Medicine (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 2404
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Improving access to cancer information and supportive care services: A systematic review of mechanisms applied to link people with cancer to psychosocial supportive care services
    White, VM ; Pejoski, N ; Vella, E ; Skaczkowski, G ; Ugalde, A ; Yuen, EYN ; Livingston, P ; Wilson, C (WILEY, 2021-06-16)
    OBJECTIVE: Previous research has described the low uptake of psychosocial support services in people living with cancer. While characteristics of individuals using services have been examined, mechanisms applied to link individuals to support services are less frequently considered. This review aims to identify the mechanisms used to link people with cancer to support services and assess their impact. METHODS: Systematic searches of Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO were conducted up to May 2020. Studies reporting service use associated with mechanisms to link adults with cancer to support services targeting emotional, informational, practical or social support needs were eligible. Eligible study designs included controlled trials, pre-post designs and observational studies. Study quality was assessed and a narrative synthesis of findings undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 10 papers (from 8,037 unique titles) were eligible. Testing the feasibility of the linkage mechanism was the primary aim in five (50%) studies. Three linkage mechanisms were identified: (a) outreach from the support service; (b) clinician recommendation/referral; (c) mailed invitation. Outreach was the most successful in connecting people with cancer to services (52%-90% use); clinician recommendation/referral was least successful (3%-28%). The impact of different linkage mechanisms for different demographic groups was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Outreach from services shows the most potential for increasing access to support services. However, the limited number of studies and limitations in the types of support services people with cancer were linked to, demonstrated the need for further work in this area. Identifying mechanisms that are effective for underserved, high-needs patient groups is also needed.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Vulval lichen sclerosus: An Australasian management consensus
    Yeon, J ; Oakley, A ; Olsson, A ; Drummond, C ; Veysey, E ; Marshman, G ; Saunders, H ; Opie, J ; Bradford, J ; Cole, J ; DeAmbrosis, K ; Cook, K ; Pepall, L ; Eva, LJ ; Sladden, M ; Selva-Nayagam, P ; Phillips, R ; Ball, S ; Hill, S ; Bohl, T ; Day, T ; Lee, G ; Fischer, G (WILEY, 2021-06-12)
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition predominantly affecting the anogenital region in women and children. To date, there is lack of agreement amongst experts on a severity scale to aid assessment, research and treatment stratification on VLS. Furthermore, literature on best practice for long-term management of VLS is lacking. The aim of this consensus is to provide broad guidelines on the short and long-term management of VLS. METHODS: An initial focus group of Australasian experts in vulval dermatology developed a draft consensus statement for the management of VLS. Based on the results of the draft statement, a consensus panel of 22 Australasian experts, comprised of the initial and additional members, participated in an anonymous four-stage eDelphi process. Round 1 involved generation and voting on statements from the draft consensus statement developed by the focus group. In Rounds 2, 3 & 4, panel members were presented formal feedback from previous rounds and asked to indicate their level of agreement. Consensus was reached if there was ≥70% agreement on the importance of an item in the 4 (agree) to 5 (strongly agree) range. RESULTS: The expert panel, with a total of 504 collective years of experience in the field of VLS, reached consensus on a core set of 51 management statements related to diagnosis, severity, initial and long-term management, follow-up, and complications of VLS. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified a set of management statements for VLS that may be useful in clinical practice in the Australasian population.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Regulation of murine B lymphopoiesis by stromal cells
    Kwang, D ; Tjin, G ; Purton, LE (WILEY, 2021-05-17)
    B lymphocytes are crucial for the body's humoral immune response, secreting antibodies generated against foreign antigens to fight infection. Adult murine B lymphopoiesis is initiated in the bone marrow and additional maturation occurs in the spleen. In both these organs, B lymphopoiesis involves interactions with numerous different non-hematopoietic cells, also known as stromal or microenvironment cells, which provide migratory, maturation, and survival signals. A variety of conditional knockout and transgenic mouse models have been used to identify the roles of distinct microenvironment cell types in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis. These studies have revealed that mesenchymal lineage cells and endothelial cells comprise the non-hematopoietic microenvironment cell types that support B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow. In the spleen, various types of stromal cells and endothelial cells contribute to B lymphocyte maturation. More recently, comprehensive single cell RNA-seq studies have also been used to identify clusters of stromal cell types in the bone marrow and spleen, which will aid in further identifying key regulators of B lymphopoiesis. Here, we review the different types of microenvironment cells and key extrinsic regulators that are known to be involved in the regulation of murine B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Australian experience with total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation to treat chronic pancreatitis
