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ItemAge-specific biological and molecular profiling distinguishes paediatric from adult acute myeloid leukaemiasChaudhury, S ; O'Connor, C ; Canete, A ; Bittencourt-Silvestre, J ; Sarrou, E ; Prendergast, A ; Choi, J ; Johnston, P ; Wells, CA ; Gibson, B ; Keeshan, K (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-12-11)Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) affects children and adults of all ages. AML remains one of the major causes of death in children with cancer and for children with AML relapse is the most common cause of death. Here, by modelling AML in vivo we demonstrate that AML is discriminated by the age of the cell of origin. Young cells give rise to myeloid, lymphoid or mixed phenotype acute leukaemia, whereas adult cells give rise exclusively to AML, with a shorter latency. Unlike adult, young AML cells do not remodel the bone marrow stroma. Transcriptional analysis distinguishes young AML by the upregulation of immune pathways. Analysis of human paediatric AML samples recapitulates a paediatric immune cell interaction gene signature, highlighting two genes, RGS10 and FAM26F as prognostically significant. This work advances our understanding of paediatric AML biology, and provides murine models that offer the potential for developing paediatric specific therapeutic strategies.
ItemStemformatics: visualize and download curated stem cell dataChoi, J ; Pacheco, CM ; Mosbergen, R ; Korn, O ; Chen, T ; Nagpal, I ; Englart, S ; Angel, PW ; Wells, CA (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-01-08)Stemformatics is an established gene expression data portal containing over 420 public gene expression datasets derived from microarray, RNA sequencing and single cell profiling technologies. Developed for the stem cell community, it has a major focus on pluripotency, tissue stem cells, and staged differentiation. Stemformatics includes curated 'collections' of data relevant to cell reprogramming, as well as hematopoiesis and leukaemia. Rather than simply rehosting datasets as they appear in public repositories, Stemformatics uses a stringent set of quality control metrics and its own pipelines to process handpicked datasets from raw files. This means that about 30% of datasets processed by Stemformatics fail the quality control metrics and never make it to the portal, ensuring that Stemformatics data are of high quality and have been processed in a consistent manner. Stemformatics provides easy-to-use and intuitive tools for biologists to visually explore the data, including interactive gene expression profiles, principal component analysis plots and hierarchical clusters, among others. The addition of tools that facilitate cross-dataset comparisons provides users with snapshots of gene expression in multiple cell and tissues, assisting the identification of cell-type restricted genes, or potential housekeeping genes. Stemformatics is freely available at stemformatics.org.
ItemTranscriptional Profiling of Stem Cells: Moving from Descriptive to Predictive ParadigmsWells, CA ; Choi, J (CELL PRESS, 2019-08-13)Transcriptional profiling is a powerful tool commonly used to benchmark stem cells and their differentiated progeny. As the wealth of stem cell data builds in public repositories, we highlight common data traps, and review approaches to combine and mine this data for new cell classification and cell prediction tools. We touch on future trends for stem cell profiling, such as single-cell profiling, long-read sequencing, and improved methods for measuring molecular modifications on chromatin and RNA that bring new challenges and opportunities for stem cell analysis.