Melbourne Medical School Collected Works - Research Publications

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    An m-Health intervention to improve education, self-management, and outcomes in patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure: barriers to effective implementation
    Zisis, G ; Carrington, MJ ; Oldenburg, B ; Whitmore, K ; Lay, M ; Huynh, Q ; Neil, C ; Ball, J ; Marwick, TH (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-12-29)
    Abstract Aims Effective and efficient education and patient engagement are fundamental to improve health outcomes in heart failure (HF). The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to enable more effective delivery of education is becoming more widespread for a range of chronic conditions. We sought to determine whether an avatar-based HF-app could improve outcomes by enhancing HF knowledge and improving patient quality of life and self-care behaviour. Methods and results In a randomized controlled trial of patients admitted for acute decompensated HF (ADHF), patients at high risk (≥33%) for 30-day hospital readmission and/or death were randomized to usual care or training with the HF-app. From August 2019 up until December 2020, 200 patients admitted to the hospital for ADHF were enrolled in the Risk-HF study. Of the 72 at high-risk, 36 (25 men; median age 81.5 years; 9.5 years of education; 15 in NYHA Class III at discharge) were randomized into the intervention arm and were offered education involving an HF-app. Whilst 26 (72%) could not use the HF-app, younger patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.97; P < 0.01] and those with a higher education level (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09–2.28; P = 0.03) were more likely to enrol. Of those enrolled, only 2 of 10 patients engaged and completed ≥70% of the program, and 6 of the remaining 8 who did not engage were readmitted. Conclusions Although AI-based education is promising in chronic conditions, our study provides a note of caution about the barriers to enrolment in critically ill, post-acute, and elderly patients.
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    Risk factors for left ventricular dysfunction in adulthood: role of low birth weight
    Huynh, QL ; Venn, AJ ; Magnussen, CG ; Yang, H ; Dwyer, T ; Marwick, TH (WILEY PERIODICALS, INC, 2021-10-05)
    AIMS: This study aimed to determine the relationship of low birth weight (LBW) with adult cardiac structure and function and investigate potential causal pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: A population-based sample of 925 Australians (41.3% male) were followed from childhood (aged 7-15 years) to young adulthood (aged 26-36 years) and mid-adulthood (aged 36-50 years). Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS, %), LV mass index (LVMi, g/m2.7 ), LV filling pressure (E/e'), and left atrial volume index (g/m2 ) were measured by transthoracic echocardiography in mid-adulthood. Birth weight category was self-reported in young adulthood and classified as low (≤5 lb or ≤2270 g), normal (5-8 lb or 2271-3630 g), and high (>8 lb or >3630 g). Of the 925 participants, 7.5% (n = 69) were classified as LBW. Compared with participants with normal birth weight, those with LBW had 2.01-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.41, P = 0.009) higher risks of impaired GLS (GLS > -18%) and 2.63-fold (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 7.81, P = 0.08) higher risks of LV hypertrophy (LVMi > 48 g/m2.7 in men or >44 g/m2.7 in women) in adulthood, independent of age, sex, and any socio-economic factors. Participants with LBW significantly increased body fat from childhood to adulthood relative to their peers and had greater levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose, and arterial stiffness in adulthood. These risk factors were the strongest mediators and explained 54% of the LBW effect size on adult GLS and 33% of the LBW effect size on LVMi. The remaining of these associations was independent of any of the measured risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was associated with impaired cardiac structure and function in mid-adulthood. This association was only partially explained by known risk factors.
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    Use of novel non-invasive techniques and biomarkers to guide outpatient management of fluid overload and reduce hospital readmission: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Zisis, G ; Halabi, A ; Huynh, Q ; Neil, C ; Carrington, M ; Marwick, TH (WILEY PERIODICALS, INC, 2021-07-22)
    AIMS: Fluid congestion is a leading cause of hospital admission, readmission, and mortality in heart failure (HF). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of an advanced fluid management programme (AFMP). The AFMP was defined as an intervention providing tailored diuretic therapy guided by intravascular volume assessment, in hospitalized patients or after discharge. The AFMP group was compared with patients who received standard care treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of an AFMP in improving patient outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and crossover studies using the terms 'heart failure', 'fluid management', and 'readmission' was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus up until November 2020. Studies reporting the association of an AFMP on readmission and/or mortality were included in our meta-analyses. Risk of bias was assessed in non-randomized studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. From 232 retrieved studies, 12 were included in the data synthesis. The 6040 patients in the included studies had a mean age of 72 ± 4 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 39 ± 8%, there were slightly more men (n = 3022) than women, and the follow-up period was a mean of 4.8 ± 3.1 months. Readmission data were available in 5362 patients; of these, 1629 were readmitted. Mortality data were available in 5787 patients; of these, 584 died. HF patients who had an AFMP in hospital and/or after discharge had lower odds of all-cause readmission (odds ratio-OR 0.64 [95% confidence interval-CI 0.44, 0.92], P = 0.02) with moderate heterogeneity (I2  = 46.5) and lower odds of all-cause mortality (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.69, 0.98], P = 0.03) with low heterogeneity (I2  = 0). The use of an AFMP was equally effective in reducing readmission and mortality regardless of age and follow-up duration. Effective pre-discharge diuresis was associated with significantly lower readmission odds (OR 0.43 [95% CI 0.26, 0.71], P = 0.001) compared with a fluid management plan as part of post-discharge follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: An effective AFMP is associated with improving readmission and mortality in HF. Our results encourage attainment of optimal volume status at discharge and prescription of optimal diuretic dose. Ongoing support to maintain euvolaemia and effective collaboration between healthcare teams, along with effective patient education and engagement, may help to reduce adverse outcomes in HF patients.
