ; Nordholm, D ; Zhou, JH ; Fusar-Poli, P ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Takahashi, T ; Sugranyes, G ; Kwak, YB ; Mathalon, DH ; Katagiri, N ; Hooker, CI ; Smigielski, L ; Colibazzi, T ; Via, E ; Tang, J ; Koike, S ; Rasser, PE ; Michel, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Hegelstad, WTV ; de la Fuente-Sandoval, C ; Waltz, JA ; Mizrahi, R ; Corcoran, CM ; Resch, F ; Tamnes, CK ; Haas, SS ; Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Amminger, GP ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Baldwin, H ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Borgwardt, S ; Catalano, S ; Chee, MWL ; Chen, X ; Cho, KIK ; Cooper, RE ; Cropley, VL ; Dolz, M ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Glenthoj, BY ; de Haan, L ; Hamilton, HK ; Harris, MA ; Haut, KM ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Heinz, A ; Hubl, D ; Hwang, WJ ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lee, J ; Leon-Ortiz, P ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Ma, X ; McGorry, P ; McGuire, P ; Mizuno, M ; Moller, P ; Moncada-Habib, T ; Munoz-Samons, D ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordentoft, M ; Omelchenko, MA ; Oppedal, K ; Ouyang, L ; Pantelis, C ; Pariente, JC ; Raghava, JM ; Reyes-Madrigal, F ; Roach, BJ ; Rossberg, JI ; Rossler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Schiffman, J ; Schlagenhauf, F ; Schmidt, A ; Sorensen, ME ; Suzuki, M ; Theodoridou, A ; Tomyshev, AS ; Tor, J ; Vaernes, TG ; Velakoulis, D ; Venegoni, GD ; Vinogradov, S ; Wenneberg, C ; Westlye, LT ; Yamasue, H ; Yuan, L ; Yung, AR ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Thompson, PM ; Hernaus, D (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-05)
    Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
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    Heterogeneity and Classification of Recent Onset Psychosis and Depression: A Multimodal Machine Learning Approach
    Lalousis, PA ; Wood, SJ ; Schmaal, L ; Chisholm, K ; Griffiths, SL ; Reniers, RLEP ; Bertolino, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Brambilla, P ; Kambeitz, J ; Lencer, R ; Pantelis, C ; Ruhrmann, S ; Salokangas, RKR ; Schultze-Lutter, F ; Bonivento, C ; Dwyer, D ; Ferro, A ; Haidl, T ; Rosen, M ; Schmidt, A ; Meisenzahl, E ; Koutsouleris, N ; Upthegrove, R (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-02-05)
    Diagnostic heterogeneity within and across psychotic and affective disorders challenges accurate treatment selection, particularly in the early stages. Delineation of shared and distinct illness features at the phenotypic and brain levels may inform the development of more precise differential diagnostic tools. We aimed to identify prototypes of depression and psychosis to investigate their heterogeneity, with common, comorbid transdiagnostic symptoms. Analyzing clinical/neurocognitive and grey matter volume (GMV) data from the PRONIA database, we generated prototypic models of recent-onset depression (ROD) vs. recent-onset psychosis (ROP) by training support-vector machines to separate patients with ROD from patients with ROP, who were selected for absent comorbid features (pure groups). Then, models were applied to patients with comorbidity, ie, ROP with depressive symptoms (ROP+D) and ROD participants with sub-threshold psychosis-like features (ROD+P), to measure their positions within the affective-psychotic continuum. All models were independently validated in a replication sample. Comorbid patients were positioned between pure groups, with ROP+D patients being more frequently classified as ROD compared to pure ROP patients (clinical/neurocognitive model: χ2 = 14.874; P < .001; GMV model: χ2 = 4.933; P = .026). ROD+P patient classification did not differ from ROD (clinical/neurocognitive model: χ2 = 1.956; P = 0.162; GMV model: χ2 = 0.005; P = .943). Clinical/neurocognitive and neuroanatomical models demonstrated separability of prototypic depression from psychosis. The shift of comorbid patients toward the depression prototype, observed at the clinical and biological levels, suggests that psychosis with affective comorbidity aligns more strongly to depressive rather than psychotic disease processes. Future studies should assess how these quantitative measures of comorbidity predict outcomes and individual responses to stratified therapeutic interventions.
