Medicine (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

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    FDG PET in the evaluation of immune-related hypophysitis and thyroiditis following combination ipilimumab and nivolumab in advanced melanoma
    Iravani, A ; Galligan, A ; Lasocki, A ; Wallace, R ; Weppler, A ; Yeung, GA ; Akhurst, T ; Sachithanandan, N ; Chiang, C ; Sandhu, S ; Hicks, R (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 2020-05-01)
    Objectives: Hypophysitis and thyroiditis are among the most commonly reported immune-related adverse events (irAEs) following combined ipilimumab/nivolumab therapy for melanoma. The role of 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG-PET) in the evaluation of these endocrinopathies has not been systematically assessed. Methods: Between 2016 to 2019, all patients (pts) with advanced melanoma who received combined ipilimumab/nivolumab therapy were reviewed. Pts with a pre-treatment and post-treatment FDG-PET were included. On FDG-PET, PET-hypophysitis was defined as a discernable new uptake in the pituitary fossa and PET-thyroiditis as new diffuse uptake in the thyroid. Pre- and post-treatment SUVmax of pituitary and thyroid gland was measured. ROC analysis was used to derive the optimal threshold for metabolic changes on FDG-PET for distinguishing endocrinopathy. FDG-PET, clinical data and brain MRI were reviewed independently by a Nuclear Medicine physician, endocrinologist, and radiologist, respectively, and then findings were correlated. Results: Of 162 pts, 133 and 134 had assessable FDG-PET for hypophysitis and thyroiditis, respectively, with post-treatment FDG-PET performed at a median 76 days (IQR 52-83, range 18-225) from the start of immunotherapy. Overall 41/133 (29%) pts had PET-hypophysitis, of which 18 were clinically-confirmed, 3 were false-positive and 20 were not clinically-assessable due to receiving high-dose glucocorticoids for a concurrent irAE at the time of imaging, although 6 of these also had supportive contemporaneous MRI findings. For PET-hypophysitis pts, median pre- and post-treatment pituitary SUVmax were 2.7 (IQR 2.5-2.9, range 1.9-3.9) and 4.7 (IQR 3.6-5.5, range 2.6-16.2), with a percentage increase of 63% (IQR 39-94%, range 13-431%). The abnormal PET findings preceded the clinical diagnosis in 7/18 pts by a median of 16 days (range 5-50). FDG-PET was negative for hypophysitis in 12/29 pts with a prior or subsequent clinical diagnosis of hypophysitis. Where the clinical presentation was not masked by high-dose glucocorticoids, the positive and negative predictive value of FDG-PET for hypophysitis was 86% and 87%, respectively. Based on ROC analysis the optimal percentage change in SUVmax was 30% for distinguishing hypophysitis. PET-thyroiditis was detected in 30/134(22%) pts. The pre- and post-treatment SUVmax were 2.1 (IQR 1.7-2.3, range 1.3-3.3) and 4.8 (IQR 3.8-5.9, range 2.8-9.1), respectively, with an increase of 116% (IQR 84-177%, range 52-300%). Overall 41/134 (31%) pts had documented biochemical evidence of thyroiditis. The positive and negative predictive value of PET was 97% and 89%, respectively. Based on ROC analysis, the optimal percentage change in SUVmax for distinguishing thyroiditis was 42%. Further follow-up FDG-PET (30/39 pts with PET-hypophysitis and 25/30 pts with PET-thyroiditis) revealed resolution of SUVmax to baseline in all cases by a median of 104 days (IQR 77-133, range 40-484) and 32 days (IQR 79-194, range 49-1045), respectively. Conclusions: FDG-PET detects transient increases in FDG uptake in the pituitary and thyroid gland following combined ipilimumab/nivolumab which appears to be highly predictive of the development of these endocrinopathies, therefore prompting more stringent monitoring. A high incidence of uninterpretable biochemical assessment of the pituitary-adrenal axis likely contributed to the underestimation of hypophysitis incidence. A multimodality approach is important in the timely diagnosis of immune-related endocrinopathies.
