Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Deep-learning-enabled high-performance full-field direct detection with dispersion diversity
    Li, X ; An, S ; Ji, H ; Li, J ; Shieh, W ; Su, Y (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-03-28)
    Data center interconnects require cost-effective photonic integrated optical transceivers to meet the ever-increasing capacity demands. Compared with a coherent transmission system, a complex-valued double-sideband (CV-DSB) direct detection (DD) system can minimize the cost of the photonic circuit, since it replaces two stable narrow-linewidth lasers with only a low-cost un-cooled laser in the transmitter while maintaining a similar spectral efficiency. In the carrier-assisted DD system, the carrier power accounts for a large proportion of the total optical signal power. Reducing the carrier to signal power ratio (CSPR) can improve the information-bearing signal power and thus the achievable system performance. To date, the minimum required CSPR is ∼7 dB for all the reported CV-DSB DD systems having electrical bandwidths of approximately half of baud rates. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-enabled DD (DLEDD) scheme to recover the full optical field of the transmitted signal at a low CSPR of 2 dB in experiment. Our proposal is based on a dispersion-diversity receiver with an electrical bandwidth of ∼61.0% baud rate and a high tolerance to laser wavelength drift. A deep convolutional neural network enables accurate signal recovery in the presence of a strong signal-signal beat interference. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed DLEDD scheme can reduce the optimum CSPR by ∼8 dB, leading to a significant signal-to-noise ratio improvement of ∼5.8 dB according to simulation results. We experimentally demonstrate the optical field reconstruction for a 28-GBaud 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation signal after 80-km single-mode fiber transmission based on the proposed DLEDD scheme with a 2-dB optimum CSPR. The results show that the proposed DLEDD scheme could offer a high-performance solution for cost-sensitive applications such as data center interconnects, metro networks, and mobile fronthaul systems.
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    Feature issue introduction: ultra-wideband optical communications.
    Zhuge, Q ; Chen, X ; Plant, DV ; Shieh, W (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-04-11)
    This Feature Issue covers the important aspects to develop ultra-wideband optical communication systems including optoelectronics, impairment modeling and compensation, optical amplification, superchannel and multi-band transmission and control, and so forth. This Introduction provides a summary of the articles on these topics in this Feature Issue.
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    Carrier-assisted differential detection with reduced guard band and high electrical spectral efficiency
    Li, J ; An, S ; Ji, H ; Li, X ; Shieh, W ; Su, Y (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2021-10-11)
    For high-capacity and short-reach applications, carrier-assisted differential detection (CADD) has been proposed, in which the optical field of a complex-valued double sideband (DSB) signal is reconstructed without using a sharp-edge optical bandpass filter or local oscillator laser. The CADD receiver features a transfer function with periodical nulls in the frequency domain, while the signal-signal beat interference (SSBI) is severely amplified around the frequency nulls of the transfer function. Since the null magnitude at the zero frequency is inevitable, a guard band is required between the carrier and the signal, leading to a higher receiver bandwidth and implementation cost. To reduce the needed guard band, we propose a parallel dual delay-based CADD (PDD-CADD), in which an additional delay is placed parallel to the original delay in the conventional CADD. By this means, the modified transfer function has a sharper roll-off edge around the zero frequency. Consequently, the requirement on the guard band can be relaxed, which maximizes the bandwidth utilization of the system. The parallel delay is first optimized through numerical simulation. We then perform a proof-of-concept experiment to transmit a 100-Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal over an 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF). After the fiber transmission, the proposed PDD-CADD can reduce the required guard band from 3 to about 1.2 GHz compared with the single delay-based conventional CADD. To our best knowledge, for the direct detection of a single polarization complex-valued DSB signal without using a sharp-roll-off optical filter, we achieve a record electrical spectral efficiency of 5.9 b/s/Hz.
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    Carrier assisted differential detection with a generalized transfer function
    Ji, H ; Sun, M ; Sun, C ; Shieh, W (Optica Publishing Group, 2020-11-23)
    Direct detection capable of optical field recovery not only enables high-order modulation for high spectral efficiency (SE) but also extends the transmission reach by digital compensation of linear channel impairments such as chromatic dispersion. Recently, to bridge the gap between direct detection and coherent detection, carrier assisted differential detection (CADD) has been proposed for the reception of complex-valued double-sideband signals. In this paper, we extend the concept CADD to a general selection of the transfer functions, beyond the originally-proposed delay interferometer. To validate the proposed CADD approach, we utilize an optical filter based on silicon photonics microring resonator (MRR) as one realization of the generalized transfer functions. With the MRR based optical filter, both the required carrier-to-signal power ratio (CSPR) and the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) sensitivity are drastically improved over the conventional CADD due to the significantly suppressed signal-signal beating interference (SSBI). In addition, the proposed CADD is resilient to the wavelength offset up to several GHz between the transmitter laser and the center wavelength of the MRR based optical filter. With the proposed transfer function, CADD provides a novel approach for achieving high-SE transmission with superior receiver sensitivity and could be potentially useful for inter-/intra-datacenter or mobile front haul applications.
