Start-up companies contribute significantly to the national economies of many countries but their failure rate is notably high. Successful start-ups typically depend on innovative business models to be competitive and maintain profitability. This thesis explores how the new technologies of cloud computing might enable start-ups to create and maintain competitive advantage. A conceptual framework called Cloud-Enabled Business Model Innovation (CEBMI) is presented that identifies three research questions concerning how cloud computing might enable business model innovation, what form this innovation takes, and how the innovation leads to competitive advantage. These questions were then investigated through three empirical studies involving six case studies with start-ups and two qualitative studies involving interviews with 11 business consultants and three cloud service providers. The detailed findings are presented as a set of key propositions that offer answers to the research questions, and together sketch a view of how CEBMI might enable start-ups to achieve competitive advantage.