Medicine (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

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    Interleukin (IL)-6 induction of osteoclast differentiation depends on IL-6 receptors expressed on osteoblastic cells but not on osteoclast progenitors.
    Udagawa, N ; Takahashi, N ; Katagiri, T ; Tamura, T ; Wada, S ; Findlay, DM ; Martin, TJ ; Hirota, H ; Taga, T ; Kishimoto, T ; Suda, T (Rockefeller University Press, 1995-11-01)
    We reported that interleukin (IL) 6 alone cannot induce osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow and osteoblastic cells, but soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) strikingly triggered osteoclast formation induced by IL-6. In this study, we examined the mechanism of osteoclast formation by IL-6 and related cytokines through the interaction between osteoblastic cells and osteoclast progenitors. When dexamethasone was added to the cocultures, IL-6 could stimulate osteoclast formation without the help of soluble IL-6R. Osteoblastic cells expressed a very low level of IL-6R mRNA, whereas fresh mouse spleen and bone marrow cells, both of which are considered to be osteoclast progenitors, constitutively expressed relatively high levels of IL-6R mRNA. Treatment of osteoblastic cells with dexamethasone induced a marked increase in the expression of IL-6R mRNA. By immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody, IL-6 did not tyrosine-phosphorylate a protein with a molecular mass of 130 kD in osteoblastic cells but did so in dexamethasone-pretreated osteoblastic cells. Osteoblastic cells from transgenic mice constitutively expressing human IL-6R could support osteoclast development in the presence of human IL-6 alone in cocultures with normal spleen cells. In contrast, osteoclast progenitors in spleen cells from transgenic mice overexpressing human IL-6R were not able to differentiate into osteoclasts in response to IL-6 in cocultures with normal osteoblastic cells. These results clearly indicate that the ability of IL-6 to induce osteoclast differentiation depends on signal transduction mediated by IL-6R expressed on osteoblastic cells but not on osteoclast progenitors.
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    Alternative promoter usage and mRNA splicing pathways for parathyroid hormone-related protein in normal tissues and tumours.
    Southby, J ; O'Keeffe, LM ; Martin, TJ ; Gillespie, MT (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1995-09)
    The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene consists of nine exons and allows the production of multiple PTHrP mRNA species via the use of three promoters and 5' and 3' alternative splicing; as a result of 3' alternative splicing one of three protein isoforms may be produced. This organisation has potential for tissue-specific splicing patterns. We examined PTHrP mRNA expression and splicing patterns in a series of tumours and normal tissues, using the sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Use of promoter 3 and mRNA specifying the 141 amino acid PTHrP isoform were detected in all samples. Transcripts encoding the 139 amino acid isoform were detected in all but two samples. Use of promoters 1 and 2 was less widespread as was detection of mRNA encoding the 173 amino acid isoform. While different PTHrP splicing patterns were observed between tumours, no tissue- or tumour-specific transcripts were detected. In comparing normal and tumour tissue from the same patient, an increase in the number of promoters utilised was observed in the tumour tissue. Furthermore, mRNA for the PTH/PTHrP receptor was detected in all samples, thus the PTHrP produced by these tumours may potentially act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion.
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    Levels of expression of the mdr1 gene and glutathione S-transferase genes 2 and 3 and response to chemotherapy in multiple myeloma.
    Linsenmeyer, ME ; Jefferson, S ; Wolf, M ; Matthews, JP ; Board, PG ; Woodcock, DM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1992-03)
    We have quantitated the levels of mRNAs in bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma of the mdr1 gene (responsible for the Multidrug Resistance phenotype) and for two of the glutathione S-transferase gene, GST-2 and GST-3 (which can also inactivate a wide variety of cytotoxic drugs) and examined the relationship between the levels of expression of these genes and response to subsequent chemotherapy. From a total of 47 patients, 37 were treated with chemotherapy with 34 evaluable for response. Twenty-nine of the patients treated had not received any treatment prior to the marrow sampling while eight had previously received chemotherapy. Patients who failed to respond to initial chemotherapy had significantly higher levels of mdr1 than patients who responded (P = 0.01). In the total myeloma patient data set, mRNA levels for mdr1 and GST-2 were significantly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) = 0.54, P = 0.0004) as were expression levels of GST-2 with GST-3 (r = 0.43, P = 0.017). GST-3 and mdr1 levels were more weekly associated (r = 0.16, P = 0.4). These data would suggest a significant relationship between failure of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma patients and increases in expression of the mdr1 gene together with other genes whose products will generate additional mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.
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    Role of the thymus in transplantation tolerance in miniature swine. I. Requirement of the thymus for rapid and stable induction of tolerance to class I-mismatched renal allografts.