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    Carrier-assisted differential detection
    Shieh, W ; Sun, C ; Ji, H (Springer Nature, 2020-02-10)
    To overcome power fading induced by chromatic dispersion in optical fiber communications, optical field recovery is a promising solution for direct detection short-reach applications, such as fast-evolving data center interconnects (DCIs). To date, various direct detection schemes capable of optical field recovery have been proposed, including Kramers-Kronig (KK) and signal-signal beat interference (SSBI) iterative cancellation (IC) receivers. However, they are all restricted to the single sideband (SSB) modulation format, thus conspicuously losing half of the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) compared with double sideband (DSB) modulation. Additionally, SSB suffers from the noise folding issue, requiring a precise optical filter that complicates the receiver design. As such, it is highly desirable to investigate the field recovery of DSB signals via direct detection. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a novel receiver scheme called carrier-assisted differential detection (CADD) to realize optical field recovery of complex-valued DSB signals via direct detection. First, CADD doubles the electrical SE compared with the KK and SSBI IC receivers by adopting DSB modulation without sacrificing receiver sensitivities. Furthermore, by using direct detection without needing a precise receiver optical filter, CADD can employ cost-effective uncooled lasers as opposed to expensive temperature-controlled lasers in coherent systems. Our proposed receiver architecture opens a new class of direct detection schemes that are suitable for photonic integration analogous to homodyne receivers in coherent detection.
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    Tuning of Plasmonic Resonances in the Near Infrared Spectrum Using a Double Coaxial Aperture Array
    Sun, M ; Kavehei, O ; Beckett, P ; Robert, A ; Shieh, W ; Unnithan, RR (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018-12-01)
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    A Review of Self-Coherent Optical Transceivers: Fundamental Issues, Recent Advances, and Research Directions
    Alimi, I ; Patel, R ; Silva, N ; Sun, C ; Ji, H ; Shieh, W ; Pinto, A ; Muga, N (MDPI, 2021-08-01)
    This paper reviews recent progress on different high-speed optical short- and medium-reach transmission systems. Furthermore, a comprehensive tutorial on high-performance, low-cost, and advanced optical transceiver (TRx) paradigms is presented. In this context, recent advances in high-performance digital signal processing algorithms and innovative optoelectronic components are extensively discussed. Moreover, based on the growing increase in the dynamic environment and the heterogeneous nature of different applications and services to be supported by the systems, we discuss the reconfigurable and sliceable TRxs that can be employed. The associated technical challenges of various system algorithms are reviewed, and we proffer viable solutions to address them.
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    A Photonic Switch Based on a Hybrid Combination of Metallic Nanoholes and Phase-change Vanadium Dioxide
    Sun, M ; Taha, M ; Walia, S ; Bhaskaran, M ; Sriram, S ; Shieh, W ; Unnithan, RR (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-07-23)
    A photonic switch is an integral part of optical telecommunication systems. A plasmonic bandpass filter integrated with materials exhibiting phase transition can be used as a thermally reconfigurable optical switch. This paper presents the design and demonstration of a broadband photonic switch based on an aluminium nanohole array on quartz utilising the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide. The fabricated switch shows an operating range over 650 nm around the optical communication C, L, and U band with maximum 20%, 23% and 26% transmission difference in switching in the C band, L band, and U band, respectively. The extinction ratio is around 5 dB in the entire operation range. This architecture is a precursor for developing micron-size photonic switches and ultra-compact modulators for thin film photonics.
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    Polarization-diversity receiver using remotely delivered local oscillator without optical polarization control.
    Ji, H ; Zhou, X ; Sun, C ; Shieh, W (Optical Society of America (OSA), 2020-07-20)
    Silicon photonics coherent transceivers have integrated all the necessary optics except the lasers. The laser source has become a major obstacle to further reduce the cost, footprint, power consumption of the coherent transceivers for short-reach optical interconnects. One solution is to utilize remotely delivered local oscillator (LO) from the transmitter, which has the benefits of relaxing the requirements of wavelength stability and laser linewidth and simplifying the digital signal processing (DSP) of carrier/phase recovery. However, a sophisticated adaptive polarization controller (APC) driven by a control loop in the electrical domain with a complicated algorithm is required to dynamically track and compensate for the polarization wandering of the received LO. In this paper, we propose a hybrid single-polarization coherent receiver and Stokes vector receiver (SVR) for polarization-diversity coherent detection without a need of optical polarization control for the remotely delivered LO. With such a scheme, we successfully received a 400-Gb/s dual-polarization constellation-shaped 64-QAM signal over 80-km fibers.
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    Carrier-assisted differential detection
    Shieh, W ; Sun, C ; Ji, H (Springer Nature, 2020-02-10)
    To overcome power fading induced by chromatic dispersion in optical fiber communications, optical field recovery is a promising solution for direct detection short-reach applications, such as fast-evolving data center interconnects (DCIs). To date, various direct detection schemes capable of optical field recovery have been proposed, including Kramers-Kronig (KK) and signal-signal beat interference (SSBI) iterative cancellation (IC) receivers. However, they are all restricted to the single sideband (SSB) modulation format, thus conspicuously losing half of the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) compared with double sideband (DSB) modulation. Additionally, SSB suffers from the noise folding issue, requiring a precise optical filter that complicates the receiver design. As such, it is highly desirable to investigate the field recovery of DSB signals via direct detection. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a novel receiver scheme called carrier-assisted differential detection (CADD) to realize optical field recovery of complex-valued DSB signals via direct detection. First, CADD doubles the electrical SE compared with the KK and SSBI IC receivers by adopting DSB modulation without sacrificing receiver sensitivities. Furthermore, by using direct detection without needing a precise receiver optical filter, CADD can employ cost-effective uncooled lasers as opposed to expensive temperature-controlled lasers in coherent systems. Our proposed receiver architecture opens a new class of direct detection schemes that are suitable for photonic integration analogous to homodyne receivers in coherent detection.