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    Opportunistic Assessment of Pituitary Gland with Routine MRI and PET/CT Can Guide in Earlier and Increased Identification of Hypophysitis in Patients Treated with Combination Checkpoint Inhibitors
    Galligan, A ; Iravani, A ; Lasocki, A ; Wallace, R ; Weppler, A ; Au-Yeung, G ; Sachithanandan, N ; Chiang, CY ; Wentworth, J ; Colman, PG ; Kay, TW ; Krishnamurthy, B ; Sandhu, S (The Endocrine Society, 2020-05-08)
    Background: Hypophysitis is one of the commonly reported adverse events related to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and the incidence is expected to rise with increased use of combined programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4) blockade. The clinical diagnosis can be delayed due to non-specific symptoms. At our centre, subjects undergo periodic imaging to assess tumour response to ICI. We reviewed whether neuroimaging studies can guide us in the diagnosis of hypophysitis and whether early changes can be detected before the onset of the clinical syndrome. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts, biochemistry, structural brain imaging and whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with specific reference to hypophysitis in 162 patients treated with combination ICI at a tertiary melanoma referral centre. Suspected cases were identified based on meeting one or more of the following criteria: 1) A documented diagnosis of hypophysitis or pituitary dysfunction found on chart review, 2) A relative change in pituitary size or appearance from baseline on neuroimaging studies, or 3) An increase in pituitary maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) greater than 25% from baseline on 18F-FDG PET. Results: 58/162 patients (36%) met criteria for suspected hypophysitis. Only 4 patients were identified on routine screening of early morning cortisol. 14 patients presented with symptoms leading to biochemical work up. A further 40 patients were found to have suspicious imaging changes, 13 of which went on to receive a formal diagnosis of hypophysitis. Of the remaining 27 patients, 23 were receiving high dose glucocorticoids for concomitant immune related adverse events at the time of the abnormal imaging study.Conclusion: We report the highest incidence to date of suspected hypophysitis in cohort of patients treated with combination ICI. This study highlights the important role of structural and functional neuroimaging in the early recognition of hypophysitis. Imaging may also play a role when the clinical syndrome is masked by concurrent glucocorticoid use.
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    Phase 2 Study of Cemiplimab in Patients with Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CSCC): Longer Follow-Up
    Rischin, D ; Khushalani, N ; Schmults, C ; Guminski, A ; Chang, AL ; Lewis, K ; Lim, A ; Hernandez-Aya, L ; Hughes, B ; Schadendorf, D ; Hauschild, A ; Stankevich, E ; Booth, J ; Yoo, S-Y ; Chen, Z ; Okoye, E ; Lowy, I ; Fury, M ; Migden, M (National Society for Cutaneous Medicine, 2020-10-27)
    Abstract not available.
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    Cemiplimab Improves Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Reduces Pain in Patients with Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CSCC): Results from a Post Hoc Exploratory Analysis of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial
