Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Active Learning for Linear Parameter-Varying System Identification
    Chin, R ; Maass, AI ; Ulapane, N ; Manzie, C ; Shames, I ; Nešić, D ; Rowe, JE ; Nakada, H ( 2020-05-02)
    Active learning is proposed for selection of the next operating points in the design of experiments, for identifying linear parameter-varying systems. We extend existing approaches found in literature to multiple-input multiple-output systems with a multivariate scheduling parameter. Our approach is based on exploiting the probabilistic features of Gaussian process regression to quantify the overall model uncertainty across locally identified models. This results in a flexible framework which accommodates for various techniques to be applied for estimation of local linear models and their corresponding uncertainty. We perform active learning in application to the identification of a diesel engine air-path model, and demonstrate that measures of model uncertainty can be successfully reduced using the proposed framework.
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    Tracking and regret bounds for online zeroth-order Euclidean and Riemannian optimisation
    Maass, AI ; Manzie, C ; Nesic, D ; Manton, JH ; Shames, I ( 2020-10-01)
    We study numerical optimisation algorithms that use zeroth-order information to minimise time-varying geodesically-convex cost functions on Riemannian manifolds. In the Euclidean setting, zeroth-order algorithms have received a lot of attention in both the time-varying and time-invariant cases. However, the extension to Riemannian manifolds is much less developed. We focus on Hadamard manifolds, which are a special class of Riemannian manifolds with global nonpositive curvature that offer convenient grounds for the generalisation of convexity notions. Specifically, we derive bounds on the expected instantaneous tracking error, and we provide algorithm parameter values that minimise the algorithm’s performance. Our results illustrate how the manifold geometry in terms of the sectional curvature affects these bounds. Additionally, we provide dynamic regret bounds for this online optimisation setting. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first regret bounds even for the Euclidean version of the problem. Lastly, via numerical simulations, we demonstrate the applicability of our algorithm on an online Karcher mean problem.
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    Asynchronous Distributed Optimization via Dual Decomposition and Block Coordinate Subgradient Methods
    Lin, Y ; Shames, I ; Nesic, D (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2021-09-01)
    In this article, we study the problem of minimizing the sum of potentially nondifferentiable convex cost functions with partially overlapping dependences in an asynchronous manner, where communication in the network is not coordinated. We study the behavior of an asynchronous algorithm based on dual decomposition and block coordinate subgradient methods under assumptions weaker than those used in the literature. At the same time, we allow different agents to use local stepsizes with no global coordination. Sufficient conditions are provided for almost sure convergence to the solution of the optimization problem. Under additional assumptions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate that, in turn, can be strengthened to the linear convergence rate if the problem is strongly convex and has Lipschitz gradients. We also extend available results in the literature by allowing multiple and potentially overlapping blocks to be updated at the same time with nonuniform and potentially time-varying probabilities assigned to different blocks. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
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    Security metrics and synthesis of secure control systems
    Murguia, C ; Shames, I ; Ruths, J ; Nešić, D (Elsevier Inc., 2020-05-01)
    The term stealthy has come to encompass a variety of techniques that attackers can employ to avoid being detected. In this manuscript, for a class of perturbed linear time-invariant systems, we propose two security metrics to quantify the potential impact that stealthy attacks could have on the system dynamics by tampering with sensor measurements. We provide analysis tools to quantify these metrics for given system dynamics, control, and system monitor. Then, we provide synthesis tools (in terms of semidefinite programs) to redesign controllers and monitors such that the impact of stealthy attacks is minimized and the required attack-free system performance is guaranteed.
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    Zeroth-Order Optimization on Subsets of Symmetric Matrices With Application to MPC Tuning
    Maass, A ; Manzie, C ; Shames, I ; Nakada, H (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2021-11-08)
    This article provides a zeroth-order optimization framework for nonsmooth and possibly nonconvex cost functions with matrix parameters that are real and symmetric. We provide complexity bounds on the number of iterations required to ensure a given accuracy level for both the convex and nonconvex cases. The derived complexity bounds for the convex case are less conservative than available bounds in the literature since we exploit the symmetric structure of the underlying matrix space. Moreover, the nonconvex complexity bounds are novel for the class of optimization problems that we consider. The utility of the framework is evident in the suite of applications that use symmetric matrices as tuning parameters. Of primary interest here is the challenge of tuning the gain matrices in model predictive controllers, as this is a challenge known to be inhibiting the industrial implementation of these architectures. To demonstrate the framework, we consider the problem of MIMO diesel air-path control and implement the framework iteratively ``in-the-loop'' to reduce tracking error on the output channels. Both simulations and experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework over different engine drive cycles.