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    Independence of coronary artery disease to subclinical left ventricular dysfunction
    Venkataraman, P ; Wright, L ; Huynh, Q ; Marwick, TH (WILEY, 2020-04-21)
    OBJECTIVE: Epicardial atherosclerosis and heart failure while distinct clinical entities share common pathophysiological features including endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Presence of subclinical disease could lead to early diagnosis and intervention in the other. The aim of our study was to assess the association between coronary calcium score (CCS), conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and echocardiographic markers of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction (S-LVD). METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine participants aged 40-70 years with intermediate risk of coronary artery disease (5-year risk of 2%-15%) were identified. Computed tomography (CT) CCS and 2-D transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Main outcomes included presence of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction defined by reduced average global longitudinal strain, left atrial volume enlargement, and elevated E/e'. RESULTS: Fifteen participants had evidence of subclinical LV dysfunction (8 with systolic dysfunction and 7 with diastolic dysfunction) and 85 participants had CCS > 0. CCS > 0 was present in 10 participants with S-LVD compared to 75 participants without S-LVD (67% vs 53%, P = .47). There was no significant difference between in mean GLS (19.2 vs 19.5, P = .14), E/e' (7.2 vs 7.5 P = .33) in those without or with coronary artery calcium. Elevated CCS was also not associated with a higher tertiles of indexed LV mass (OR 1.15, P = .49) or index left atrial volume (OR 1.15, P = .49). CONCLUSIONS: In an asymptomatic, low-intermediate-risk group, mechanistic processes that lead to atherosclerosis are not directly associated with subclinical LV dysfunction.
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    Rationale and design of a risk-guided strategy for reducing readmissions for acute decompensated heart failure: the Risk-HF study
    Zisis, G ; Huynh, Q ; Yang, Y ; Neil, C ; Carrington, MJ ; Ball, J ; Maguire, G ; Marwick, TH (WILEY PERIODICALS, INC, 2020-07-22)
    AIMS: Heart failure (HF) readmission commonly arises owing to insufficient patient knowledge and failure of recognition of the early stages of recurrent fluid congestion. In previous work, we developed a score to predict short-term hospital readmission and showed that higher-risk patients benefit most from a disease management programme (DMP) that included enhancing knowledge and education by a nurse. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel, nurse-led HF DMP in selected patients at high risk of short-term hospital readmission, using ultrasound-guided diuretic management and artificial intelligence to enhance HF knowledge in an outpatient setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Risk-HF is a prospective multisite randomized controlled trial that will allocate 404 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF, and ≥33% risk of readmission and/or death at 30 days, into risk-guided nurse intervention (DMP-Plus group) compared with usual care. Intervention elements include (i) fluid management with a handheld ultrasound (HHU) device at point of care; (ii) post-discharge follow-up; (iii) optimal programmed drug titration; (iv) better transition of care; (v) intensive self-care education via an avatar-based 'digital health coach'; and (vi) exercise guidance through the digital coach. Usual care involves standard post-discharge hospital care. The primary outcome is reduced death and/or hospital readmissions at 30 days post-discharge, and secondary outcomes include quality of life, fluid management efficacy, and feasibility and patient engagement. Assuming that our intervention will reduce readmissions and/or deaths by 50%, with a 1:1 ratio of intervention vs. usual care, we plan to randomize 404 patients to show a difference at a statistical power of 80%, using a two-sided alpha of 0.05. We anticipate this recruitment will be achieved by screening 2020 hospitalized HF patients for eligibility. An 8 week pilot programme of our digital health coach in 21 HF patients, age > 75 years, showed overall improvements in quality of life (13 of 21), self-care (12 of 21), and HF knowledge (13 of 21). A pilot of the use of HHU by nurses showed that it was feasible and accurate. CONCLUSIONS: The Risk-HF trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a risk-guided intervention to improve HF outcomes and will evaluate the efficacy of trained HF nurses delivering a fluid management protocol that is guided by lung ultrasound with an HHU at point of care.