    Bampton, TJ ; Holmes-Walker, DJ ; Drogemuller, CJ ; Radford, T ; Anderson, P ; Etherton, C ; Russell, CH ; Khurana, S ; Torpy, DJ ; Couper, JJ ; Couper, RLT ; Macintyre, P ; Neo, EL ; Benitez-Aguirre, P ; Thomas, G ; Loudovaris, T ; Thomas, HE ; Palmer, LJ ; Wu, D ; Rogers, NM ; Williams, L ; Hawthorne, WJ ; O'Connell, PJ ; Kay, TW ; Pleass, H ; Chen, JW ; Coates, PT (WILEY, 2021-05-06)
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) in Australia. METHODS: Individuals selected for TP-IAT surgery according to the Minnesota Criteria (Appendix) without evidence of diabetes were evaluated including time to transplantation from pancreatectomy, islet numbers infused and post-transplantation HbA1c, C-peptide, total daily insulin and analgesic requirement. RESULTS: Sixteen individuals underwent TP-IAT from Australia and New Zealand between 2010 and 2020. Two recipients are deceased. The median islet equivalents/kg infused was 4244 (interquartile range (IQR) 2290-7300). The median C-peptide 1 month post-TP-IAT was 384 (IQR 210-579) pmol/L and at median 29.5 (IQR 14.5-46.5) months from transplant was 395 (IQR 139-862) pmol/L. Insulin independence was achieved in eight of 15 (53.3%) surviving recipients. A higher islet equivalents transplanted was most strongly associated with the likelihood of insulin independence (P < 0.05). Of the 15 surviving recipients, 14 demonstrated substantial reduction in analgesic requirement. CONCLUSION: The TP-IAT programme in Australia has been a successful new therapy for the management of individuals with chronic pancreatitis including hereditary forms refractory to medical treatment to improve pain management with 50% insulin independence rates.
  • Item
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis from benzalkonium chloride in a tertiary dermatology center in Melbourne, Australia.
    Dear, K ; Palmer, A ; Nixon, R (Wiley, 2021-03-03)
    BACKGROUND: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a quaternary ammonium compound that is used widely as an antiseptic and preservative. It is a strong irritant and considered a weak sensitizer. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of BAK sensitization and the demographics of sensitized patients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of 7390 patients who were patch tested with BAK between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2019. RESULTS: Of the 7390 patients who were patch tested to BAK, 108 (1.5%) had a positive reaction, with 21 reactions deemed clinically relevant (0.3% of total patch tested) and a further 5 doubtful reactions deemed clinically relevant, resulting in a total of 26 relevant reactions (0.4% of total patch tested). Common sources of exposure were ophthalmic drops (30.8%), topical antiseptic preparations (26.9%), cosmetics (15.4%), disinfectant solutions (11.5%), hand sanitizers (11.5%), and hand washes (7.7%). One fifth of patients with relevant reactions were health care workers. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of positive reactions since 2017, for reasons not totally clear. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy (CA) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in response to BAK are now increasing at our center. Awareness of this trend is important, given that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to further expose people to BAK.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Commercial growing up milks: usage frequency and associated child and demographic factors across four Asia Pacific countries
    Willcox, JC ; Februhartanty, J ; Satheannoppakao, W ; Hutchinson, C ; Itsiopoulos, C ; Worsley, A (WILEY, 2021-01-06)
    BACKGROUND: Commercial growing up milks (GUMs) targeted at children from 12 to 36 months of age are a rapidly growing industry, particularly across the Asia Pacific. METHODS: The present study assessed the frequency of use and socio-demographic and child associations of commercial GUM feeding in children, aged between 12 and 36 months, in capital cities in four Asia Pacific countries. Mothers of children aged between 12 and 36 months were surveyed, assessing GUM feeding frequency in the past month. A market research company database was used to survey across Asia Pacific urban cities, including Bangkok Thailand, Jakarta Indonesia, Singapore and Australian Capital Cities (ACC). RESULTS: More than 1000 women (n = 1051) were surveyed (Bangkok, n = 263; Jakarta, n = 275; ACC, n = 252; Singapore, n = 261). The mean (SD) age of mothers was 32.4 (5.3) years and that of children was 23.6 (6.7) months. In total, 62.7% of the children were fed GUMs more than once per week with significant country variance. In comparison with ACC, Asian countries were significantly more likely to feed GUMs ≥once per week: Bangkok [odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.8-8.6]; Jakarta (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.3-5.5); and Singapore (OR = 7.4, 95% CI = 4.9-11.1). Associations of GUM feeding included: maternal tertiary education; mothers younger than 30 years; working full time; and feeding of commercial infant formula under 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published study to explore commercial GUM feeding in and between countries. The incidence of GUM feeding, in contrast to international recommendations, signals the need for further research into the drivers for GUM feeding and its contribution to the diet.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Biodesigned bioinks for 3D printing via divalent crosslinking of self- assembled peptide-polysaccharide hybrids
    Firipis, K ; Footner, E ; Boyd-Moss, M ; Dekiwadia, C ; Nisbet, D ; Kapsa, RMI ; Pirogova, E ; Williams, RJ ; Quigley, A (ELSEVIER, 2022-06-01)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Evidence-practice gaps in P2Y12 inhibitor use after hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction: findings from a new population-level data linkage in Australia.
