Anatomy and Neuroscience - Research Publications

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    Claustrum projections to prefrontal cortex in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella)
    Reser, DH ; Richardson, KE ; Montibeller, MO ; Zhao, S ; Chan, JMH ; Soares, JGM ; Chaplin, TA ; Gattass, R ; Rosa, MGP (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2014-01-01)
    We examined the pattern of retrograde tracer distribution in the claustrum following intracortical injections into the frontal pole (area 10), and in dorsal (area 9), and ventral lateral (area 12) regions of the rostral prefrontal cortex in the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The resulting pattern of labeled cells was assessed in relation to the three-dimensional geometry of the claustrum, as well as recent reports of claustrum-prefrontal connections in other primates. Claustrum-prefrontal projections were extensive, and largely concentrated in the ventral half of the claustrum, especially in the rostral 2/3 of the nucleus. Our data are consistent with a topographic arrangement of claustrum-cortical connections in which prefrontal and association cortices receive connections largely from the rostral and medial claustrum. Comparative aspects of claustrum-prefrontal topography across primate species and the implications of claustrum connectivity for understanding of cortical functional networks are explored, and we hypothesize that the claustrum may play a role in controlling or switching between resting state and task-associated cortical networks.
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    Hippo Signaling Influences HNF4A and FOXA2 Enhancer Switching during Hepatocyte Differentiation
    Alder, O ; Cullum, R ; Lee, S ; Kan, AC ; Wei, W ; Yi, Y ; Garside, VC ; Bilenky, M ; Griffith, M ; Morrissy, AS ; Robertson, GA ; Thiessen, N ; Zhao, Y ; Chen, Q ; Pan, D ; Jones, SJM ; Marra, MA ; Hoodless, PA (CELL PRESS, 2014-10-09)
    Cell fate acquisition is heavily influenced by direct interactions between master regulators and tissue-specific enhancers. However, it remains unclear how lineage-specifying transcription factors, which are often expressed in both progenitor and mature cell populations, influence cell differentiation. Using in vivo mouse liver development as a model, we identified thousands of enhancers that are bound by the master regulators HNF4A and FOXA2 in a differentiation-dependent manner, subject to chromatin remodeling, and associated with differentially expressed target genes. Enhancers exclusively occupied in the embryo were found to be responsive to developmentally regulated TEAD2 and coactivator YAP1. Our data suggest that Hippo signaling may affect hepatocyte differentiation by influencing HNF4A and FOXA2 interactions with temporal enhancers. In summary, transcription factor-enhancer interactions are not only tissue specific but also differentiation dependent, which is an important consideration for researchers studying cancer biology or mammalian development and/or using transformed cell lines.
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    The afterload-dependent peak efficiency of the isolated working rat heart is unaffected by streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    Han, J-C ; Goo, S ; Barrett, CJ ; Mellor, KM ; Taberner, AJ ; Loiselle, DS (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2014-01-05)
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is known to alter the energy metabolism of the heart. Thus, it may be expected to affect the efficiency of contraction (i.e., the ratio of mechanical work output to metabolic energy input). The literature on the subject is conflicting. The majority of studies have reported a reduction of myocardial efficiency of the diabetic heart, yet a number of studies have returned a null effect. We propose that these discrepant findings can be reconciled by examining the dependence of myocardial efficiency on afterload. METHODS: We performed experiments on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (7-8 weeks post-induction), subjecting their (isolated) hearts to a wide range of afterloads (40 mmHg to maximal, where aortic flow approached zero). We measured work output and oxygen consumption, and their suitably scaled ratio (i.e., myocardial efficiency). RESULTS: We found that myocardial efficiency is a complex function of afterload: its value peaks in the mid-range and decreases on either side. Diabetes reduced the maximal afterload to which the hearts could pump (105 mmHg versus 150 mmHg). Thus, at high afterloads (for example, 90 mmHg), the efficiency of the STZ heart was lower than that of the healthy heart (10.4% versus 14.5%) due to its decreased work output. Diabetes also reduced the afterload at which peak efficiency occurred (optimal afterload: 63 mmHg versus 83 mmHg). Despite these negative effects, the peak value of myocardial efficiency (14.7%) was unaffected by diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes reduces the ability of the heart to pump at high afterloads and, consequently, reduces the afterload at which peak efficiency occurs. However, the peak efficiency of the isolated working rat heart remains unaffected by STZ-induced diabetes.
