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ItemStatistical modeling of multiword expressionsSu, Kim Nam ( 2008)In natural languages, words can occur in single units called simplex words or in a group of simplex words that function as a single unit, called multiword expressions (MWEs). Although MWEs are similar to simplex words in their syntax and semantics, they pose their own sets of challenges (Sag et al. 2002). MWEs are arguably one of the biggest roadblocks in computational linguistics due to the bewildering range of syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and statistical idiomaticity they are associated with, and their high productivity. In addition, the large numbers in which they occur demand specialized handling. Moreover, dealing with MWEs has a broad range of applications, from syntactic disambiguation to semantic analysis in natural language processing (NLP) (Wacholder and Song 2003; Piao et al. 2003; Baldwin et al. 2004; Venkatapathy and Joshi 2006). Our goals in this research are: to use computational techniques to shed light on the underlying linguistic processes giving rise to MWEs across constructions and languages; to generalize existing techniques by abstracting away from individual MWE types; and finally to exemplify the utility of MWE interpretation within general NLP tasks. In this thesis, we target English MWEs due to resource availability. In particular, we focus on noun compounds (NCs) and verb-particle constructions (VPCs) due to their high productivity and frequency. Challenges in processing noun compounds are: (1) interpreting the semantic relation (SR) that represents the underlying connection between the head noun and modifier(s); (2) resolving syntactic ambiguity in NCs comprising three or more terms; and (3) analyzing the impact of word sense on noun compound interpretation. Our basic approach to interpreting NCs relies on the semantic similarity of the NC components using firstly a nearest-neighbor method (Chapter 5), then verb semantics based on the observation that it is often an underlying verb that relates the nouns in NCs (Chapter 6), and finally semantic variation within NC sense collocations, in combination with bootstrapping (Chapter 7). Challenges in dealing with verb-particle constructions are: (1) identifying VPCs in raw text data (Chapter 8); and (2) modeling the semantic compositionality of VPCs (Chapter 5). We place particular focus on identifying VPCs in context, and measuring the compositionality of unseen VPCs in order to predict their meaning. Our primary approach to the identification task is to adapt localized context information derived from linguistic features of VPCs to distinguish between VPCs and simple verb-PP combinations. To measure the compositionality of VPCs, we use semantic similarity among VPCs by testing the semantic contribution of each component. Finally, we conclude the thesis with a chapter-by-chapter summary and outline of the findings of our work, suggestions of potential NLP applications, and a presentation of further research directions (Chapter 9).
ItemStructured classification for multilingual natural language processingBlunsom, Philip ( 2007-06)This thesis investigates the application of structured sequence classification models to multilingual natural language processing (NLP). Many tasks tackled by NLP can be framed as classification, where we seek to assign a label to a particular piece of text, be it a word, sentence or document. Yet often the labels which we’d like to assign exhibit complex internal structure, such as labelling a sentence with its parse tree, and there may be an exponential number of them to choose from. Structured classification seeks to exploit the structure of the labels in order to allow both generalisation across labels which differ by only a small amount, and tractable searches over all possible labels. In this thesis we focus on the application of conditional random field (CRF) models (Lafferty et al., 2001). These models assign an undirected graphical structure to the labels of the classification task and leverage dynamic programming algorithms to efficiently identify the optimal label for a given input. We develop a range of models for two multilingual NLP applications: word-alignment for statistical machine translation (SMT), and multilingual super tagging for highly lexicalised grammars.