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    Examining Effectiveness and Predictors of Treatment Response of Pivotal Response Treatment in Autism: An Umbrella Review and a Meta-Analysis
    Uljarevic, M ; Billingham, W ; Cooper, MN ; Condron, P ; Hardan, AY (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-01-27)
    The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the current evidence on the effectiveness of Pivotal Response Training (PRT) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore predictors of treatment response. We conducted a systematic review of the following electronic databases and registers: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ERIC, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts. Six systematic reviews were identified, two with meta-analytic component. Identified reviews varied widely in terms of their aims, outcomes, and designs which precluded a unified and consistent set of conclusions and recommendations. Ten RCTs were identified. Eight of identified RCTs reported at least one language and communication-related outcome. Statistically significant effects of PRT were identified across a majority of identified RCTs for a range of language and communication skills. However, evidence for positive treatment effects of PRT on outcome measures assessing other domains was less robust and/or specific. Overall, both previous systematic reviews and new meta-analysis of the RCTs suggest that PRT shows promise for improving language and communication. Only four RCTs examined the association between baseline child characteristics and treatment outcomes, however, no consistent pattern emerged. This review has identified several key methodological and design improvements that are needed to enable our field to fully capitalize on the potential of RCT designs and characterize detailed profiles of treatment responders. These findings are essential for informing the development of evidence-based guidelines for clinicians on what works for whom and why.
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    Improving the translation of search strategies using the Polyglot Search Translator: a randomized controlled trial
    Clark, JM ; Sanders, S ; Carter, M ; Honeyman, D ; Cleo, G ; Auld, Y ; Booth, D ; Condron, P ; Dalais, C ; Bateup, S ; Linthwaite, B ; May, N ; Munn, J ; Ramsay, L ; Rickett, K ; Rutter, C ; Smith, A ; Sondergeld, P ; Wallin, M ; Jones, M ; Beller, E (MEDICAL LIBRARY ASSOC, 2020-04-01)
    BACKGROUND: Searching for studies to include in a systematic review (SR) is a time- and labor-intensive process with searches of multiple databases recommended. To reduce the time spent translating search strings across databases, a tool called the Polyglot Search Translator (PST) was developed. The authors evaluated whether using the PST as a search translation aid reduces the time required to translate search strings without increasing errors. METHODS: In a randomized trial, twenty participants were randomly allocated ten database search strings and then randomly assigned to translate five with the assistance of the PST (PST-A method) and five without the assistance of the PST (manual method). We compared the time taken to translate search strings, the number of errors made, and how close the number of references retrieved by a translated search was to the number retrieved by a reference standard translation. RESULTS: Sixteen participants performed 174 translations using the PST-A method and 192 translations using the manual method. The mean time taken to translate a search string with the PST-A method was 31 minutes versus 45 minutes by the manual method (mean difference: 14 minutes). The mean number of errors made per translation by the PST-A method was 8.6 versus 14.6 by the manual method. Large variation in the number of references retrieved makes results for this outcome inconclusive, although the number of references retrieved by the PST-A method was closer to the reference standard translation than the manual method. CONCLUSION: When used to assist with translating search strings across databases, the PST can increase the speed of translation without increasing errors. Errors in search translations can still be a problem, and search specialists should be aware of this.
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    What Works in Youth Suicide Prevention? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Robinson, J ; Bailey, E ; Witt, K ; Stefanac, N ; Milner, A ; Currier, D ; Pirkis, J ; Condron, P ; Hetrick, S (ELSEVIER, 2018-10-01)
    BACKGROUND: Young people require specific attention when it comes to suicide prevention, however efforts need to be based on robust evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies examining the impact of interventions that were specifically designed to reduce suicide-related behavior in young people. FINDINGS: Ninety-nine studies were identified, of which 52 were conducted in clinical settings, 31 in educational or workplace settings, and 15 in community settings. Around half were randomized controlled trials. Large scale interventions delivered in both clinical and educational settings appear to reduce self-harm and suicidal ideation post-intervention, and to a lesser extent at follow-up. In community settings, multi-faceted, place-based approaches seem to have an impact. Study quality was limited. INTERPRETATION: Overall whilst the number and range of studies is encouraging, gaps exist. Few studies were conducted in low-middle income countries or with demographic populations known to be at increased risk. Similarly, there was a lack of studies conducted in primary care, universities and workplaces. However, we identified that specific youth suicide-prevention interventions can reduce self-harm and suicidal ideation; these types of intervention need testing in high-quality studies.