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    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects
    Forbes, JM ; Sourris, KC ; de Courten, MPJ ; Dougherty, SL ; Chand, V ; Lyons, JG ; Bertovic, D ; Coughlan, MT ; Schlaich, MP ; Soldatos, G ; Cooper, ME ; Straznicky, NE ; Kingwell, BA ; de Courten, B (SPRINGER WIEN, 2014-02-01)
    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy humans. We report the cross-sectional association between circulating AGE concentrations and insulin secretory function in healthy humans (17 F: 27 M, aged 30 ± 10 years) with a wide range of BMI (24.6-31.0 kg/m(2)). Higher circulating concentrations of AGEs were related to increased first phase insulin secretion during IVGTT (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and lower 2-h glucose concentrations during OGTT (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). In addition, fasting (r = -0.36; p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose concentrations were negatively related to circulating levels of soluble receptor for AGE (RAGE) isoforms (r = -0.39; p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy humans, we show a cross-sectional association between advanced glycation end products and acute insulin secretion during glucose tolerance testing.
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    Identification of enteroendocrine cells that express TRPA1 channels in the mouse intestine
    Cho, H-J ; Callaghan, B ; Bron, R ; Bravo, DM ; Furness, JB (SPRINGER, 2014-04-01)
    TRPA1 is an ion channel that detects specific chemicals in food and also transduces mechanical, cold and chemical stimulation. Its presence in sensory nerve endings is well known and recent evidence indicates that it is expressed by some gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC). The purpose of the present work is to identify and quantify EEC that express TRPA1 in the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Combined in situ hybridisation histochemistry for TRPA1 and immunofluorescence for EEC hormones was used. TRPA1 expressing EEC were common in the duodenum and jejunum, were rare in the distal small intestine and were absent from the stomach and large intestine. In the duodenum and jejunum, TRPA1 occurred in EEC that contained both cholecystokinin (CCK) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and in a small number of cells expressing 5HT but not CCK. TRPA1 was absent from CCK cells that did not express 5HT and from EEC containing glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide. Thus TRPA1 is contained in very specific EEC populations. It is suggested that foods such as garlic and cinnamon that contain TRPA1 stimulants may aid digestion by facilitating the release of CCK.
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    Ceruloplasmin Is a Novel Adipokine Which Is Overexpressed in Adipose Tissue of Obese Subjects and in Obesity-Associated Cancer Cells
    Arner, E ; Forrest, ARR ; Ehrlund, A ; Mejhert, N ; Itoh, M ; Kawaji, H ; Lassmann, T ; Laurencikiene, J ; Ryden, M ; Arner, P ; Wu, Q (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-03-27)
    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone to develop cancer among obese. We searched for novel adipokines that were overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in tumor cells derived from cancers commonly associated with obesity. For this purpose expression data from human adipose tissue of obese and non-obese as well as from a large panel of human cancer cell lines and corresponding primary cells and tissues were explored. We found expression of ceruloplasmin to be the most enriched in obesity-associated cancer cells. This gene was also significantly up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Ceruloplasmin is the body's main copper carrier and is involved in angiogenesis. We demonstrate that ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine, which is produced and secreted at increased rates in obesity. In the obese state, adipose tissue contributed markedly (up to 22%) to the total circulating protein level. In summary, we have through bioinformatic screening identified ceruloplasmin as a novel adipokine with increased expression in adipose tissue of obese subjects as well as in cells from obesity-associated cancers. Whether there is a causal relationship between adipose overexpression of ceruloplasmin and cancer development in obesity cannot be answered by these cross-sectional comparisons.
