Melbourne Medical School Collected Works - Research Publications

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    Proteome characterisation of extracellular vesicles isolated from heart
    Claridge, B ; Rai, A ; Fang, H ; Matsumoto, A ; Luo, J ; McMullen, JR ; Greening, DW (WILEY, 2021-07)
    Cardiac intercellular communication is critical for heart function and often dysregulated in cardiovascular diseases. While cardiac extracellular vesicles (cEVs) are emerging mediators of signalling, their isolation remains a technical challenge hindering our understanding of cEV protein composition. Here, we utilised Langendorff-collagenase-based enzymatic perfusion and differential centrifugation to isolate cEVs from mouse heart (yield 3-6 μg/heart). cEVs are ∼200 nm, express classical EV markers (Cd63/81/9+ , Tsg101+ , Pdcd6ip/Alix+ ), and are depleted of blood (Alb/Fga/Hba) and cardiac damage markers (Mb, Tnnt2, Ldhb). Comparison with mechanically-derived EVs revealed greater detection of EV markers and decreased cardiac damage contaminants. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling revealed 1721 proteins in cEVs, implicated in proteasomal and autophagic proteostasis, glycolysis, and fatty acid metabolism; essential functions often disrupted in cardiac pathologies. There was striking enrichment of 942 proteins in cEVs compared to mouse heart tissue - implicated in EV biogenesis, antioxidant activity, and lipid transport, suggesting active cargo selection and specialised function. Interestingly, cEVs contain marker proteins for cardiomyocytes, cardiac progenitors, B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting diverse cellular origin. We present a method of cEV isolation and provide insight into potential functions, enabling future studies into EV roles in cardiac physiology and disease.
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    Proteome reprogramming of endometrial epithelial cells by human trophectodermal small extracellular vesicles reveals key insights into embryo implantation
    Poh, QH ; Rai, A ; Carmichael, II ; Salamonsen, LA ; Greening, DW (WILEY, 2021-07)
    Embryo implantation into the receptive endometrium is critical in pregnancy establishment, initially requiring reciprocal signalling between outer layer of the blastocyst (trophectoderm cells) and endometrial epithelium; however, factors regulating this crosstalk remain poorly understood. Although endometrial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to signal to the embryo during implantation, the role of embryo-derived EVs remains largely unknown. Here, we provide a comprehensive proteomic characterisation of a major class of EVs, termed small EVs (sEVs), released by human trophectoderm cells (Tsc-sEVs) and their capacity to reprogram protein landscape of endometrial epithelium in vitro. Highly purified Tsc-sEVs (30-200 nm, ALIX+ , TSG101+ , CD9/63/81+ ) were enriched in known players of implantation (LIFR, ICAM1, TAGLN2, WNT5A, FZD7, ROR2, PRICKLE2), antioxidant activity (SOD1, PRDX1/4/6), tissue integrity (EZR, RAC1, RHOA, TNC), and focal adhesions (FAK, ITGA2/V, ITGB1/3). Functionally, Tsc-sEVs were taken up by endometrial cells, altered transepithelial electrical resistance, and upregulated proteins implicated in embryo attachment (ITGA2/V, ITGB1/3), immune regulation (CD59, CD276, LGALS3), and antioxidant activity (GPX1/3/4, PRDX1/2/4/5/6): processes that are critical for successful implantation. Collectively, we provide critical insights into Tsc-sEV-mediated regulation of endometrial function that contributes to our understanding of the molecular basis of implantation.
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    Impact of chemically defined culture media formulations on extracellular vesicle production by amniotic epithelial cells
    Zhu, D ; Fang, H ; Kusuma, GD ; Schwab, R ; Barabadi, M ; Chan, ST ; McDonald, H ; Leong, CM ; Wallace, EM ; Greening, DW ; Lim, R (WILEY, 2021-07)
    The therapeutic properties of cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) make them promising cell-free alternative to regenerative medicine. However, clinical translation of this technology relies on the ability to manufacture EVs in a scalable, reproducible, and cGMP-compliant manner. To generate EVs in sufficient quantity, a critical step is the selection and development of culture media, where differences in formulation may influence the EV manufacturing process. In this study, we used human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) as a model system to explore the effect of different formulations of chemically defined, commercially sourced media on EV production. Here, we determined that cell viability and proliferation rate are not reliable quality indicators for EV manufacturing. The levels of tetraspanins and epitope makers of EVs were significantly impacted by culture media formulations. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling revealed proteome composition of hAEC-EVs and the influence of media formulations on composition of EV proteome. This study has revealed critical aspects including cell viability and proliferation rate, EV yield, and tetraspanins, surface epitopes and proteome composition of EVs influenced by media formulations, and further insight into standardised EV production culture media that should be considered in clinical-grade scalable EV manufacture for generation of therapeutic EVs.
