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    No turning back on global open access.
    Barbour, V ; Flanagan, D ; Tairi, K (BMJ, 2022-10-05)
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    Application profile for machine-actionable data management plans
    Miksa, T ; Walk, P ; Neish, P ; Oblasser, S ; Murray, H ; Renner, T ; Jacquemot-Perbal, MC ; Cardoso, J ; Kvamme, T ; Praetzellis, M ; Suchánek, M ; Hooft, R ; Faure, B ; Moa, H ; Hasan, A ; Jones, S (Ubiquity Press, Ltd., 2021-01-01)
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    The major membrane nuclease MnuA degrades neutrophil extracellular traps induced by Mycoplasma bovis
    Mitiku, F ; Hartley, CA ; Sansom, FM ; Coombe, JE ; Mansell, PD ; Beggs, DS ; Browning, GF (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-05-01)
    Mycoplasma bovis has been increasingly recognised worldwide as an economically important pathogen of cattle, causing a range of diseases, including pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and otitis media. It is believed that M. bovis utilises a range of cell surface proteins, including nucleases, to evade the host immune response and survive. However, despite the importance of neutrophils in controlling pathogenic bacteria, the interaction between these cells and M. bovis is not well-characterised. In addition to phagocytosis, neutrophils combat pathogens through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are composed of their nuclear and granular components, including DNA. Here we investigated the effect of the major membrane nuclease MnuA of M. bovis, which in vitro is responsible for the majority of the nuclease activity of M. bovis, on NET formation. We quantified NET formation by bovine neutrophils 4 h after stimulation with wild-type M. bovis, an mnuA mutant and a mnuA-pIRR45 complemented mnuA mutant. NETs were detected following stimulation of neutrophils with the mnuA mutant but not after exposure to either the wild-type or the mnuA-pIRR45 complemented mutant, and NETs were degraded in the presence of even low concentrations of wild type M. bovis. Surprisingly, there was no increase in levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis, even though these neutrophils produced NETs. These results clearly demonstrate that M. bovis can induce NET formation in bovine neutrophils, but that the major membrane nuclease MnuA is able to rapidly degrade NETs, and thus is likely to play a significant role in virulence. In addition, M. bovis appears to induce NETs even though ROS production seems to be suppressed.
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    High-risk sexual behaviours in young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis
    Brown, E ; Castagnini, E ; Langstone, A ; Mifsud, N ; Gao, C ; McGorry, P ; Killackey, E ; O'Donoghue, B (WILEY, 2022-03-30)
    AIM: The sexual health of adults with schizophrenia is poorer than the general population; however, less is known about young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis (FEP). The aim of this study was to explore the high-risk sexual behaviours and sexual well-being indicators of a cohort of young people with FEP. METHODS: Data collected from young people (15-24 years) with FEP attending the EPPIC service in Melbourne and participating in a physical health intervention were analysed. Baseline trial data collected on sexual health and high-risk behaviours, psychiatric symptomology, functioning, and substance use are presented by gender. Associations between symptomology and functioning with sexual behaviour are explored. RESULTS: A total of 69 young people were included in this study; mean age was 19.6 years (SD±2.8), 53.6% were male, 59.6% identified as heterosexual, and 21.7% were currently in a relationship. Within the cohort, 78.3% had ever been sexually active. Of these, 44.2% consistently used a condom at last sex act and 35.7% used barrier contraception consistently, 22.5% had previously been pregnant, and 18.6% had tested positive for an STI. Finally, young people were more likely to have been sexually active if they were currently using substances. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high rates of high-risk sexual behaviour remain an issue for young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Promoting sexual well-being and communication skills between sexual partners should be targeted to ensure that high-risk sexual health outcomes are mitigated as early as possible.
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    An Interdisciplinary Partnership Approach to Improving the Digital Literacy Skills of Nursing Students to Become Digitally Fluent, Work-Ready Graduates.
