Melbourne Medical School Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Osteoporosis in men: its pathophysiology and the role of teriparatide in its treatment
    Gagnon, C ; Li, V ; Ebeling, PR (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2008-01-01)
    As the population ages, the burden of osteoporosis in men is expected to rise. Implementation of preventive measures such as falls prevention strategies, exercise and adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is recommended. However, when the diagnosis of osteoporosis is made, effective treatments need to be initiated to prevent fractures. As opposed to postmenopausal women, reduced bone formation is the predominant mechanism of age-related bone loss in men, making anabolic agents a logical treatment option for men with osteoporosis. Teriparatide is the only anabolic agent currently approved for treatment of osteoporosis in men. This paper summarizes the mechanism of action of teriparatide, as well as its tolerability and safety. Furthermore, the evidence supporting the efficacy of teriparatide treatment in men with osteoporosis is reviewed and its current role in the management of osteoporosis in men is discussed.
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    What is the clinical and ethical importance of incidental abnormalities found by knee MRI?
    Grainger, R ; Stuckey, S ; O'Sullivan, R ; Davis, SR ; Ebeling, PR ; Wluka, A (BMC, 2008-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to examine joints for research purposes. It may detect both suspected and unsuspected abnormalities. This raises both clinical and ethical issues, especially when incidental abnormalities are detected. The prevalence of incidental, potentially clinically significant abnormalities identified by MRI and their clinical significance in a population undergoing knee MRI in research studies are unknown. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of such lesions in healthy asymptomatic adults and those with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing knee MRI with limited sequences for the purpose of research. The MRI findings in 601 asymptomatic subjects and 132 with knee OA who underwent at least one limited knee MRI scan for cartilage volume measurement were examined by an MRI radiologist for the presence of potentially clinically significant abnormalities. RESULTS: These were present in 2.3% of healthy and 2.3% of OA subjects. All required further investigation to exclude non-benign disease, including four with bone marrow expansion (0.7%), requiring further investigation and management. A single potentially life-threatening lesion, a myeloma lesion, was identified in a subject with symptomatic knee OA on their second MRI scan in a longitudinal study. CONCLUSION: As musculoskeletal MRI is increasingly used clinically and for research purposes, the potential for detecting unsuspected abnormalities that require further investigation should be recognized. Incorporating a system to detect these, to characterize unexpected findings, and to facilitate appropriate medical follow-up when designing studies using this technology should be considered ethical research practice.