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    CCL2 enhances pluripotency of human induced pluripotent stem cells by activating hypoxia related genes
    Hasegawa, Y ; Tang, D ; Takahashi, N ; Hayashizaki, Y ; Forrest, ARR ; Suzuki, H (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-06-24)
    Standard culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) to maintain the pluripotent state, whereas hiPSC more closely resemble epiblast stem cells than true naïve state ES which requires LIF to maintain pluripotency. Here we show that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) enhances the expression of pluripotent marker genes through the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein. Moreover, comparison of transcriptomes between hiPSCs cultured with CCL2 versus with bFGF, we found that CCL2 activates hypoxia related genes, suggesting that CCL2 enhanced pluripotency by inducing a hypoxic-like response.Further, we show that hiPSCs cultured with CCL2 can differentiate at a higher efficiency than culturing withjust bFGF and we show CCL2 can be used in feeder-free conditions [corrected]. Taken together, our finding indicates the novel functions of CCL2 in enhancing its pluripotency in hiPSCs.
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    integrated phenotypic and activity-based profiling links Ces3 to obesity and diabetes
    Dominguez, E ; Galmozzi, A ; Chang, JW ; Hsu, K-L ; Pawlak, J ; Li, W ; Godio, C ; Thomas, J ; Partida, D ; Niessen, S ; O'Brien, PE ; Russell, AP ; Watt, MJ ; Nomura, DK ; Cravatt, BF ; Saez, E (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-02-01)
    Phenotypic screening is making a comeback in drug discovery as the maturation of chemical proteomics methods has facilitated target identification for bioactive small molecules. A limitation of these approaches is that time-consuming genetic methods or other means are often required to determine the biologically relevant target (or targets) from among multiple protein-compound interactions that are typically detected. Here, we have combined phenotypic screening of a directed small-molecule library with competitive activity-based protein profiling to map and functionally characterize the targets of screening hits. Using this approach, we identify carboxylesterase 3 (Ces3, also known as Ces1d) as a primary molecular target of bioactive compounds that promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We further show that Ces3 activity is markedly elevated during adipocyte differentiation. Treatment of two mouse models of obesity-diabetes with a Ces3 inhibitor ameliorates multiple features of metabolic syndrome, illustrating the power of the described strategy to accelerate the identification and pharmacologic validation of new therapeutic targets.
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    Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report
    Canning, BJ ; Chang, AB ; Bolser, DC ; Smith, JA ; Mazzone, SB ; McGarvey, L (AMER COLL CHEST PHYSICIANS, 2014-12-01)
    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human.
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    Minimal Cognitive Impairment in UK HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Effect of Case Definitions and Comparison With the General Population and HIV-Negative Men
    McDonnell, J ; Haddow, L ; Daskalopoulou, M ; Lampe, F ; Speakman, A ; Gilson, R ; Phillips, A ; Sherr, L ; Wayal, S ; Harrison, J ; Antinori, A ; Maruff, P ; Schembri, A ; Johnson, M ; Collins, S ; Rodger, A (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-10-01)
    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in UK HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were recruited to a cross-sectional study from 2 London clinics and completed computer-assisted neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of depression, anxiety, and activities of daily living. Published definitions of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and global deficit scores were used. Age- and education-adjusted neuropsychological test scores were directly compared with reference population data. RESULTS: A total of 248 HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative MSM participated. In the HIV-positive group, median time since diagnosis was 9.4 years, median CD4 count was 550 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretroviral therapy. Prevalence of HAND was 21.0% in HIV-positive MSM (13.7% asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 6.5% mild neurocognitive disorder, and 0.8% HIV-associated dementia). Using a global deficit score threshold of 0.5, the prevalence of NCI was 31.5% (when averaged over 5 neuropsychological domains) and 40.3% (over 10 neuropsychological test scores). These results were not significantly different from the HIV-negative study sample. No consistent pattern of impairment was seen in HIV-positive patients relative to general male population data (n = 380). CONCLUSIONS: We found a prevalence of HAND and degree of impairment on neuropsychological testing of HIV-positive MSM that could represent a normal population distribution. These findings suggest that NCI may be overestimated in HIV-positive MSM, and that the attribution of NCI to HIV infection implied by the term HAND requires revision.