    Lokmic-Tomkins, Z ; Cochrane, L ; Celeste, T ; Burnie, M (IOS Press, 2021-12-15)
    Digital transformation and the development of a digitally fluent nursing workforce are necessary for engagement with digital technologies in healthcare settings. For this purpose, educators aim to develop workforce-ready graduates equipped with disciplinary knowledge, expertise, and digital capabilities supportive of further professional development. Having identified a subset of nursing students with low levels of digital literacy, the nursing faculty engaged with library services and the academic skills unit to develop and embed a sustainable Nursing Digital Literacy Module in the graduate entry to practice nursing program. This paper reports on the model created and early evaluation of the student uptake of the module.
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    Optimal Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing Reconstruction and Parameter Estimation with SPTpol Data
    Millea, M ; Daley, CM ; Chou, T-L ; Anderes, E ; Ade, PAR ; Anderson, AJ ; Austermann, JE ; Avva, JS ; Beall, JA ; Bender, AN ; Benson, BA ; Bianchini, F ; Bleem, LE ; Carlstrom, JE ; Chang, CL ; Chaubal, P ; Chiang, HC ; Citron, R ; Moran, CC ; Crawford, TM ; Crites, AT ; de Haan, T ; Dobbs, MA ; Everett, W ; Gallicchio, J ; George, EM ; Goeckner-Wald, N ; Guns, S ; Gupta, N ; Halverson, NW ; Henning, JW ; Hilton, GC ; Holder, GP ; Holzapfel, WL ; Hrubes, JD ; Huang, N ; Hubmayr, J ; Irwin, KD ; Knox, L ; Lee, AT ; Li, D ; Lowitz, A ; McMahon, JJ ; Meyer, SS ; Mocanu, LM ; Montgomery, J ; Natoli, T ; Nibarger, JP ; Noble, G ; Novosad, V ; Omori, Y ; Padin, S ; Patil, S ; Pryke, C ; Reichardt, CL ; Ruhl, JE ; Saliwanchik, BR ; Schaffer, KK ; Sievers, C ; Smecher, G ; Stark, AA ; Thorne, B ; Tucker, C ; Veach, T ; Vieira, JD ; Wang, G ; Whitehorn, N ; Wu, WLK ; Yefremenko, V (American Astronomical Society, 2021-12-01)
    We perform the first simultaneous Bayesian parameter inference and optimal reconstruction of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), using 100 deg2 of polarization observations from the SPTpol receiver on the South Pole Telescope. These data reach noise levels as low as 5.8 µK arcmin in polarization, which are low enough that the typically used quadratic estimator (QE) technique for analyzing CMB lensing is significantly suboptimal. Conversely, the Bayesian procedure extracts all lensing information from the data and is optimal at any noise level. We infer the amplitude of the gravitational lensing potential to be A f =0.949\,\pm \,0.122 using the Bayesian pipeline, consistent with our QE pipeline result, but with 17% smaller error bars. The Bayesian analysis also provides a simple way to account for systematic uncertainties, performing a similar job as frequentist "bias hardening"or linear bias correction, and reducing the systematic uncertainty on A f due to polarization calibration from almost half of the statistical error to effectively zero. Finally, we jointly constrain A f along with A L, the amplitude of lensing-like effects on the CMB power spectra, demonstrating that the Bayesian method can be used to easily infer parameters both from an optimal lensing reconstruction and from the delensed CMB, while exactly accounting for the correlation between the two. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the Bayesian approach on real data, and pave the way for future analysis of deep CMB polarization measurements with SPT-3G, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4, where improvements relative to the QE can reach 1.5 times tighter constraints on A f and seven times lower effective lensing reconstruction noise.
