Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Effect of Pd-Sensitization on Poisonous Chlorine Gas Detection Ability of TiO2: Green Synthesis and Low-Temperature Operation.
    Ekar, S ; Nakate, UT ; Khollam, YB ; Shaikh, SF ; Mane, RS ; Rana, AUHS ; Palaniswami, M (MDPI AG, 2022-05-31)
    Ganoderma lucidum mushroom-mediated green synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) is explored via a low-temperature (≤70 °C) wet chemical method. The role of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom extract in the reaction is to release the ganoderic acid molecules that tend to bind to the Ti4+ metal ions to form a titanium-ganoderic acid intermediate complex for obtaining TiO2 nanocrystallites (NCs), which is quite novel, considering the recent advances in fabricated gas sensing materials. The X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements etc., are used to characterize the crystal structure, surface morphology, and surface area of as-synthesized TiO2 and Pd-TiO2 sensors, respectively. The chlorine (Cl2) gas sensing properties are investigated from a lower range of 5 ppm to a higher range of 400 ppm. In addition to excellent response-recovery time, good selectivity, constant repeatability, as well as chemical stability, the gas sensor efficiency of the as-synthesized Pd-TiO2 NC sensor is better (136% response at 150 °C operating temperature) than the TiO2 NC sensor (57% at 250 °C operating temperature) measured at 100 ppm (Cl2) gas concentration, suggesting that the green synthesized Pd-TiO2 sensor demonstrates efficient Cl2 gas sensing properties at low operating temperatures over pristine ones.
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    Cortico-cognition coupling in treatment resistant schizophrenia
    Syeda, WT ; Wannan, CMJ ; Merritt, AH ; Raghava, JM ; Jayaram, M ; Velakoulis, D ; Kristensen, TD ; Soldatos, RF ; Tonissen, S ; Thomas, N ; Ambrosen, KS ; Sorensen, ME ; Fagerlund, B ; Rostrup, E ; Glenthoj, BY ; Skafidas, E ; Bousman, CA ; Johnston, LA ; Everall, I ; Ebdrup, BH ; Pantelis, C (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Brain structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction are independent predictors for poor clinical outcome in schizophrenia, and the associations between these domains remains unclear. We employed a novel, multiblock partial least squares correlation (MB-PLS-C) technique and investigated multivariate cortico-cognitive patterns in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and matched healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Forty-one TRS patients (age 38.5 ± 9.1, 30 males (M)), and 45 HC (age 40.2 ± 10.6, 29 M) underwent 3T structural MRI. Volumes of 68 brain regions and seven variables from CANTAB covering memory and executive domains were included. Univariate group differences were assessed, followed by the MB-PLS-C analyses to identify group-specific multivariate patterns of cortico-cognitive coupling. Supplementary three-group analyses, which included 23 non-affected first-degree relatives (NAR), were also conducted. RESULTS: Univariate tests demonstrated that TRS patients showed impairments in all seven cognitive tasks and volume reductions in 12 cortical regions following Bonferroni correction. The MB-PLS-C analyses revealed two significant latent variables (LVs) explaining > 90% of the sum-of-squares variance. LV1 explained 78.86% of the sum-of-squares variance, describing a shared, widespread structure-cognitive pattern relevant to both TRS patients and HCs. In contrast, LV2 (13.47% of sum-of-squares variance explained) appeared specific to TRS and comprised a differential cortico-cognitive pattern including frontal and temporal lobes as well as paired associates learning (PAL) and intra-extra dimensional set shifting (IED). Three-group analyses also identified two significant LVs, with NARs more closely resembling healthy controls than TRS patients. CONCLUSIONS: MB-PLS-C analyses identified multivariate brain structural-cognitive patterns in the latent space that may provide a TRS signature.