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    Cognitive functioning throughout adulthood and illness stages in individuals with psychotic disorders and their unaffected siblings
    Velthorst, E ; Mollon, J ; Murray, RM ; de Haan, L ; Germeys, IM ; Glahn, DC ; Arango, C ; van der Ven, E ; Di Forti, M ; Bernardo, M ; Guloksuz, S ; Delespaul, P ; Mezquida, G ; Amoretti, S ; Bobes, J ; Saiz, PA ; Garcia-Portilla, MP ; Santos, JL ; Jimenez-Lopez, E ; Sanjuan, J ; Aguilar, EJ ; Arrojo, M ; Carracedo, A ; Lopez, G ; Gonzalez-Penas, J ; Parellada, M ; Atbasoglu, C ; Saka, MC ; Ucok, A ; Alptekin, K ; Akdede, B ; Binbay, T ; Altinyazar, V ; Ulas, H ; Yalincetin, B ; Gumus-Akay, G ; Beyaz, BC ; Soygur, H ; Cankurtaran, ES ; Kaymak, SU ; Maric, NP ; Mihaljevic, MM ; Petrovic, SA ; Mirjanic, T ; Del-Ben, CM ; Ferraro, L ; Gayer-Anderson, C ; Jones, PB ; Jongsma, HE ; Kirkbride, JB ; La Cascia, C ; Lasalvia, A ; Tosato, S ; Llorca, P-M ; Menezes, PR ; Morgan, C ; Quattrone, D ; Menchetti, M ; Selten, J-P ; Szoke, A ; Tarricone, I ; Tortelli, A ; McGuire, P ; Valmaggia, L ; Kempton, MJ ; van der Gaag, M ; Riecher-Rossler, A ; Bressan, RA ; Barrantes-Vidal, N ; Nelson, B ; McGorry, P ; Pantelis, C ; Krebs, M-O ; Ruhrmann, S ; Sachs, G ; Rutten, BPF ; van Os, J ; Alizadeh, BZ ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Bartels-Velthuis, AA ; Bruggeman, R ; van Beveren, NJ ; Luykx, JJ ; Cahn, W ; Simons, CJP ; Kahn, RS ; Schirmbeck, F ; van Winkel, R ; Reichenberg, A (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-01-07)
    Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.
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    Neurobiologically Based Stratification of Recent-Onset Depression and Psychosis: Identification of Two Distinct Transdiagnostic Phenotypes.