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    Association between head injury and problem gambling
    Kaufman, J ; Danchin, M (WILEY, 2021-03)
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    Feasibility study of a prototype extended-wear insulin infusion set in adults with type 1 diabetes
    Kastner, JR ; Venkatesh, N ; Brown, K ; Muchmore, DB ; Ekinci, E ; Fourlanos, S ; Joseph, J ; Shafeeq, M ; Shi, L ; Strange, P ; Strasma, PJ ; O'Neal, DN (WILEY, 2022-06)
    AIM: To assess the feasibility of a prototype insulin infusion set (IIS) for extended wear in adults with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prototype Capillary Biomedical investigational extended-wear IIS (CBX IIS) incorporates a soft, flexible, reinforced kink-resistant angled nylon-derivative cannula with one distal and three proximal ports to optimize insulin delivery. Twenty adult participants with type 1 diabetes established on insulin pump therapy used the CBX IIS for two 7-day test periods while wearing a Dexcom G5 continuous glucose monitor. RESULTS: Participants were able to wear the CBX IIS for an average of 6.6 ± 1.4 days. Eighty-eight percent (36 of 41) of sets were worn for 7 days. No serious adverse events were reported. Five infusion sets failed prematurely because of: unresolvable hyperglycaemia (three); hyperglycaemia with elevated ketones (one); or infection (one). Median time in range (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) was 62% (54-76). Average glucose levels per day of infusion set wear showed a statistically significant increase over time (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary observations confirm the tolerability of the prototype CBX IIS for extended wear, albeit with a deterioration in glucose control after the third day.
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    Effects of a multicomponent resistance-based exercise program with protein, vitamin D and calcium supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with ADT: secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial
    Mundell, NL ; Owen, PJ ; Dalla Via, J ; Macpherson, H ; Daly, R ; Livingston, PM ; Rantalainen, T ; Foulkes, S ; Millar, J ; Murphy, DG ; Fraser, S (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-06)
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this preplanned secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise programme combined with daily whey protein, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). DESIGN: 12-month, two-arm, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: University clinical exercise centre. PARTICIPANTS: 70 ADT-treated men were randomised to exercise-training plus supplementation (Ex+ Suppl, n=34) or usual care (control, n=36). INTERVENTION: Men allocated to Ex + Suppl undertook thrice weekly resistance training with weight-bearing exercise training plus daily whey protein (25 g), calcium (1200 mg) and vitamin D (2000 IU) supplementation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognition was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months via a computerised battery (CogState), Trail-making test, Rey auditory-verbal learning test and Digit span. Data were analysed with linear mixed models and an intention-to-treat and prespecified per-protocol approach (exercise-training: ≥66%, nutritional supplement: ≥80%). RESULTS: Sixty (86%) men completed the trial (Ex + Suppl, n=31; control, n=29). Five (7.1%) men were classified as having mild cognitive impairment at baseline. Median (IQR) adherence to the exercise and supplement was 56% (37%-82%) and 91% (66%-97%), respectively. Ex + Suppl had no effect on cognition at any time. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-month multicomponent exercise training and supplementation intervention had no significant effect on cognition in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer compared with usual care. Exercise training adherence below recommended guidelines does not support cognitive health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12614000317695, registered 25/03/2014) and acknowledged under the Therapeutic Goods Administration Clinical Trial Notification Scheme (CT-2015-CTN-03372-1 v1).
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    Assessing the impact of gestational age of donors on the efficacy of amniotic epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia
    Zhu, D ; Krause, M ; Yawno, T ; Kusuma, GD ; Schwab, R ; Barabadi, M ; Maleken, AS ; Chan, ST ; Hunt, R ; Greening, D ; Wallace, EM ; Lim, R (BMC, 2022-05-12)
    BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a potential cell-free regenerative medicine. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are a viable source of cell therapy for diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, little is known about the impact of gestational age of the donor on the quality of hAEC-derived EVs. AIMS: To determine the impact of gestational age on hAEC-derived EVs in experimental BPD. RESULTS: Term hAEC-derived EVs displayed a significantly higher density of surface epitopes (CD142 and CD133) and induced greater macrophage phagocytosis compared to preterm hAEC-EVs. However, T cell proliferation was more significantly suppressed by preterm hAEC-EVs. Using a model of experimental BPD, we observed that term but not preterm hAEC-EVs improved tissue-to-airspace ratio and septal crest density. While both term and preterm hAEC-EVs reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines on postnatal day 7, the improvement in lung injury was associated with increased type II alveolar cells which was only observed in term hAEC-EV treatment group. Furthermore, only neonatal term hAEC-EVs reduced airway hyper-responsiveness, mitigated pulmonary hypertension and protected against right ventricular hypertrophy at 6 weeks of age. CONCLUSION: Term hAEC-EVs, but not preterm hAEC-EVs, have therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of BPD-like lung injury. Therefore, the impact of donor criteria should be considered when applying perinatal cells-derived EV therapy for clinical use.
