Medicine (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

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    Depth of response and response kinetics of isatuximab plus carfilzomib and dexamethasone in relapsed multiple myeloma
    Martin, T ; Mikhael, J ; Hajek, R ; Kim, K ; Suzuki, K ; Hulin, C ; Garg, M ; Quach, H ; Sia, H ; George, A ; Konstantinova, T ; Risse, M-L ; Asset, G ; Mace, S ; van de Velde, H ; Moreau, P (ELSEVIER, 2022-08-09)
    The IKEMA study (Randomized, Open Label, Multicenter Study Assessing the Clinical Benefit of Isatuximab Combined With Carfilzomib [Kyprolis®] and Dexamethasone Versus Carfilzomib With Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapse and/or Refractory Multiple Myeloma Previously Treated With 1 to 3 Prior Lines; #NCT03275285) was a randomized, open-label, multicenter phase 3 study investigating isatuximab plus carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Isa-Kd) vs Kd in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. This subanalysis analyzed the depth of response of Isa-Kd vs Kd. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall response rate, very good partial response or better (≥VGPR) rate, complete response (CR) rate, and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity rate (assessed in patients with ≥VGPR by next-generation sequencing at a 10-5 sensitivity level). At a median follow-up of 20.7 months, deeper responses were observed in the Isa-Kd arm vs the Kd arm, with ≥VGPR 72.6% vs 56.1% and CR of 39.7% vs 27.6%, respectively. MRD negativity occurred in 53 (29.6%) of 179 patients in the Isa-Kd arm vs 16 (13.0%) of 123 patients in the Kd arm, with 20.1% (Isa-Kd, 36 of 179 patients) vs 10.6% (Kd, 13 of 123 patients) reaching MRD-negative CR status. Achieving MRD negativity resulted in better PFS in both arms. A positive PFS treatment effect was seen with Isa-Kd in both MRD-negative patients (hazard ratio, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.052-6.405) and MRD-positive patients (hazard ratio, 0.670; 95% CI, 0.452-0.993). Exploratory analysis indicates that both current CR and MRD-negative CR rates are underestimated due to M-protein interference (potential adjusted CR rate, 45.8%; potential adjusted MRD-negative CR rate, 24.0%). In conclusion, there was a clinically meaningful improvement in depth of response with Isa-Kd. The CR rate in Isa-Kd was 39.7%. Mass spectrometry suggests that the potential adjusted CR rate could reach an unprecedented 45.8% of patients treated with Isa-Kd.
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    Anti-CD38 antibody therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: differential mechanisms of action and recent clinical trial outcomes.
    Leleu, X ; Martin, T ; Weisel, K ; Schjesvold, F ; Iida, S ; Malavasi, F ; Manier, S ; Chang-Ki Min, ; Ocio, EM ; Pawlyn, C ; Perrot, A ; Quach, H ; Richter, J ; Spicka, I ; Yong, K ; Richardson, PG (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-10)
    CD38 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions both as a receptor and an ectoenzyme, playing key roles in the regulation of calcium signaling and migration of immune cells to tumor microenvironments. High expression on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and limited expression on normal cells makes CD38 an ideal target for the treatment of MM patients. Two monoclonal antibodies directed at CD38, isatuximab and daratumumab, are available for use in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM (RRMM); daratumumab is also approved in newly diagnosed MM and light-chain amyloidosis. Clinical experience has shown that anti-CD38 antibody therapy is transforming treatment of MM owing to its anti-myeloma efficacy and manageable safety profile. Isatuximab and daratumumab possess similarities and differences in their mechanisms of action, likely imparted by their binding to distinct, non-overlapping epitopes on the CD38 molecule. In this review, we present the mechanistic properties of these two antibodies and outline available evidence on their abilities to induce adaptive immune responses and modulate the bone marrow niche in MM. Further, we discuss differences in regulatory labeling between these two agents and analyze recent key clinical trial results, including evidence in patients with underlying renal impairment and other poor prognostic factors. Finally, we describe the limited existing evidence for the use of isatuximab or daratumumab after disease progression on prior anti-CD38 mono- or combination therapy, highlighting the need for additional clinical evaluations to define optimal anti-CD38 antibody therapy selection and sequencing in RRMM.