    Lalousis, PA ; Schmaal, L ; Wood, SJ ; Reniers, RLEP ; Barnes, NM ; Chisholm, K ; Griffiths, SL ; Stainton, A ; Wen, J ; Hwang, G ; Davatzikos, C ; Wenzel, J ; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, L ; Andreou, C ; Bonivento, C ; Dannlowski, U ; Ferro, A ; Lichtenstein, T ; Riecher-Rössler, A ; Romer, G ; Rosen, M ; Bertolino, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Brambilla, P ; Kambeitz, J ; Lencer, R ; Pantelis, C ; Ruhrmann, S ; Salokangas, RKR ; Schultze-Lutter, F ; Schmidt, A ; Meisenzahl, E ; Koutsouleris, N ; Dwyer, D ; Upthegrove, R ; PRONIA Consortium, (Elsevier BV, 2022-04-12)
    BACKGROUND: Identifying neurobiologically based transdiagnostic categories of depression and psychosis may elucidate heterogeneity and provide better candidates for predictive modeling. We aimed to identify clusters across patients with recent-onset depression (ROD) and recent-onset psychosis (ROP) based on structural neuroimaging data. We hypothesized that these transdiagnostic clusters would identify patients with poor outcome and allow more accurate prediction of symptomatic remission than traditional diagnostic structures. METHODS: HYDRA (Heterogeneity through Discriminant Analysis) was trained on whole-brain volumetric measures from 577 participants from the discovery sample of the multisite PRONIA study to identify neurobiologically driven clusters, which were then externally validated in the PRONIA replication sample (n = 404) and three datasets of chronic samples (Centre for Biomedical Research Excellence, n = 146; Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium, n = 202; Munich, n = 470). RESULTS: The optimal clustering solution was two transdiagnostic clusters (cluster 1: n = 153, 67 ROP, 86 ROD; cluster 2: n = 149, 88 ROP, 61 ROD; adjusted Rand index = 0.618). The two clusters contained both patients with ROP and patients with ROD. One cluster had widespread gray matter volume deficits and more positive, negative, and functional deficits (impaired cluster), and one cluster revealed a more preserved neuroanatomical signature and more core depressive symptomatology (preserved cluster). The clustering solution was internally and externally validated and assessed for clinical utility in predicting 9-month symptomatic remission, outperforming traditional diagnostic structures. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two transdiagnostic neuroanatomically informed clusters that are clinically and biologically distinct, challenging current diagnostic boundaries in recent-onset mental health disorders. These results may aid understanding of the etiology of poor outcome patients transdiagnostically and improve development of stratified treatments.
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    Correction to: Brain Morphological Characteristics of Cognitive Subgroups of Schizophrenia‑spectrum Disorders and Bipolar Disorder: a Systematic Review with Narrative Synthesis.
    Karantonis, JA ; Carruthers, SP ; Burdick, KE ; Pantelis, C ; Green, M ; Rossell, SL ; Hughes, ME ; Cropley, V ; Van Rheenen, TE (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-28)
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    Individual differences in brain structure and self-reported empathy in children
    Bray, KO ; Pozzi, E ; Vijayakumar, N ; Richmond, S ; Deane, C ; Pantelis, C ; Anderson, V ; Whittle, S (SPRINGER, 2022-03-25)
    Empathy refers to the understanding and sharing of others' emotions and comprises cognitive and affective components. Empathy is important for social functioning, and alterations in empathy have been demonstrated in many developmental or psychiatric disorders. While several studies have examined associations between empathy and brain structure in adults, few have investigated this relationship in children. Investigating associations between empathy and brain structure during childhood will help us to develop a deeper understanding of the neural correlates of empathy across the lifespan. A total of 125 children (66 females, mean age 10 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness from structural images were examined using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) within Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12) software. Children completed questionnaire measures of empathy (cognitive empathy, affective empathy: affective sharing, empathic concern, and empathic distress). In hypothesised region of interest analyses, individual differences in affective and cognitive empathy were related to grey matter volume in the insula and the precuneus. Although these relationships were of similar strength to those found in previous research, they did not survive correction for the total number of models computed. While no significant findings were detected between grey matter volume and empathy in exploratory whole-brain analysis, associations were found between cortical thickness and empathic concern in the right precentral gyrus. This study provides preliminary evidence that individual differences in self-reported empathy in children may be related to aspects of brain structure. Findings highlight the need for more research investigating the neurobiological correlates of empathy in children.
