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ItemBrownout-oriented and energy efficient management of cloud data centersXu, Minxian ( 2018)Cloud computing paradigm supports dynamic provisioning of resources for delivering computing for applications as utility services as a pay-as-you-go basis. However, the energy consumption of cloud data centers has become a major concern as a typical data center can consume as much energy as 25,000 households. The dominant energy efficient approaches, like Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling and VM consolidation, cannot function well when the whole data center is overloaded. Therefore, a novel paradigm called brownout has been proposed, which can dynamically activate/deactivate the optional parts of the application system. Brownout has successfully shown it can avoid overloads due to changes in the workload and achieve better load balancing and energy saving effects. In this thesis, we propose brownout-based approaches to address energy efficiency and cost-aware problem, and to facilitate resource management in cloud data centers. They are able to reduce data center energy consumption while ensuring Service Level Agreement defined by service providers. Specifically, the thesis advances the state-of-art by making the following key contributions: 1) An approach for scheduling cloud application components with brownout. The approach models the brownout enabled system by considering application components, which are either mandatory or optional. It also contains brownout-based algorithm to determine when to use brownout and how much utilization can be reduced. 2) A resource scheduling algorithm based on brownout and approximate Markov Decision Process approach. The approach considers the trade-offs between saved energy and the discount that is given to the user if components or microservices are deactivated. 3) A framework that enables brownout paradigm to manage the container-based environment, and provides fine-grained control on containers, which also contains several scheduling policies for managing containers to achieve power saving and QoS constraints. 4) The design and development of a software prototype based on Docker Swarm to reduce energy consumption while ensuring QoS in Clouds, and evaluations of different container scheduling policies under real testbeds to help service provider deploying services in a more energy-efficient manner while ensuring QoS constraint. 5) A perspective model for multi-level resource scheduling and a self-adaptive approach for interactive workloads and batch workloads to ensure their QoS by considering the renewable energy at Melbourne based on support vector machine. The proposed approach is evaluated under our developed prototype system.
ItemEnergy-efficient management of resources in container-based cloudsFotuhi Piraghaj, Sareh ( 2016)CLOUD enables access to a shared pool of virtual resources through Internet and its adoption rate is increasing because of its high availability, scalability and cost effectiveness. However, cloud data centers are one of the fastest-growing energy consumers and half of their energy consumption is wasted mostly because of inefficient allocation of the servers resources. Therefore, this thesis focuses on software level energy management techniques that are applicable to containerized cloud environments. Containerized clouds are studied as containers are increasingly gaining popularity. And containers are going to be major deployment model in cloud environments. The main objective of this thesis is to propose an architecture and algorithms to minimize the data center energy consumption while maintaining the required Quality of Service (QoS). The objective is addressed through improvements in the resource utilization both on server and virtual machine level. We investigated the two possibilities of minimizing energy consumption in a containerized cloud environment, namely the VM sizing and container consolidation. The key contributions of this thesis are as follows: 1. A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient resource management techniques in PaaS and CaaS environments. 2. A novel architecture for virtual machine customization and task mapping in a containerized cloud environment. 3. An efficient VM sizing technique for hosting containers and investigation of the impact of workload characterization on the efficiency of the determined VM sizes. 4. A design and implementation of a simulation toolkit that enables modeling for containerized cloud environments. 5. A framework for dynamic consolidation of containers and a novel correlation-aware container consolidation algorithm. 6. A detailed comparison of energy efficiency of container consolidation algorithms with traditional virtual machine consolidation for containerized cloud environments.