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    Examining Effectiveness and Predictors of Treatment Response of Pivotal Response Treatment in Autism: An Umbrella Review and a Meta-Analysis
    Uljarevic, M ; Billingham, W ; Cooper, MN ; Condron, P ; Hardan, AY (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-01-27)
    The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the current evidence on the effectiveness of Pivotal Response Training (PRT) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore predictors of treatment response. We conducted a systematic review of the following electronic databases and registers: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ERIC, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts. Six systematic reviews were identified, two with meta-analytic component. Identified reviews varied widely in terms of their aims, outcomes, and designs which precluded a unified and consistent set of conclusions and recommendations. Ten RCTs were identified. Eight of identified RCTs reported at least one language and communication-related outcome. Statistically significant effects of PRT were identified across a majority of identified RCTs for a range of language and communication skills. However, evidence for positive treatment effects of PRT on outcome measures assessing other domains was less robust and/or specific. Overall, both previous systematic reviews and new meta-analysis of the RCTs suggest that PRT shows promise for improving language and communication. Only four RCTs examined the association between baseline child characteristics and treatment outcomes, however, no consistent pattern emerged. This review has identified several key methodological and design improvements that are needed to enable our field to fully capitalize on the potential of RCT designs and characterize detailed profiles of treatment responders. These findings are essential for informing the development of evidence-based guidelines for clinicians on what works for whom and why.
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    Evaluation of microRNA expression in a sheep model for lung fibrosis
    Perera, UE ; Derseh, HB ; Dewage, SN ; Stent, A ; Wijayarathna, R ; Snibson, KJ (BMC, 2021-11-17)
    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive fibroproliferative disorder that has one of the poorest prognoses amongst interstitial lung diseases. Recently, the finding of aberrant expression levels of miRNAs in IPF patients has drawn significant attention to the involvement of these molecules in the pathogenesis of this disease. Clarification of the differential expression of miRNAs in health and disease may identify novel therapeutic strategies that can be employed in the future to combat IPF. This study evaluates the miRNA expression profiles in a sheep model for lung fibrosis and compares them to the miRNA profiles of both IPF patients and the mouse bleomycin model for pulmonary fibrosis. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed on differentially expressed miRNAs to illustrate which biological mechanisms were associated with lung fibrosis. RESULTS: We discovered 49 differentially expressed miRNAs in the sheep fibrosis model, in which 32 miRNAs were significantly down regulated, while 17 miRNAs were significantly upregulated due to bleomycin-induced lung injury. Moreover, the miRNA families miR-29, miR-26, miR-30, let-7, miR-21, miR-19, miR-17 and miR-199 were aberrantly expressed in both sheep and mouse models, with similar differential miRNAs expression observed in IPF cases. Importantly, 18 miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in both the sheep model and IPF patients, but not in mice. CONCLUSION: Together with pathway enrichment analyses, these results show that the sheep model can potentially be used to characterize previously unrecognized biological pathways associated with lung fibrosis.
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    Employability development and career outcomes from short-term learning abroad programmes
    Potts, D (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-03-25)
    Learning abroad has become a central component in the internationalisation strategies of many Australian universities, following trends in other countries such as France, Germany, USA, Singapore and Japan. To expand access to different types of students and to diversify host destinations, short-term programmes have been the focus of institutions over the last five years. However, little is known about the outcomes of short-term learning abroad programmes. This article explores the connection between short-term learning abroad experiences, career outcomes and employability skills development of graduates in the Australian context. In the first national study of learning abroad outcomes, most former participants were positive about the perceived benefits provided by their international study experiences in terms of their employment outcomes. Respondents strongly supported the role of learning abroad in the development of core employability skills. The findings confirm an amplified impact on participants in internship programmes and multiple learning abroad programmes. The results of this study support the further development of short-term learning abroad opportunities for students, with considerations for access to programmes for those from underrepresented backgrounds.
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    Boosting Career and Employability Outcomes Through Multiple Learning Abroad Experiences
    Potts, D ; Kim, J (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-06)
    While participation in learning abroad has increased rapidly over the last decade, short-term programs played an important role in boosting participation and widening access to learning abroad. The current study takes advantage of a new pattern of participation in learning abroad to examine self-reported career outcomes and employability development benefits based on program duration and the number of programs undertaken. Using a large-scale dataset of graduates of Australian universities, the study challenges conventional wisdom that a longer experience is better and explores the impact of multiple short-term program participation as a new intervention in graduate career outcomes. Although this study is based on the Australian higher education context, the results may be informative to educators and policy-makers from countries with comparable learning abroad programs in considering how short-term programs can be used more purposefully to foster positive careers and employability outcomes.