Melbourne Medical School Collected Works - Research Publications
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ItemCultural respect encompassing simulation training: being heard about health through broadbandLau, PM-Y ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Livesay, K ; Elliott, K ; Nicholson, P (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2016-01-01)BACKGROUND: Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST) is a learning program that uses simulation to provide health professional students and practitioners with strategies to communicate sensitively with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients. It consists of training modules with a cultural competency evaluation framework and CALD simulated patients to interact with trainees in immersive simulation scenarios. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of expanding the delivery of CREST to rural Australia using live video streaming; and to investigate the fidelity of cultural sensitivity - defined within the process of cultural competency which includes awareness, knowledge, skills, encounters and desire - of the streamed simulations. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this mixed-methods evaluative study, health professional trainees were recruited at three rural academic campuses and one rural hospital to pilot CREST sessions via live video streaming and simulation from the city campus in 2014. Cultural competency, teaching and learning evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: Forty-five participants rated 26 reliable items before and after each session and reported statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 cultural competency domains, particularly in cultural skills (P<0.05). Qualitative data indicated an overall acknowledgement amongst participants of the importance of communication training and the quality of the simulation training provided remotely by CREST. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural sensitivity education using live video-streaming and simulation can contribute to health professionals' learning and is effective in improving cultural competency. CREST has the potential to be embedded within health professional curricula across Australian universities to address issues of health inequalities arising from a lack of cultural sensitivity training. Significance for public healthThere are significant health inequalities for migrant populations. They commonly have poorer access to health services and poorer health outcomes than the Australian-born population. The factors are multiple, complex and include language and cultural barriers. To address these disparities, culturally competent patient-centred care is increasingly recognised to be critical to improving care quality, patient satisfaction, patient compliance and patient outcomes. Yet there is a lack of quality in the teaching and learning of cultural competence in healthcare education curricula, particularly in rural settings where qualified trainers and resources can be limited. The Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST) program offers opportunities to health professional students and practitioners to learn and develop communication skills with professionally trained culturally and linguistically diverse simulated patients who contribute their experiences and health perspectives. It has already been shown to contribute to health professionals' learning and is effective in improving cultural competency in urban settings. This study demonstrates that CREST when delivered via live video-streaming and simulation can achieve similar results in rural settings.
ItemEducating the Patient for Health Care Communication in the Age of the World Wide Web: A Qualitative StudyWoodward-Kron, R ; Connor, M ; Schulz, PJ ; Elliott, K (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-02-01)PURPOSE: Communication skills teaching in medical education has yet to acknowledge the impact of the Internet on physician-patient communication. The authors present a conceptual model showing the variables influencing how and to what extent physicians and patients discuss Internet-sourced health information as part of the consultation with the purpose of educating the patient. METHOD: A study exploring the role physicians play in patient education mediated through health information available on the Internet provided the foundation for the conceptual model. Twenty-one physicians participated in semistructured interviews between 2011 and 2013. Participants were from Australia and Switzerland, whose citizens demonstrate different degrees of Internet usage and who differ culturally and ethnically. The authors analyzed the interviews thematically and iteratively. The themes as well as their interrelationships informed the components of the conceptual model. RESULTS: The intrinsic elements of the conceptual model are the physician, the patient, and Internet based health information. The extrinsic variables of setting, time, and communication activities as well as the quality, availability, and usability of the Internet-based health information influenced the degree to which physicians engaged with, and were engaged by, their patients about Internet-based health information. CONCLUSIONS: The empirically informed model provides a means of understanding the environment, enablers, and constraints of discussing Internet-based health information, as well as the benefits for patients' understanding of their health. It also provides medical educators with a conceptual tool to engage and support physicians in their activities of communicating health information to patients.
ItemA resource for teaching emergency care communicationMacqueen, S ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Flynn, E ; Reid, K ; Elliott, K ; Slade, D (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-06-01)BACKGROUND: Communication in emergency departments (EDs), often between several health professionals and patients and relatives, is a major cause of patient complaint and error; however, communication-skills teaching for medical students largely focuses on individual clinician-patient interactions. CONTEXT: We developed and implemented an evidence-informed online resource, Communication for Health in Emergency Contexts (CHEC; http://www.chec.meu.medicine.unimelb.edu.au/resources) to raise medical students' awareness of the challenges of communication in the ED, and to provide students with communication strategies for addressing these challenges. The foundation of the CHEC resource was the findings and data from a large research project conducted at five emergency departments in Australia over the period 2006-2009. From this, we developed ED scenarios and teaching vignettes using authentic communication data. The project included a nationwide medical curriculum scoping phase, involving interviews with medical students and educators, on ED communication curriculum needs in order to inform the educational activities. INNOVATION: The CHEC resource provides students with the opportunity to follow real-life scenarios through all stages of the ED journey, whereas insights from ED medical and nursing staff provide learning opportunities about interprofessional communication for medical students. Evaluation suggests that students find the resource useful, and that the resource has been successfully embedded in medical and junior doctor training on communication and quality and safety. IMPLICATIONS: The CHEC resource enhances the capacity of busy clinical educators to raise students' awareness of the communication needs of emergency health care by focusing on communication in high-stress, time-pressured settings using a web format. The CHEC resource provides students with the opportunity to follow real-life scenarios through all stages of the ED journey.
ItemTelecommunications as a means to access health information: an exploratory study of migrants in AustraliaGreenstock, L ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Fraser, C ; Bingham, A ; Naccarella, L ; Elliott, K ; Morris, M (PAGEPRESS PUBL, 2012-01-01)BACKGROUND: Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers' access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers' preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. DESIGN AND METHODS: A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. RESULTS: Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community.
ItemHealth promotion in general practice waiting rooms: What role does a streamed TV health awareness program play?WOODWARD-KRON, R ; Elliott, K ; Penry Williams, C ; Gall, J (University of Melbourne, 2015-03-09)
ItemQuantifying the reuse of learning objectsElliott, K ; Sweeney, K (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, 2007-12-01)
ItemA Learning Design to Teach Scientific InquiryElliott, K ; Sweeney, K ; Irving, H (IGI Global, 2009)This chapter reports the authors’ experiences of developing a learning design to teach scientific inquiry, of integrating the learning design with learning objects to create online inquiry projects, and of investigating student attitudes following implementation in second year biochemistry units at a major Australian university. We discuss constructivism, problem based learning (PBL), and inquiry learning as the philosophical and pedagogical approaches informing the learning design, and highlight how critical components of each approach were transformed into a learning design. We specify the learning design and highlight its important features. The claimed efficiencies of the learning object approach were evaluated during the development phase. Outcomes reported here indicate that reuse was most cost effective if many, elaborate learning objects were reused. Little benefit was gained by the reuse of many, simple learning objects. Finally, student perceptions indicate benefits from the inquiry projects that warrant their inclusion in a traditional teacher-centred course.