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ItemNo Preview AvailableChronic intermittent toluene inhalation in adolescent rats results in metabolic dysfunction with altered glucose homeostasisDick, ALW ; Simpson, A ; Qama, A ; Andrews, Z ; Lawrence, AJ ; Duncan, JR (WILEY, 2015-11-01)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abuse of toluene-containing inhalants is an increasing public health problem, especially among adolescents. Abuse during adolescence is associated with emaciation, while industrial exposure leads to altered glycaemic control suggesting metabolic instability. However, the relationship between adolescent inhalant abuse and metabolic dysfunction remains unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To model human abuse patterns, we exposed male adolescent Wistar rats [postnatal day (PND) 27] to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (CIT, 10,000 ppm) or air (control) for 1 h·day(-1) , three times a week for 4 weeks. Feeding and body composition were monitored. After 4 weeks, circulating metabolic hormone concentrations and responses to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) were measured. Dietary preference was measured by giving animals access to either a 'western diet' plus standard chow (WC + SC) or standard chow alone during 4 weeks of abstinence. Metabolic hormones and GTT were subsequently measured. KEY RESULTS: Adolescent CIT exposure significantly retarded weight gain, altered body composition, circulating metabolic hormones and responses to a GTT. While reduced body weight persisted, responses to a GTT and circulating hormones appeared to normalize for animals on standard chow following abstinence. In CIT-exposed WC + SC rats, we observed impaired glucose tolerance associated with altered metabolic hormones. Analysis of hypothalamic genes revealed differential expression profiles in CIT-exposed rats following both the exposure period and abstinence, suggesting a central contribution to inhalant-induced metabolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: CIT exposure during adolescence has long-term effects on metabolic function, which may increase the risk of disorders related to energy balance and glycaemic control.
ItemAdolescent Toluene Inhalation in Rats Affects White Matter Maturation with the Potential for Recovery Following AbstinenceDuncan, JR ; Dick, ALW ; Egan, G ; Kolbe, S ; Gavrilescu, M ; Wright, D ; Lubman, DI ; Lawrence, AJ ; Homberg, J (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-09-18)Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (p<0.05). In parallel, we performed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (T₂-weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging prior to exposure, and after 4 and 8 weeks, to examine the integrity of white matter tracts, including the anterior commissure and corpus callosum. We also conducted imaging after 8 weeks of abstinence to assess for potential recovery. Chronic intermittent toluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (p<0.05) and radial (p<0.05) diffusivity. These abnormalities appeared region-specific, occurring in the anterior commissure but not the corpus callosum and were not present until after at least 4 weeks of exposure. Toluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that contain toluene during adolescence and early adulthood appear to differentially affect white matter maturation and behavioural outcomes, although recovery can occur following abstinence.