    Migden, M ; Rischin, D ; Sasane, M ; Mastey, V ; Pavlick, A ; Schmults, C ; Chen, Z ; Guminski, A ; Hauschild, A ; Bury, D ; Hudgens, S ; Chang, AL ; Rabinowits, G ; Ibrahim, S ; Fury, M ; Lowy, I ; Li, S ; Chen, C-I (National Society for Cutaneous Medicine, 2021-01-01)
    Abstract not available.
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    Challenges in data linkage - experiences from an upper gastrointestinal cancer data linkage study
    Khan, N ; Ioannou, L ; Pilgrim, C ; Earnest, A ; Maharaj, A ; Croagh, D ; Liew, D ; Atwood, D ; Holland, J ; Philip, J ; Emery, J ; Ijzerman, M ; Brown, W ; Zalcberg, J ; Evans, S (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-09)
    Abstract Background Linked, population-level data is valuable for mapping patterns of care and evaluating health service utilisation, particularly in difficult-to-reach populations. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers have a dismal prognosis, creating difficulties engaging patients in research. The utility of a linked dataset in this population is of high value. Methods Key objectives included identifying the operational and feasibility issues associated with linking Australian state-based administrative and registry data for understanding health service utilisation in UGI cancers. Datasets pertained to hospital admissions, radiotherapy, community health, primary care, palliative care, Medicare and Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule’s and UGI cancers. Results From a logistical perspective, data access request approval processes varied, with some requiring consent to be sought from individual services contributing data. The availability of unique person-level identifying information varied widely. Additionally, the time period of data capture differed between and within datasets, limiting the quality of the linked data. Significant costs were associated with linking with primary care and Medicare and Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule’s. Federal dataset linkage required at least a one-year waiting period. Conclusions Whilst in theory data linkage is a powerful mechanism for obtaining population-level data, in reality, there are many logistical and financial barriers to linking multiple datasets. Consequently, critical data, which has the potential to inform policy and improve patient outcomes, cannot be procured. Key messages Logistical and financial challenges are associated with linking administrative and registry datasets for research, limiting the potential of data linkage.
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    Efficacy and safety of carfilzomib, dexamethasone, daratumumab (KdD) twice-weekly at 56 mg/m2 and once-weekly at 70 mg/m2 in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM): Cross-study comparison of candor and MMY1001.
    Leleu, X ; Beksac, M ; Chou, T ; Dimopoulos, MA ; Yoon, S-S ; Prince, HM ; Pour, L ; Shelekhova, T ; Chari, A ; Khurana, M ; Obreja, M ; Qi, M ; Oriol, A ; Siegel, DSD (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-05-20)
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    A PHASE II STUDY OF CONTINUOUS LOW DOSE PANOBINOSTAT IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT RHABDOID TUMORS/ATYPICAL TERATOID RHABDOID TUMORS
    Wood, P ; Desai, J ; Waldeck, K ; Cain, J ; Gottardo, N ; Strong, R ; Kinross, K ; Carr, M ; Jones, J ; Wong, L ; Ziegler, D ; Hansford, J ; Michael, M ; Ashley, D (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2020-12)
    Abstract

