Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    Neurological Soft Signs Are Not "Soft" in Brain Structure and Functional Networks: Evidence From ALE Meta-Analysis
    Zhao, Q ; Li, Z ; Huang, J ; Yan, C ; Dazzan, P ; Pantelis, C ; Cheung, EFC ; Lui, SSY ; Chan, RCK (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2014-05)
    BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. NSS have been conventionally considered as clinical neurological signs without localized brain regions. However, recent brain imaging studies suggest that NSS are partly localizable and may be associated with deficits in specific brain areas. METHOD: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to quantitatively review structural and functional imaging studies that evaluated the brain correlates of NSS in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Six structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and 15 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were included. RESULTS: The results from meta-analysis of the sMRI studies indicated that NSS were associated with atrophy of the precentral gyrus, the cerebellum, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. The results from meta-analysis of the fMRI studies demonstrated that the NSS-related task was significantly associated with altered brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, the cerebellum, and the superior temporal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from both sMRI and fMRI meta-analyses further support the conceptualization of NSS as a manifestation of the "cerebello-thalamo-prefrontal" brain network model of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.
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    Early intervention in psychosis: a response to McGorry et al. (2010)
    Castle, D ; Bosanac, P ; Patton, G (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2010-12)
    The Commentary of McGorry et al. (2010) on our Editorial in the March 2010 edition of the Journal 2108 Correspondence (Bosanac et al. 2010), used the opportunity to promote the early intervention agenda. Unfortunately it did not adequately address the challenges we raised. It is instead an example of how the early intervention agenda has been so successful in influencing policy – a simple solution to a complex problem, argued with passion.
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    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Auditory Hallucinations: Effectiveness and Predictors of Outcome in a Specialist Clinic
    Thomas, N ; Rossell, S ; Farhall, J ; Shawyer, F ; Castle, D (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2011-03)
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy has been established as an effective treatment for residual psychotic symptoms but a substantial proportion of people do not benefit from this treatment. There has been little direct study of predictors of outcome, particularly in treatment targeting auditory hallucinations. METHOD: The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered pre- and post-therapy to 33 people with schizophrenia-related disorders receiving CBT for auditory hallucinations in a specialist clinic. Outcome was compared with pre-therapy measures of insight, beliefs about the origin of hallucinations, negative symptoms and cognitive disorganization. RESULTS: There were significant improvements post-treatment on the PSYRATS and PANSS Positive and General Scales. Improvement on the PSYRATS was associated with lower levels of negative symptoms, but was unrelated to overall insight, delusional conviction regarding the origins of hallucinations, or levels of cognitive disorganization. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of insight and presence of formal thought disorder do not preclude effective cognitive-behavioural treatment of auditory hallucinations. There is a need to further understand why negative symptoms may present a barrier to therapy.
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    Drawing conclusions about cannabis and psychosis
    Castle, D (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2008-03)
    The renewed interest in the association between cannabis and mental illness is well reflected in three articles and a commentary in volume 37, number 7, of Psychological Medicine.