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    Brain charts for the human lifespan
    Bethlehem, RAI ; Seidlitz, J ; White, SR ; Vogel, JW ; Anderson, KM ; Adamson, C ; Adler, S ; Alexopoulos, GS ; Anagnostou, E ; Areces-Gonzalez, A ; Astle, DE ; Auyeung, B ; Ayub, M ; Bae, J ; Ball, G ; Baron-Cohen, S ; Beare, R ; Bedford, SA ; Benegal, V ; Beyer, F ; Blangero, J ; Blesa Cabez, M ; Boardman, JP ; Borzage, M ; Bosch-Bayard, JF ; Bourke, N ; Calhoun, VD ; Chakravarty, MM ; Chen, C ; Chertavian, C ; Chetelat, G ; Chong, YS ; Cole, JH ; Corvin, A ; Costantino, M ; Courchesne, E ; Crivello, F ; Cropley, VL ; Crosbie, J ; Crossley, N ; Delarue, M ; Delorme, R ; Desrivieres, S ; Devenyi, GA ; Di Biase, MA ; Dolan, R ; Donald, KA ; Donohoe, G ; Dunlop, K ; Edwards, AD ; Elison, JT ; Ellis, CT ; Elman, JA ; Eyler, L ; Fair, DA ; Feczko, E ; Fletcher, PC ; Fonagy, P ; Franz, CE ; Galan-Garcia, L ; Gholipour, A ; Giedd, J ; Gilmore, JH ; Glahn, DC ; Goodyer, IM ; Grant, PE ; Groenewold, NA ; Gunning, FM ; Gur, RE ; Gur, RC ; Hammill, CF ; Hansson, O ; Hedden, T ; Heinz, A ; Henson, RN ; Heuer, K ; Hoare, J ; Holla, B ; Holmes, AJ ; Holt, R ; Huang, H ; Im, K ; Ipser, J ; Jack, CR ; Jackowski, AP ; Jia, T ; Johnson, KA ; Jones, PB ; Jones, DT ; Kahn, RS ; Karlsson, H ; Karlsson, L ; Kawashima, R ; Kelley, EA ; Kern, S ; Kim, KW ; Kitzbichler, MG ; Kremen, WS ; Lalonde, F ; Landeau, B ; Lee, S ; Lerch, J ; Lewis, JD ; Li, J ; Liao, W ; Liston, C ; Lombardo, MV ; Lv, J ; Lynch, C ; Mallard, TT ; Marcelis, M ; Markello, RD ; Mathias, SR ; Mazoyer, B ; McGuire, P ; Meaney, MJ ; Mechelli, A ; Medic, N ; Misic, B ; Morgan, SE ; Mothersill, D ; Nigg, J ; Ong, MQW ; Ortinau, C ; Ossenkoppele, R ; Ouyang, M ; Palaniyappan, L ; Paly, L ; Pan, PM ; Pantelis, C ; Park, MM ; Paus, T ; Pausova, Z ; Paz-Linares, D ; Pichet Binette, A ; Pierce, K ; Qian, X ; Qiu, J ; Qiu, A ; Raznahan, A ; Rittman, T ; Rodrigue, A ; Rollins, CK ; Romero-Garcia, R ; Ronan, L ; Rosenberg, MD ; Rowitch, DH ; Salum, GA ; Satterthwaite, TD ; Schaare, HL ; Schachar, RJ ; Schultz, AP ; Schumann, G ; Scholl, M ; Sharp, D ; Shinohara, RT ; Skoog, I ; Smyser, CD ; Sperling, RA ; Stein, DJ ; Stolicyn, A ; Suckling, J ; Sullivan, G ; Taki, Y ; Thyreau, B ; Toro, R ; Traut, N ; Tsvetanov, KA ; Turk-Browne, NB ; Tuulari, JJ ; Tzourio, C ; Vachon-Presseau, E ; Valdes-Sosa, MJ ; Valdes-Sosa, PA ; Valk, SL ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Vandekar, SN ; Vasung, L ; Victoria, LW ; Villeneuve, S ; Villringer, A ; Vertes, PE ; Wagstyl, K ; Wang, YS ; Warfield, SK ; Warrier, V ; Westman, E ; Westwater, ML ; Whalley, HC ; Witte, AV ; Yang, N ; Yeo, B ; Yun, H ; Zalesky, A ; Zar, HJ ; Zettergren, A ; Zhou, JH ; Ziauddeen, H ; Zugman, A ; Zuo, XN ; Bullmore, ET ; Alexander-Bloch, AF (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-04-06)
    Over the past few decades, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, no reference standards currently exist to quantify individual differences in neuroimaging metrics over time, in contrast to growth charts for anthropometric traits such as height and weight1. Here we assemble an interactive open resource to benchmark brain morphology derived from any current or future sample of MRI data ( http://www.brainchart.io/ ). With the goal of basing these reference charts on the largest and most inclusive dataset available, acknowledging limitations due to known biases of MRI studies relative to the diversity of the global population, we aggregated 123,984 MRI scans, across more than 100 primary studies, from 101,457 human participants between 115 days post-conception to 100 years of age. MRI metrics were quantified