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    A Sequential Learning Algorithm for Probabilistically Robust Controller Tuning
    Chin, R ; Manzie, C ; Shames, I ; Nešić, D ; Rowe, JE ( 2021-02-18)
    We introduce a sequential learning algorithm to address a robust controller tuning problem, which in effect, finds (with high probability) a candidate solution satisfying the internal performance constraint to a chance-constrained program which has black-box functions. The algorithm leverages ideas from the areas of randomised algorithms and ordinal optimisation, and also draws comparisons with the scenario approach; these have all been previously applied to finding approximate solutions for difficult design problems. By exploiting statistical correlations through black-box sampling, we formally prove that our algorithm yields a controller meeting the prescribed probabilistic performance specification. Additionally, we characterise the computational requirement of the algorithm with a probabilistic lower bound on the algorithm's stopping time. To validate our work, the algorithm is then demonstrated for tuning model predictive controllers on a diesel engine air-path across a fleet of vehicles. The algorithm successfully tuned a single controller to meet a desired tracking error performance, even in the presence of the plant uncertainty inherent across the fleet. Moreover, the algorithm was shown to exhibit a sample complexity comparable to the scenario approach.
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    Ordinal Optimisation and the Offline Multiple Noisy Secretary Problem
    Chin, R ; Rowe, JE ; Shames, I ; Manzie, C ; Nešić, D ( 2021-06-02)
    We study the success probability for a variant of the secretary problem, with noisy observations and multiple offline selection. Our formulation emulates, and is motivated by, problems involving noisy selection arising in the disciplines of stochastic simulation and simulation-based optimisation. In addition, we employ the philosophy of ordinal optimisation - involving an ordinal selection rule, and a percentile notion of goal softening for the success probability. As a result, it is shown that the success probability only depends on the underlying copula of the problem. Other general properties for the success probability are also presented. Specialising to the case of Gaussian copulas, we also derive an analytic lower bound for the success probability, which may then be inverted to find sufficiently large sample sizes that guarantee a high success probability arbitrarily close to one.
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    Tuning of multivariable model predictive controllersthrough expert bandit feedback
    Ira, AS ; Manzie, C ; Shames, I ; Chin, R ; Nesic, D ; Nakada, H ; Sano, T ( 2020-02-09)
    For certain industrial control applications an explicit function capturing the nontrivial trade-off between competing objectives in closed loop performance is not available. In such scenarios it is common practice to use the human innate ability to implicitly learn such a relationship and manually tune the corresponding controller to achieve the desirable closed loop performance. This approach has its deficiencies because of individual variations due to experience levels and preferences in the absence of an explicit calibration metric. Moreover, as the complexity of the underlying system and/or the controller increase, in the effort to achieve better performance, so does the tuning time and the associated tuning cost. To reduce the overall tuning cost, a tuning framework is proposed herein, whereby a supervised machine learning is used to extract the human-learned cost function and an optimization algorithm that can efficiently deal with a large number of variables, is used for optimizing the extracted cost function. Given the interest in the implementation across many industrial domains and the associated high degree of freedom present in the corresponding tuning process, a Model Predictive Controller applied to air path control in a diesel engine is tuned for the purpose of demonstrating the potential of the framework.
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    Online Convex Optimization Using Coordinate Descent Algorithms
    Lin, Y ; Shames, I ; Nešić, D ( 2022-01-24)
    This paper considers the problem of online optimization where the objective function is time-varying. In particular, we extend coordinate descent type algorithms to the online case, where the objective function varies after a finite number of iterations of the algorithm. Instead of solving the problem exactly at each time step, we only apply a finite number of iterations at each time step. Commonly used notions of regret are used to measure the performance of the online algorithm. Moreover, coordinate descent algorithms with different updating rules are considered, including both deterministic and stochastic rules that are developed in the literature of classical offline optimization. A thorough regret analysis is given for each case. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
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    Information-theoretic privacy through chaos synchronization and optimal additive noise
    Murguia, C ; Shames, I ; Farokhi, F ; Nešić, D ; Farokhi, F (Springer, 2020)
    We study the problem of maximizing privacy of data sets by adding random vectors generated via synchronized chaotics oscillators. In particular, we consider the setup where information about data sets, queries, is sent through public (unsecured) communication channels to a remote station. To hide private features (specific entries) within the data set, we corrupt the response to queries by adding random vectors.We send the distorted query (the sum of the requested query and the random vector) through the public channel. The distribution of the additive random vector is designed to minimize the mutual information (our privacy metric) between private entries of the data set and the distorted query. We cast the synthesis of this distribution as a convex program in the probabilities of the additive random vector. Once we have the optimal distribution, we propose an algorithm to generate pseudorandom realizations from this distribution using trajectories of a chaotic oscillator. At the other end of the channel, we have a second chaotic oscillator, which we use to generate realizations from the same distribution. Note that if we obtain the same realizations on both sides of the channel, we can simply subtract the realization from the distorted query to recover the requested query. To generate equal realizations, we need the two chaotic oscillators to be synchronized, i.e., we need them to generate exactly the same trajectories on both sides of the channel synchronously in time. We force the two chaotic oscillators into exponential synchronization using a driving signal. Simulations are presented to illustrate our results.