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    P14: DREAMM-9: PHASE I STUDY OF BELANTAMAB MAFODOTIN PLUS STANDARD OF CARE IN PATIENTS WITH TRANSPLANT-INELIGIBLE NEWLY DIAGNOSED MULTIPLE MYELOMA
    Usmani, S ; Alonso, A ; Quach, H ; Koh, Y ; Guenther, A ; Min, CK ; Leleu, X ; Abdallah, AO ; Oriol, A ; Bessemer, B ; Garg, M ; Sandhu, I ; Weisel, K ; Ocio San Miguel, E ; Cavo, M ; Zhou, X ; Kaisermann, M ; Mis, L ; Williams, D ; Yeakey, A ; Ferron-Brady, G ; Figueroa, D ; Kremer, B ; Gupta, I ; Janowski, W (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2022)
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    ASTCT Clinical Practice Recommendations for Transplantation and Cellular Therapies in Multiple Myeloma
    Dhakal, B ; Shah, N ; Kansagra, A ; Kumar, A ; Lonial, S ; Garfall, A ; Cowan, A ; Poudyal, BS ; Costello, C ; Gay, F ; Cook, G ; Quach, H ; Einsele, H ; Schriber, J ; Hou, J ; Costa, L ; Aljurf, M ; Chaudhry, M ; Beksac, M ; Prince, M ; Mohty, M ; Janakiram, M ; Callander, N ; Biran, N ; Malhotra, P ; Otero, PR ; Moreau, P ; Abonour, R ; Iftikhar, R ; Silberman, R ; Mailankody, S ; Gregory, T ; Lin, Y ; Carpenter, P ; Hamadani, M ; Usmani, S ; Kumar, S (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2022-06-01)
    Over the past decade, therapeutic options in multiple myeloma (MM) have changed dramatically. Given the unprecedented efficacy of novel agents, the role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in MM remains under scrutiny. Rapid advances in myeloma immunotherapy including the recent approval of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy will impact the MM therapeutic landscape. The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy convened an expert panel to formulate clinical practice recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of autologous (auto-HCT), allogeneic (allo-HCT) and CAR T-cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed (NDMM) and relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM). The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Twenty consensus statements were generated. The panel endorsed continued use of auto-HCT consolidation for patients with NDMM as a standard-of-care option, whereas in the front line allo-HCT and CAR-T were not recommended outside the setting of clinical trial. For patients not undergoing auto-HCT upfront, the panel recommended its use in first relapse. Lenalidomide as a single agent was recommended for maintenance especially for standard risk patients. In the RRMM setting, the panel recommended the use of CAR-T in patients with 4 or more prior lines of therapy. The panel encouraged allo-HCT in RRMM setting only in the context of clinical trial. The panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MM.
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    Daratumumab as first line therapy in primary effusion lymphoma: a case report
    Wiltshire, K ; Kliman, D ; Tan, J ; Quach, H ; Kalff, A ; Cameron, R ; Grigoriadis, G ; Nandurkar, H (AME Publishing Company, 2021-12-01)
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    Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MAIA): overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial
    Facon, T ; Kumar, SK ; Plesner, T ; Orlowski, RZ ; Moreau, P ; Bahlis, N ; Basu, S ; Nahi, H ; Hulin, C ; Quach, H ; Goldschmidt, H ; O'Dwyer, M ; Perrot, A ; Venner, CP ; Weisel, K ; Mace, JR ; Raje, N ; Tiab, M ; Macro, M ; Frenzel, L ; Leleu, X ; Ahmadi, T ; Wang, J ; Van Rampelbergh, R ; Uhlar, CM ; Tromp, B ; Delioukina, M ; Vermeulen, J ; Usmani, SZ (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of the phase 3 MAIA trial (median follow-up 28·0 months), a significant improvement in progression-free survival was observed with daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in transplantation-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here, we report the updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. METHODS: MAIA is an ongoing, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients at 176 hospitals in 14 countries across North America, Europe, the Middle East, and the Asia-Pacific region. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2, and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation because of their age (≥65 years) or comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using randomly permuted blocks (block size 4) by an interactive web response system to receive 28-day cycles of intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg, once per week during cycles 1-2, once every 2 weeks in cycles 3-6, and once every 4 weeks thereafter) plus oral lenalidomide (25 mg on days 1-21 of each cycle) and oral dexamethasone (40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle; daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was centrally assessed, and a secondary endpoint was overall survival (both assessed in the intention-to-treat population). The safety population included patients who received at least one dose of the study treatment. The results presented here are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival, for which the prespecified stopping boundary was p=0·0414. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02252172. FINDINGS: Between March 18, 2015, and Jan 15, 2017, 952 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 737 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the daratumumab group (n=368) or the control group (n=369). At a median follow-up of 56·2 months (IQR 52·7-59·9), median progression-free survival was not reached (95% CI 54·8-not reached) in the daratumumab group versus 34·4 months (29·6-39·2) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53 [95% CI 0·43-0·66]; p<0·0001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (daratumumab group, 95% CI not reached-not reached; control group, 95% CI 55·7-not reached; HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0·86]; p=0·0013). The most common (>15%) grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (197 [54%] patients in the daratumumab group vs 135 [37%] patients in the control group), pneumonia (70 [19%] vs 39 [11%]), anaemia (61 [17%] vs 79 [22%]), and lymphopenia (60 [16%] vs 41 [11%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 281 (77%) patients in the daratumumab group and 257 (70%) patients in the control group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 13 (4%) patients in the daratumumab group and ten (3%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone increased overall survival and progression-free survival in patients ineligible for stem-cell transplantation with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. There were no new safety concerns. Our results support the frontline use of daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for transplantation. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.
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    Planned withdrawal of dexamethasone after pomalidomide low-dose dexamethasone induction for lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma (ALLG MM14)
    Kalff, A ; Khong, T ; Ramachandran, M ; Ho, PJ ; Mollee, P ; D'Rozario, J ; Taylor, K ; Estell, J ; Norton, S ; Kemp, R ; Mitchell, AJ ; Reynolds, J ; Kennedy, N ; Quach, H ; Spencer, A (FERRATA STORTI FOUNDATION, 2022-01-01)
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    Pembrolizumab plus dinaciclib in patients with hematologic malignancies: the phase 1b KEYNOTE-155 study
    Gregory, GP ; Kumar, S ; Wang, D ; Mahadevan, D ; Walker, P ; Wagner-Johnston, N ; Escobar, C ; Bannerji, R ; Bhutani, D ; Chang, J ; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, FJ ; Klein, A ; Pagel, JM ; Rybka, W ; Yee, AJ ; Mohrbacher, A ; Huang, M ; Farooqui, M ; Marinello, P ; Quach, H (ELSEVIER, 2022-02-22)
    Preclinical data demonstrated that combining an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor with a cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor provided enhanced antitumor activity with no significant toxicities, suggesting this combination may be a potential therapeutic option. The multicohort, phase 1 KEYNOTE-155 study evaluated the safety and antitumor activity of the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab plus the CDK9 inhibitor dinaciclib in patients with relapsed or refractory (rr) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Patients enrolled were ≥18 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of CLL, DLBCL, or MM. The study included 2 phases: a dose-evaluation phase to determine dose-limiting toxicities and a signal-detection phase. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks plus dinaciclib 7 mg/m2 on day 1 and 10 mg/m2 on day 8 of cycle 1 and 14 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of cycles 2 and later. Primary endpoint was safety, and a key secondary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Seventy-two patients were enrolled and received ≥1 dose of study treatment (CLL, n = 17; DLBCL, n = 38; MM, n = 17). Pembrolizumab plus dinaciclib was generally well tolerated and produced no unexpected toxicities. The ORRs were 29.4% (5/17, rrCLL), 21.1% (8/38, rrDLBCL), and 0% (0/17, rrMM), respectively. At data cutoff, all 72 patients had discontinued treatment, 38 (52.8%) because of progressive disease. These findings demonstrate activity with combination pembrolizumab plus dinaciclib and suggest that a careful and comprehensive approach to explore anti-PD-1 and CDK9 inhibitor combinations is warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02684617.