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    Achieving AI-Enabled Robust End-to-End Quality of Experience Over Backhaul Radio Access Networks
    Roy, D ; Rao, AS ; Alpcan, T ; Das, G ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022-09-01)
    Emerging applications such as Augmented Reality, the Internet of Vehicles and Remote Surgery require both computing and networking functions working in harmony. The End-to-end (E2E) quality of experience (QoE) for these applications depends on the synchronous allocation of networking and computing resources. However, the relationship between the resources and the E2E QoE outcomes is typically stochastic and non-linear. In order to make efficient resource allocation decisions, it is essential to model these relationships. This article presents a novel machine-learning based approach to learn these relationships and concurrently orchestrate both resources for this purpose. The machine learning models further help make robust allocation decisions regarding stochastic variations and simplify robust optimization to a conventional constrained optimization. When resources are insufficient to accommodate all application requirements, our framework supports executing some of the applications with minimal degradation (graceful degradation) of E2E QoE. We also show how we can implement the learning and optimization methods in a distributed fashion by the Software-Defined Network (SDN) and Kubernetes technologies. Our results show that deep learning-based modelling achieves E2E QoE with approximately 99.8% accuracy, and our robust joint-optimization technique allocates resources efficiently when compared to existing differential services alternatives.
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    Achieving QoS for bursty uRLLC applications over passive optical networks
    Roy, D ; Rao, AS ; Alpcan, T ; Das, G ; Palaniswami, M (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-05-01)
    Emerging real-time applications such as those classified under ultra-reliable low latency (uRLLC) generate bursty traffic and have strict quality of service (QoS) requirements. The passive optical network (PON) is a popular access network technology, which is envisioned to handle such applications at the access segment of the network. However, the existing standards cannot handle strict QoS constraints for such applications. The available solutions rely on instantaneous heuristic decisions and maintain QoS constraints (mostly bandwidth) in an average sense. Existing proposals in generic networks with optimal strategies are computationally complex and are, therefore, not suitable for uRLLC applications. This paper presents a novel computationally efficient, far-sighted bandwidth allocation policy design for facilitating bursty uRLLC traffic in a PON framework while satisfying strict QoS (age of information/delay and bandwidth) requirements. To this purpose, first we design a delay-tracking mechanism, which allows us to model the resource allocation problem from a control-theoretic viewpoint as a model predictive control (MPC) problem. MPC helps in making far-sighted decisions regarding resource allocations and captures the time-varying dynamics of the network. We provide computationally efficient polynomial time solutions and show their implementation in the PON framework. Compared to existing approaches, MPC can improve delay violations by 15% and 45% at loads of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively, for delay-constrained applications of 1 ms and 4 ms. Our approach is also robust to varying traffic arrivals.
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    Optimal Routing for Multi-User Multi-Hop Relay Networks Via Dynamic Programming
    Dayarathna, S ; Senanayake, R ; Evans, J (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022-05-23)
    In this letter, we study the relay selection problem in multi-user, multi-hop relay networks with the objective of minimizing the network outage probability. When only one user is present, it is well known that the optimal relay selection problem can be solved efficiently via dynamic programming. This solution breaks down in the multi-user scenario due to dependence between users. We resolve this challenge using a novel relay aggregation approach. On the expanded trellis, dynamic programming can be used to solve the optimal relay selection problem with computational complexity linear in the number of hops. Numerical examples illustrate the efficient use of this algorithm for relay networks.
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    Sum-Rate Optimization in Flexible Half-Duplex Networks With Transmitter/Receiver Scheduling
    Dayarathna, S ; Senanayake, R ; Evans, J (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022-07-01)
    In this paper, we focus on the problem of transmitter and receiver scheduling to maximize the achievable sum-rate of a flexible half-duplex network where nodes have the flexibility to either transmit, receive or be silent in a given time slot. We consider a network with multiple transmitters and receivers where each transmitter has specific information it needs to send to a set of receiving nodes. First, we conduct some structural analysis and show that the achievable sum-rate is maximized when each transmitter only transmits to a single receiver at a given time. Next, we consider one instance of the flexible network and by reducing the symmetric multiple receiver network to a single receiver network, we also show that the achievable sum-rate is maximized when either one transmitter or all the transmitters transmit. In fact, there exists a unique received signal-to-noise ratio at which the optimality changes from all-to-one. Finally, we design a novel low-cost algorithm that gives a sub-optimal solution to the achievable sum-rate maximization problem in a flexible half-duplex network. We also provide a comprehensive comparison of the proposed algorithm with respect to existing resource allocation techniques, and observe that our proposed algorithm provides significant sum-rate gains.