    Yamada, K ; Gianello, PR ; Ierino, FL ; Lorf, T ; Shimizu, A ; Meehan, S ; Colvin, RB ; Sachs, DH (Rockefeller University Press, 1997-08-18)
    The almost uniform failure in transplant patients of tolerance-inducing regimens that have been found to be effective in rodents, has made it necessary to examine large animal models before testing of new approaches clinically. Miniature swine have been shown to share many relevant immunologic parameters with humans, and because of their reproducible genetics, have proved extremely useful in providing such a large animal model. We have previously shown that indefinite systemic tolerance to renal allografts in miniature swine is induced in 100% of cases across a two-haplotype class I plus minor histocompatibility antigen disparity by a 12-d course of Cyclosporine A (CyA), in contrast to irreversible rejection observed uniformly without CyA treatment. In the present study, we have examined the role of the thymus during the induction of tolerance by performing a complete thymectomy 21 d before renal transplantation. This analysis demonstrated a striking difference between thymectomized and nonthymectomized animals. Thymectomized swine developed acute cellular rejection characterized by a T cell (CD25(+)) infiltrate, tubulitis, endothelialitis and glomerulitis, and anti-donor CTL reactivity in vitro. Nonthymectomized and sham thymectomized animals had a mild T cell infiltrate with few CD25(+) cells and no anti-donor CTL response in vitro. These results indicate that the thymus is required for rapid and stable induction of tolerance.
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    Interleukin-18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor) is produced by osteoblasts and acts via granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and not via interferon-gamma to inhibit osteoclast formation
    Udagawa, N ; Horwood, NJ ; Elliott, J ; Mackay, A ; Owens, J ; Okamura, H ; Kurimoto, M ; Chambers, TJ ; Martin, TJ ; Gillespie, MT (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1997-03-17)
    We have established by differential display polymerase chain reaction of mRNA that interleukin (IL)-18 is expressed by osteoblastic stromal cells. The stromal cell populations used for comparison differed in their ability to promote osteoclast-like multinucleated cell (OCL) formation. mRNA for IL-18 was found to be expressed in greater abundance in lines that were unable to support OCL formation than in supportive cells. Recombinant IL-18 was found to inhibit OCL formation in cocultures of osteoblasts and hemopoietic cells of spleen or bone marrow origin. IL-18 inhibited OCL formation in the presence of osteoclastogenic agents including 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, prostaglandin E2, parathyroid hormone, IL-1, and IL-11. The inhibitory effect of IL-18 was limited to the early phase of the cocultures, which coincides with proliferation of hemopoietic precursors. IL-18 has been reported to induce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in T cells, and both agents also inhibit OCL formation in vitro. Neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF were able to rescue IL-18 inhibition of OCL formation, whereas neutralizing antibodies to IFN-gamma did not. In cocultures with osteoblasts and spleen cells from IFN-gamma receptor type II-deficient mice, IL-18 was found to inhibit OCL formation, indicating that IL-18 acted independently of IFN-gamma production: IFN-gamma had no effect in these cocultures. Additionally, in cocultures in which spleen cells were derived from receptor-deficient mice and osteoblasts were from wild-type mice and vice versa, we identified that the target cells for IFN-gamma inhibition of OCL formation were the hemopoietic cells. The work provides evidence that IL-18 is expressed by osteoblasts and inhibits OCL formation via GM-CSF production and not via IFN-gamma production.
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    Serum methotrexate in childhood ALL.
    Cosolo, W ; Siderov, J ; Zalcberg, J (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1992-07)
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    RAPID UP-REGULATION OF MDR1 EXPRESSION BY ANTHRACYCLINES IN A CLASSICAL MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT CELL-LINE
    HU, XF ; SLATER, A ; WALL, DM ; KANTHARIDIS, P ; PARKIN, JD ; COWMAN, A ; ZALCBERG, JR (STOCKTON PRESS, 1995-05-01)
    Studies were carried out in a variant human multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R, which expresses very low levels of mdr1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The induction of mdr1 RNA expression by three anthracyclines, (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin), VP-16 and two vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine) was semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of mdr1 expression was expressed as ratio of mdr1 to the internal RNA (actin). A significant increase (P < 0.02) in expression of mdr1 was noted within 4 hrs of exposure to 1.5 micrograms ml-1 daunorubicin or epirubicin. Neither vinblastine nor vincristine had any effect on mdr1 levels after an 8 h exposure. With increasing concentrations of daunorubicin or epirubicin in a fixed 24 h time period, mdr1 expression increased, although a biphasic response was seen. Based on MRK 16 binding, an increase in P-gp levels was seen in the CEM/A7R line after a 24 h exposure to 1 microgram ml-1 daunorubicin or epirubicin. The rapid increase in mdr1 expression after a short period of exposure to doxorubicin, daunorubicin or epirubicin suggests that induction of mdr1 expression may have an important role in the development of drug-resistant tumours.