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    Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: frailty subgroup analysis of MAIA
    Facon, T ; Cook, G ; Usmani, SZ ; Hulin, C ; Kumar, S ; Plesner, T ; Touzeau, C ; Bahlis, NJ ; Basu, S ; Nahi, H ; Goldschmidt, H ; Quach, H ; Mohty, M ; Venner, CP ; Weisel, K ; Raje, N ; Hebraud, B ; Belhadj-Merzoug, K ; Benboubker, L ; Decaux, O ; Manier, S ; Caillot, D ; Ukropec, J ; Pei, H ; Van Rampelbergh, R ; Uhlar, CM ; Kobos, R ; Zweegman, S (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-01-02)
    In the phase 3 MAIA study of patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd). We present a subgroup analysis of MAIA by frailty status. Frailty assessment was performed retrospectively using age, Charlson comorbidity index, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score. Patients were classified as fit, intermediate, non-frail (fit + intermediate), or frail. Of the randomized patients (D-Rd, n = 368; Rd, n = 369), 396 patients were non-frail (D-Rd, 196 [53.3%]; Rd, 200 [54.2%]) and 341 patients were frail (172 [46.7%]; 169 [45.8%]). After a 36.4-month median follow-up, non-frail patients had longer PFS than frail patients, but the PFS benefit of D-Rd versus Rd was maintained across subgroups: non-frail (median, not reached [NR] vs 41.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; P < 0.0001) and frail (NR vs 30.4 months; HR, 0.62; P = 0.003). Improved rates of complete response or better and minimal residual disease (10-5) negativity were observed for D-Rd across subgroups. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event in non-frail and frail patients was neutropenia (non-frail, 45.4% [D-Rd] and 37.2% [Rd]; frail, 57.7% and 33.1%). These findings support the clinical benefit of D-Rd in transplant-ineligible NDMM patients enrolled in MAIA, regardless of frailty status.
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    Oral ixazomib-dexamethasone vs oral pomalidomide-dexamethasone for lenalidomide-refractory, proteasome inhibitor-exposed multiple myeloma: a randomized Phase 2 trial
    Dimopoulos, MA ; Schjesvold, F ; Doronin, V ; Vinogradova, O ; Quach, H ; Leleu, X ; Montes, YG ; Ramasamy, K ; Pompa, A ; Levin, M-D ; Lee, C ; Mellqvist, UH ; Fenk, R ; Demarquette, H ; Sati, H ; Vorog, A ; Labotka, R ; Du, J ; Darif, M ; Kumar, S (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-01-24)
    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients typically receive several lines of combination therapy and first-line treatment commonly includes lenalidomide. As patients age, they become less tolerant to treatment, requiring convenient/tolerable/lenalidomide-free options. Carfilzomib and/or bortezomib-exposed/intolerant, lenalidomide-refractory MM patients with ≥2 prior lines of therapy were randomized 3:2 to ixazomib-dexamethasone (ixa-dex) (n = 73) or pomalidomide-dexamethasone (pom-dex) (n = 49) until progression/toxicity. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 7.1 vs 4.8 months with ixa-dex vs pom-dex (HR 0.847, 95% CI 0.535-1.341, P = 0.477; median follow-up: 15.3 vs 17.3 months); there was no statistically significant difference between arms. In patients with 2 and ≥3 prior lines of therapy, respectively, mPFS was 11.0 vs 5.7 months (HR 1.083, 95% CI 0.547-2.144) and 5.7 vs 3.7 months (HR 0.686, 95% CI 0.368-1.279). Among ixa-dex vs pom-dex patients, 69% vs 81% had Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), 51% vs 53% had serious TEAEs, 39% vs 36% had TEAEs leading to drug discontinuation, 44% vs 32% had TEAEs leading to dose reduction, and 13% vs 13% died on study. Quality of life was similar between arms and maintained during treatment. Ixa-dex represents an important lenalidomide-free, oral option for this heavily pretreated, lenalidomide-refractory, proteasome inhibitor-exposed population.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03170882.