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    Integrative multi-omics database (iMOMdb) of Asian pregnant women
    Pan, H ; Tan, PF ; Lim, IY ; Huan, J ; Teh, AL ; Chen, L ; Gong, M ; Tin, F ; Mir, SA ; Narasimhan, K ; Chan, JKY ; Tan, KH ; Kobor, MS ; Meikle, PJ ; Wenk, MR ; Chong, YS ; Eriksson, JG ; Gluckman, PD ; Karnani, N (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-09-10)
    Asians are underrepresented across many omics databases, thereby limiting the potential of precision medicine in nearly 60% of the global population. As such, there is a pressing need for multi-omics derived quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to fill the knowledge gap of complex traits in populations of Asian ancestry. Here, we provide the first blood-based multi-omics analysis of Asian pregnant women, constituting high-resolution genotyping (N = 1079), DNA methylation (N = 915) and transcriptome profiling (N = 238). Integrative omics analysis identified 219 154 CpGs associated with cis-DNA methylation QTLs (meQTLs) and 3703 RNAs associated with cis-RNA expression QTLs (eQTLs). Ethnicity was the largest contributor of inter-individual variation across all omics datasets, with 2561 genes identified as hotspots of this variation; 395 of these hotspot genes also contained both ethnicity-specific eQTLs and meQTLs. Gene set enrichment analysis of these ethnicity QTL hotspots showed pathways involved in lipid metabolism, adaptive immune system and carbohydrate metabolism. Pathway validation by profiling the lipidome (~480 lipids) of antenatal plasma (N = 752) and placenta (N = 1042) in the same cohort showed significant lipid differences among Chinese, Malay and Indian women, validating ethnicity-QTL gene effects across different tissue types. To develop deeper insights into the complex traits and benefit future precision medicine research in Asian pregnant women, we developed iMOMdb, an open-access database.
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    Cardioprotective actions of nitroxyl donor Angeli's salt are preserved in the diabetic heart and vasculature in the face of nitric oxide resistance
    Velagic, A ; Li, JC ; Qin, CX ; Li, M ; Deo, M ; Marshall, SA ; Anderson, D ; Woodman, OL ; Horowitz, JD ; Kemp-Harper, BK ; Ritchie, RH (WILEY, 2022-08)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The risk of fatal cardiovascular events is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A major contributor to poor prognosis is impaired nitric oxide (NO•) signalling at the level of tissue responsiveness, termed NO• resistance. This study aimed to determine if T2DM promotes NO• resistance in the heart and vasculature and whether tissue responsiveness to nitroxyl (HNO) is affected. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: At 8 weeks of age, male Sprague-Dawley rats commenced a high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the rats received low-dose streptozotocin (two intraperitoneal injections, 35 mg·kg-1 , over two consecutive days) and continued on the same diet. Twelve weeks later, isolated hearts were Langendorff-perfused to assess responses to the NO• donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) and the HNO donor Angeli's salt. Isolated mesenteric arteries were utilised to measure vascular responsiveness to the NO• donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and DEA/NO, and the HNO donor Angeli's salt. KEY RESULTS: Inotropic, lusitropic and coronary vasodilator responses to DEA/NO were impaired in T2DM hearts, whereas responses to Angeli's salt were preserved or enhanced. Vasorelaxation to Angeli's salt was augmented in T2DM mesenteric arteries, which were hyporesponsive to the relaxant effects of SNP and DEA/NO. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This is the first evidence that inotropic and lusitropic responses are preserved, and NO• resistance in the coronary and mesenteric vasculature is circumvented, by the HNO donor Angeli's salt in T2DM. These findings highlight the cardiovascular therapeutic potential of HNO donors, especially in emergencies such as acute ischaemia or heart failure.
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    Astrocytes derived from ASD individuals alter behavior and destabilize neuronal activity through aberrant Ca2+ signaling
    Allen, M ; Huang, BS ; Notaras, MJ ; Lodhi, A ; Barrio-Alonso, E ; Lituma, PJ ; Wolujewicz, P ; Witztum, J ; Longo, F ; Chen, M ; Greening, DW ; Klann, E ; Ross, ME ; Liston, C ; Colak, D (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-05)
    The cellular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are poorly understood. Cumulative evidence suggests that abnormal synapse function underlies many features of this disease. Astrocytes regulate several key neuronal processes, including the formation of synapses and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Astrocyte abnormalities have also been identified in the postmortem brain tissue of ASD individuals. However, it remains unclear whether astrocyte pathology plays a mechanistic role in ASD, as opposed to a compensatory response. To address this, we combined stem cell culturing with transplantation techniques to determine disease-specific properties inherent to ASD astrocytes. We demonstrate that ASD astrocytes induce repetitive behavior as well as impair memory and long-term potentiation when transplanted into the healthy mouse brain. These in vivo phenotypes were accompanied by reduced neuronal network activity and spine density caused by ASD astrocytes in hippocampal neurons in vitro. Transplanted ASD astrocytes also exhibit exaggerated Ca2+ fluctuations in chimeric brains. Genetic modulation of evoked Ca2+ responses in ASD astrocytes modulates behavior and neuronal activity deficits. Thus, this study determines that astrocytes derived from ASD iPSCs are sufficient to induce repetitive behavior as well as cognitive deficit, suggesting a previously unrecognized primary role for astrocytes in ASD.