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    Genetic optimization of mid-infrared filters for a machine learning chemical classifier
    Tan, H ; Cadusch, JJ ; Meng, J ; Crozier, KB (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-05-23)
    Miniaturized mid-infrared spectrometers present opportunities for applications that range from health monitoring to agriculture. One approach combines arrays of spectral filters with infrared photodetectors, called filter-array detector-array (FADA) microspectrometers. A paper recently reported a FADA microspectrometer in tandem with machine learning for chemical identification. In that work, a FADA microspectrometer with 20 filters was assembled and tested. The filters were band-pass, or band-stop designs that evenly spanned the microspectrometer’s operating wavelength range. However, given that a machine learning classifier can be trained on an arbitrary filter basis, it is not apparent that evenly spaced filters are optimal. Here, through simulations with noise, we use a genetic algorithm to optimize six bandpass filters to best identify liquid and gaseous chemicals. We report that the classifiers trained with the optimized filter sets outperform those trained with evenly spaced filter sets and those handpicked to target the absorption bands of the chemicals investigated.
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    Investigation on repetition-coding and space-time-block-coding for indoor optical wireless communications employing beam shaping based on orbital angular momentum modes
    Li, J ; Yang, Q ; Dai, X ; Lim, C ; Nirmalathas, A (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-06-06)
    In this paper, we propose a novel beam shaping technique based on orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for indoor optical wireless communications (OWC). Furthermore, we investigate two spatial diversity techniques, namely repetition-coding (RC) and Alamouti-type orthogonal space-time-block-coding (STBC) for indoor OWC employing the new beam shaping technique. The performance of both diversity schemes is systematically analyzed and compared under different beam shaping techniques using different OAM modes with different power ratios of the modes. It is shown that both RC and STBC can improve the system performance and effective coverage and RC outperforms STBC in all the beam shaping techniques regardless of the power ratios of the different modes. In addition, to further understand the performance of RC and STBC schemes against the signal delays induced during OAM mode conversion, the system tolerance of the two schemes to the delay interval is investigated with different OAM mode-based beam shaping techniques. Numerical results show that higher resistance to the delay interval can be achieved in STBC scheme. The advantage is more obvious when employing OAM0 and OAM1 based beam shaping technique.
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    Deep-learning-enabled high-performance full-field direct detection with dispersion diversity
    Li, X ; An, S ; Ji, H ; Li, J ; Shieh, W ; Su, Y (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-03-28)
    Data center interconnects require cost-effective photonic integrated optical transceivers to meet the ever-increasing capacity demands. Compared with a coherent transmission system, a complex-valued double-sideband (CV-DSB) direct detection (DD) system can minimize the cost of the photonic circuit, since it replaces two stable narrow-linewidth lasers with only a low-cost un-cooled laser in the transmitter while maintaining a similar spectral efficiency. In the carrier-assisted DD system, the carrier power accounts for a large proportion of the total optical signal power. Reducing the carrier to signal power ratio (CSPR) can improve the information-bearing signal power and thus the achievable system performance. To date, the minimum required CSPR is ∼7 dB for all the reported CV-DSB DD systems having electrical bandwidths of approximately half of baud rates. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-enabled DD (DLEDD) scheme to recover the full optical field of the transmitted signal at a low CSPR of 2 dB in experiment. Our proposal is based on a dispersion-diversity receiver with an electrical bandwidth of ∼61.0% baud rate and a high tolerance to laser wavelength drift. A deep convolutional neural network enables accurate signal recovery in the presence of a strong signal-signal beat interference. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed DLEDD scheme can reduce the optimum CSPR by ∼8 dB, leading to a significant signal-to-noise ratio improvement of ∼5.8 dB according to simulation results. We experimentally demonstrate the optical field reconstruction for a 28-GBaud 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation signal after 80-km single-mode fiber transmission based on the proposed DLEDD scheme with a 2-dB optimum CSPR. The results show that the proposed DLEDD scheme could offer a high-performance solution for cost-sensitive applications such as data center interconnects, metro networks, and mobile fronthaul systems.
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    Feature issue introduction: ultra-wideband optical communications.
    Zhuge, Q ; Chen, X ; Plant, DV ; Shieh, W (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-04-11)
    This Feature Issue covers the important aspects to develop ultra-wideband optical communication systems including optoelectronics, impairment modeling and compensation, optical amplification, superchannel and multi-band transmission and control, and so forth. This Introduction provides a summary of the articles on these topics in this Feature Issue.