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    Associations between multimorbidity, all-cause mortality and glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Chiang, JI ; Jani, BD ; Mair, FS ; Nicholl, BI ; Furler, J ; O'Neal, D ; Jenkins, A ; Condron, P ; Manski-Nankervis, J-A ; Tu, W-J (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2018-12-26)
    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health priority worldwide and the majority of people with diabetes live with multimorbidity (MM) (the co-occurrence of ≥2 chronic conditions). The aim of this systematic review was to explore the association between MM and all-cause mortality and glycaemic outcomes in people with T2D. Methods: The search strategy centred on: T2D, MM, comorbidity, mortality and glycaemia. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, The Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS. Restrictions included: English language, quantitative empirical studies. Two reviewers independently carried out: abstract and full text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal. Disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer. Results: Of the 4882 papers identified; 41 met inclusion criteria. The outcome was all-cause mortality in 16 studies, glycaemia in 24 studies and both outcomes in one study. There were 28 longitudinal cohort studies and 13 cross-sectional studies, with the number of participants ranging from 96–892,223. Included studies were conducted in high or upper-middle-income countries. Fifteen of 17 studies showed a statistically significant association between increasing MM and higher mortality. Ten of 14 studies showed no significant associations between MM and HbA1c. Four of 14 studies found higher levels of MM associated with higher HbA1c. Increasing MM was significantly associated with hypoglycaemia in 9/10 studies. There was no significant association between MM and fasting glucose (one study). No studies explored effects on glycaemic variability. Conclusions: This review demonstrates that MM in T2D is associated with higher mortality and hypoglycaemia, whilst evidence regarding the association with other measures of glycaemic control is mixed. The current single disease focused approach to management of T2D seems inappropriate. Our findings highlight the need for clinical guidelines to support a holistic approach to the complex care needs of those with T2D and MM, accounting for the various conditions that people with T2D may be living with.
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    Impact of multimorbidity count on all-cause mortality and glycaemic outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review protocol
    Chiang, JI ; Furler, J ; Mair, FS ; Jani, B ; Nicholl, BI ; Jenkins, A ; Condron, P ; O'Neal, D ; Manski-Nankervis, J-A (BMJ GROUP, 2018)
    Introduction : Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading health priority worldwide. Multimorbidity (MM) is a term describing the co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases or conditions. The majority of people living with T2D have MM. The relationship between MM and mortality and glycaemia in people with T2D is not clear. Methods and analysis: Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Complete, The Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS will be searched with a prespecified search strategy. The searches will be limited to quantitative empirical studies in English with no restriction on publication date. One reviewer will perform title screening and two review authors will independently screen the abstract and full texts using Covidence software, with disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer. Data will be extracted using a using a Population, Exposure, Comparator and Outcomes framework. Two reviewers will independently extract data and undertake the risk of bias (quality) assessment. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. A narrative synthesis of the results will be conducted and meta-analysis considered if appropriate. Quality appraisal will be undertaken using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale and the quality of the cumulative evidence of the included studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. This protocol was prepared in adherence to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols guidelines to ensure the quality of our review. Ethics and dissemination: This review will synthesise the existing evidence about the impact of MM on mortality and glycaemic outcomes in people living with T2D and increase our understanding of this subject and will inform future practice and policy. Findings will be disseminated via conference presentations, social media and peer-reviewed publication.