    Falster, MO ; Schaffer, AL ; Wilson, A ; Nasis, A ; Jorm, LR ; Hay, M ; Leeb, K ; Pearson, S-A ; Brieger, D (Wiley, 2022-02)
    BACKGROUND: P2Y12 inhibitor therapy is recommended for 12 months in patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) unless the bleeding risk is high. AIMS: To describe real-world use of P2Y12 inhibitor therapy following AMI hospitalisation. METHODS: We used population-level linked hospital data to identify all patients discharged from a public hospital with a primary diagnosis of AMI between July 2011 and June 2013 in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. We used dispensing claims to examine dispensing of a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor) within 30 days of discharge and multilevel models to identify predictors of post-discharge dispensing and persistence of therapy to 1 year. RESULTS: We identified 31 848 patients hospitalised for AMI, of whom 56.8% were dispensed a P2Y12 inhibitor within 30 days of discharge. The proportion of patients with post-discharge dispensing varied between hospitals (interquartile range: 25.0-56.5%), and significant between-hospital variation remained after adjusting for patient characteristics. Patient factors associated with the lowest likelihood of post-discharge dispensing were: having undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (odds ratio (OR): 0.17; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.15-0.20); having oral anticoagulants dispensed 180 days before or 30 days after discharge (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.35-0.44); major bleeding (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.61-0.76); or being aged ≥85 years (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.62-0.75). A total of 26.8% of patients who were dispensed a P2Y12 inhibitor post-discharge discontinued therapy within 1 year. CONCLUSION: Post-hospitalisation use of P2Y12 inhibitor therapy in AMI patients is low and varies substantially by hospital of discharge. Our findings suggest strategies addressing both health system (hospital and physician) and patient factors are needed to close this evidence-practice gap.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Metformin-induced reductions in tumor growth involves modulation of the gut microbiome.
    Broadfield, LA ; Saigal, A ; Szamosi, JC ; Hammill, JA ; Bezverbnaya, K ; Wang, D ; Gautam, J ; Tsakiridis, EE ; Di Pastena, F ; McNicol, J ; Wu, J ; Syed, S ; Lally, JSV ; Raphenya, AR ; Blouin, M-J ; Pollak, M ; Sacconi, A ; Blandino, G ; McArthur, AG ; Schertzer, JD ; Surette, MG ; Collins, SM ; Bramson, JL ; Muti, P ; Tsakiridis, T ; Steinberg, GR (Elsevier BV, 2022-07)
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Metformin may reduce colorectal cancer but the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. In mice and humans, a high-fat diet (HFD), obesity and metformin are known to alter the gut microbiome but whether this is important for influencing tumor growth is not known. METHODS: Mice with syngeneic MC38 colon adenocarcinomas were treated with metformin or feces obtained from control or metformin treated mice. RESULTS: We find that compared to chow-fed controls, tumor growth is increased when mice are fed a HFD and that this acceleration of tumor growth can be partially recapitulated through transfer of the fecal microbiome or in vitro treatment of cells with fecal filtrates from HFD-fed animals. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with orally ingested, but not intraperitoneally injected, metformin suppresses tumor growth and increases the expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing microbes Alistipes, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The transfer of the gut microbiome from mice treated orally with metformin to drug naïve, conventionalized HFD-fed mice increases circulating propionate and butyrate, reduces tumor proliferation, and suppresses the expression of sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) gene targets in the tumor. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in obese mice fed a HFD, metformin reduces tumor burden through changes in the gut microbiome.