    BACKGROUND

    Panobinostat treatment has been shown to terminally differentiate malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT)/atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in pre-clinical models. This is an open label, phase II study of panobinostat in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed MRT/ATRT. AIMS: To assess the anti-tumor activity of low dose, continuous panobinostat, its associated toxicities, the biological activity of low dose panobinostat by measuring histone acetylation status in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC), and markers of differentiation in fresh tumor tissue specimens.

    METHODS

    Following cycles of induction and consolidation chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment, patients were enrolled and commenced on panobinostat as a continuous daily oral dose starting at 10mg/m2 following a three-week wash out period between therapies. Real-time acetylation status, measuring acetylated H4 on PMNC, was performed to determine the pharmacodynamics of panobinostat. Patients were monitored for drug toxicities with the possibility of dose reductions in decrements of 2mg/m2.

    RESULTS

    Six patients with newly diagnosed ATRT/MRT and one patient with relapsed MRT have been enrolled to date. The average age at enrollment was 2.5 years. Currently, six patients (85.7%) remain on study with a mean treatment duration of 170 days (range 44–327 days). One patient was removed from study at day 44 due to disease progression. The main dose-limiting toxicity observed to date has been myelosuppression. Panobinostat, at a dose of 10mg/m2, caused significant acetylation of H4 in PMNC.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Treatment with panobinostat appears to be well tolerated in infants with MRT/ATRT, with successful real-time pharmacodynamic assessment of H4 acetylation.
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    ABROCITINIB TREATMENT IN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS WITH MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS: EARLY PRURITUS RESPONSES FROM PHASE 3 TRIALS JADE MONO-1 AND JADE MONO-2
    Stander, S ; Yosipovitch, G ; Silverberg, JI ; Simpson, EL ; Sinclair, R ; Su, JC ; Kerkmann, U ; Gallardo, WR ; Valdez, H ; Rojo, R ; Biswas, P ; Farooqui, SA (ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA, 2021)
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    Autologous stem cell transplantation for untreated transformed indolent B-cell lymphoma in first remission: an international, multi-centre propensity-score-matched study
    Chin, CK ; Lim, KJ ; Lewis, K ; Jain, P ; Qing, Y ; Feng, L ; Cheah, CY ; Seymour, JF ; Ritchie, D ; Burbury, K ; Tam, CS ; Fowler, NH ; Fayad, LE ; Westin, JR ; Neelapu, SS ; Hagemeister, FB ; Samaniego, F ; Flowers, CR ; Nastoupil, LJ ; Dickinson, MJ (WILEY, 2020-12)
    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are used as consolidation in first remission (CR1) in some centres for untreated, transformed indolent B-cell lymphoma (Tr-iNHL) but the evidence base is weak. A total of 319 patients with untreated Tr-iNHL meeting prespecified transplant eligibility criteria [age <75, LVEF ≥45%, no severe lung disease, CR by positron emission tomography or computed tomography ≥3 months after at least standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone with rituximab (R-CHOP) intensity front-line chemotherapy] were retrospectively identified. Non-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformations were excluded. About 283 (89%) patients had follicular lymphoma, 30 (9%) marginal-zone lymphoma and six (2%) other subtypes. Forty-nine patients underwent HDC/ASCT in CR1, and a 1:2 propensity-score-matched cohort of 98 patients based on age, stage and high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH) was generated. After a median follow-up of 3·7 (range 0·1-18·3) years, ASCT was associated with significantly superior progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0·51, 0·27-0·98; P = 0·043] with a trend towards inferior overall survival (OS; HR 2·36;0·87-6·42; P = 0·1) due to more deaths from progressive disease (8% vs. 4%). Forty (41%) patients experienced relapse in the non-ASCT cohort - 15 underwent HDC/ASCT with seven (47%) ongoing complete remission (CR); 10 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy with 6 (60%) ongoing CR; 3 allogeneic SCT with 2 (67%) ongoing CR. Although ASCT in CR1 improves initial duration of disease control in untreated Tr-iNHL, the impact on OS is less clear with effective salvage therapies in this era of CAR-T.
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    Lupus Low Disease Activity State and Reduced Direct Health Care Costs in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Yeo, AL ; Koelmeyer, R ; Kandane-Rathnayake, R ; Golder, V ; Hoi, A ; Huq, M ; Hammond, E ; Nab, H ; Nikpour, M ; Morand, EF (WILEY, 2020-09)
    OBJECTIVE: Treat-to-target end points for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been assessed for their impact on damage accrual and flare, but whether they have an impact on the high health care utilization and costs in SLE has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine our hypothesis that the recently described lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) would be associated with reduced health care cost. METHODS: Data from a single tertiary hospital longitudinal SLE cohort were assessed. Baseline demographics, disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K], physician global assessment [PhGA], and flare index), and medication use were evaluated, and direct health care utilization and cost data were obtained from hospital information systems. LLDAS was defined as previously published: briefly, SLEDAI-2K ≤4 with no new activity, PhGA ≤1, prednisolone ≤7.5 mg/day, and optimal standard immunosuppressive agents. Analysis was performed using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Two hundred SLE patients, contributing 357.8 person-years of observation, were included. A history of lupus nephritis was present in 42% of patients, and damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index >0) was present at study commencement in 57.3% of patients. The mean ± SD annual direct medical cost per patient was US$7,413 ± 13,133/year. In multivariable analysis, increased cost was associated with the presence of baseline organ damage (41.7% increase; P = 0.009) and corticosteroid use (>7.5-15 mg/day: 55.7% increase; P = 0.02; and >15 mg/day: 202% increase; P < 0.001). In contrast, spending ≥50% of the observation period in LLDAS was associated with a 25.9% reduction in annual direct medical cost (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Greater time spent in LLDAS was associated with significantly reduced direct hospital health care costs among patients with SLE.