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    Altered expression of the IGF-1 receptor in a tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer cell line
    Parisot, JP ; Hu, XF ; DeLuise, M ; Zalcberg, JR (CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 1999-02-01)
    The relationship between oestrogen (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-1) was examined in both tamoxifen-sensitive (MCF 7/5-21) and tamoxifen-resistant (MCF 7/5-23) subclones of the MCF 7 cell line. Both subclones were grown in defined, serum-free (SF) medium over a period of 7 days with the addition of E2 or IGF-1 or a combination of both agents. Growth of both MCF 7/5-21 and 7/5-23 cells was stimulated (245% and 350%, respectively) by E2. However, only the growth of MCF 7/5-23 cells was stimulated (266%) by IGF-1. A combination of E2 and IGF-1 significantly enhanced MCF 7/5-21 and 7/5-23 cell growth (581% and 695%, respectively). E2-induced IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) levels (as measured by 125I-IGF-1 binding and Northern analyses) in only MCF 7/5-23 cells. This effect was partially inhibited by tamoxifen. In medium containing serum, the growth of only the MCF 7/5-23 cells was significantly inhibited by the IGF-1R monoclonal antibody, alphaIR-3. The detection of E2-induced expression of IGF-2 using RT-PCR was demonstrated in the MCF 7/5-23 cells. These experiments indicate that E2 may sensitize tamoxifen-resistant MCF 7/5-23 cells to the growth stimulatory actions of IGF-2 via up-regulation of the IGF-1R and describes a cell-survival mechanism that may manifest itself as tamoxifen resistance.
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    Induction of MDR1 gene expression by anthracycline analogues in a human drug resistant leukaemia cell line
    Hu, XF ; Slater, A ; Rischin, D ; Kantharidis, P ; Parkin, JD ; Zalcberg, J (CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 1999-02-01)
    The effects of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin, IDA) and MX2, a new morpholino-anthracycline, on up-regulation of the MDR1 gene in the low-level multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R were compared at similar concentrations (IC10, IC50 and IC90) over a short time exposure (4 and 24 h). The chemosensitivity of each drug was determined by a 3-day cell growth inhibition assay. Compared with epirubicin (EPI), IDA and MX2 were 17- and eightfold more effective in the CEM/A7R line respectively. No cross-resistance to 5-FU was seen in the CEM/A7R line. Verapamil (5 microM) and PSC 833 (1 microM), which dramatically reversed resistance to EPI in the CEM/A7R line, had no sensitizing effect on the resistance of this line to MX2, but slightly decreased resistance to IDA. The sensitivity to 5-FU was unchanged by these modulators. The induction of MDR1 mRNA expression by IDA, MX2 and 5-FU was analysed by Northern blotting and semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of MDR1 expression was expressed as a ratio of MDR1 mRNA to the internal RNA control glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). IDA, MX2 and 5-FU differentially up-regulated MDR1 mRNA in the CEM/A7R line in a dose-dependent manner. Both IDA and MX2 induced MDR1 expression within 4 h. 5-FU up-regulated MDR1 expression only when drug exposure was prolonged to 24 h. Based on MRK 16 binding, flow cytometric analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression paralleled the increase in MDR1 mRNA levels. For the three anthracyclines, the increase in MDR1 expression was stable in cells grown in the absence of drug for more than 3 weeks after drug treatment. The induction of MDR1 expression by 5-FU was transient, associated with a rapid decrease in the increased Pgp levels which returned to baseline 72 h after the removal of 5-FU. This study demonstrates that MDR1 expression can be induced by analogues of anthracyclines not pumped by Pgp, and that this induction appears to be stable despite a 3-week drug-free period.
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    QUALITY OF PHARMACOKINETIC RESEARCH IN ONCOLOGY
    SIDEROV, J ; BRIEN, JE ; MORGAN, DJ ; ZALCBERG, J ; COSOLO, W (STOCKTON PRESS, 1995-09-01)
    The usefulness of pharmacokinetically guided individualisation of drug therapy will depend, among other things, on the quality of the analytical and pharmacokinetic methods used. We surveyed the quality of analytical and pharmacokinetics methodology and reporting in a literature search of the oncology literature from 1987 to 1992, using the Medline database. Thirty articles that examined relationships between normal tissue toxicity and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) formed the study sample. Analytical procedures were adequately described in 77% of the articles, but details of validation of the assay were seriously deficient in the great majority of articles. Methods for calculation of AUC were also deficient in over half of the articles. The findings suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to the quality of pharmacokinetic investigation in oncology, otherwise progress in the use of pharmacokinetically guided individualisation of dosage may be hindered.