by centile scores, relative to non-linear trajectories2 of brain structural changes, and rates of change, over the lifespan. Brain charts identified previously unreported neurodevelopmental milestones3, showed high stability of individuals across longitudinal assessments, and demonstrated robustness to technical and methodological differences between primary studies. Centile scores showed increased heritability compared with non-centiled MRI phenotypes, and provided a standardized measure of atypical brain structure that revealed patterns of neuroanatomical variation across neurological and psychiatric disorders. In summary, brain charts are an essential step towards robust quantification of individual variation benchmarked to normative trajectories in multiple, commonly used neuroimaging phenotypes.
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    Genome-wide association analyses of symptom severity among clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
    Okhuijsen-Pfeifer, C ; van der Horst, MZ ; Bousman, CA ; Lin, B ; van Eijk, KR ; Ripke, S ; Ayhan, Y ; Babaoglu, MO ; Bak, M ; Alink, W ; van Beek, H ; Beld, E ; Bouhuis, A ; Edlinger, M ; Erdogan, IM ; Ertugrul, A ; Yoca, G ; Everall, P ; Goerlitz, T ; Grootens, KP ; Gutwinski, S ; Hallikainen, T ; Jeger-Land, E ; de Koning, M ; Lahteenvuo, M ; Legge, SE ; Leucht, S ; Morgenroth, C ; Muderrisoglu, A ; Narang, A ; Pantelis, C ; Pardinas, AF ; Oviedo-Salcedo, T ; Schneider-Thoma, J ; Schreiter, S ; Repo-Tiihonen, E ; Tuppurainen, H ; Veereschild, M ; Veerman, S ; de Vos, M ; Wagner, E ; Cohen, D ; Bogers, JPAM ; Walters, JTR ; Yagcioglu, EA ; Tiihonen, J ; Hasan, A ; Luykx, JJ (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-04-07)
    Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, response is highly variable and possible genetic underpinnings of this variability remain unknown. Here, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses to estimate the amount of variance in symptom severity among clozapine-treated patients explained by PRSs (R2) and examined the association between symptom severity and genotype-predicted CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses were performed to explore loci associated with symptom severity. A multicenter cohort of 804 patients (after quality control N = 684) with schizophrenia spectrum disorder treated with clozapine were cross-sectionally assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and/or the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. GWA and PRS regression analyses were conducted. Genotype-predicted CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 enzyme activities were calculated. Schizophrenia-PRS was most significantly and positively associated with low symptom severity (p = 1.03 × 10-3; R2 = 1.85). Cross-disorder-PRS was also positively associated with lower CGI-S score (p = 0.01; R2 = 0.81). Compared to the lowest tertile, patients in the highest schizophrenia-PRS tertile had 1.94 times (p = 6.84×10-4) increased probability of low symptom severity. Higher genotype-predicted CYP2C19 enzyme activity was independently associated with lower symptom severity (p = 8.44×10-3). While no locus surpassed the genome-wide significance threshold, rs1923778 within NFIB showed a suggestive association (p = 3.78×10-7) with symptom severity. We show that high schizophrenia-PRS and genotype-predicted CYP2C19 enzyme activity are independently associated with lower symptom severity among individuals treated with clozapine. Our findings open avenues for future pharmacogenomic projects investigating the potential of PRS and genotype-predicted CYP-activity in schizophrenia.