Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Validation and usability of a mobile phone application for epidemiological surveillance of traumatic dental injuries
    Zaror, C ; Espinoza-Espinoza, G ; Atala-Acevedo, C ; Munoz-Millan, P ; Li, Y ; Clarke, K ; Onetto, J ; Diaz, J ; Hallet, K ; Manton, D ; Marino, R (WILEY, 2019-02-01)
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are a public health problem, given their prevalence and consequences. However, their epidemiology is uncertain due to a general lack of quality data capture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and usability of a mobile phone-based application for community-based surveillance of traumatic dental injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mobile phone-based application, Dental Trauma Tracker (DTT), was developed. This system involves a mobile application for general users to report TDIs and a Web application for researchers to generate epidemiological data. The DTT evaluation used mixed methods and was conducted in three phases: (a) validation of a trauma identification system using preselected TDI images; (b) design evaluation by experts; and (c) usability evaluation measured by the reporting of three fictitious TDI cases and using the System Usability Scale (SUS). RESULTS: In the first phase, 182 participants participated. Most images showed over 95% accuracy, indicating that they adequately represented the type of dentoalveolar trauma being evaluated (κ = 0.75). The design evaluation identified nine usability problems-four of them with a "High priority" to be fixed, four with "Low priority," and one "No fix necessary." A total of 29 volunteers participated in the usability evaluation. The mean time for users to complete all of the reports was 7.8 ± 3.0 minutes. Mean SUS score was 67.4 ± 21.9 (Range: 0-100; worst to best). The global agreement between cases registered with the gold standard was also "Substantial" (κ = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary evaluation confirmed the App's usability, using a sample of potential users, as well as reporting on the results of an expert panel review of the DTT. These are the minimum requirements necessary before further expansion and widespread implementation occurs to confirm these results.
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    Performance Analysis of Software-Defined Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks
    Jurado-Lasso, FF ; Clarke, K ; Nirmalathas, A (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020)
    In this article, we propose a model-based characterization of energy consumption in a software-defined wireless sensor network (SD-WSN) architecture in an effort to examine the implications for network performance when making the WSN reprogrammable. The proposed model consists of breaking down all key functions involved in the correct functioning of an SD-WSN, namely; neighbor discovery, neighbor advertisement, network configuration, and data collection. The model is analyzed from a multihop network perspective. We consider two static SD-WSN scenarios to examine scalability, and one scenario to assess the performance implications in a pseudo-dynamic SD-WSN. Extensive simulation results are presented regarding the control overhead introduced, the percentage of alive nodes and remaining energy, and the impacts on network lifetime. We show that the accumulated control overhead is inversely proportional to the interaction period with the controller, whereas the remaining energy and the network lifetime are directly proportional to this parameter. Results show that the control overhead, for static SD-WSNs, can take up to 10%–29% of the total data flowing to the controller for the large SD-WSN and 6–19% for the small SD-WSN. For a pseudo-dynamic network, the control overhead can take up to two-thirds of the total data sent to the controller, and the network lifetime was reduced by up to 80% compared with the static scenarios.
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    A Software-Defined Management System for IP-Enabled WSNs
    Jurado-Lasso, FF ; Clarke, K ; Nirmalathas, A (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-06)
    Software-defined networking (SDN) offers potential pathways to overcome the management complexity of the Internet of Things (IoT). Previous studies have often been limited to software simulations or general proposals only. In this article, we design and evaluate an SDN-based management system for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) using IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN). The framework is described in detail covering different data-, control-, and application-plane implementations, and includes a novel addressing scheme and packet format. It also uses a centralized routing protocol, located at the SDN controller, based on the shortest path algorithm. We compare our approach with the routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL), which uses a distributed routing protocol. Hardware tests were carried out in a dynamic environment, with multiple sources of interference for different payload sizes to evaluate the impacts and practicality of SDN in WSNs. The performance comparison shows that the proposed SDN management system for IP-enabled WSNs using a centralized routing protocol outperforms the RPL protocol in terms of round-trip time, jitter, memory consumption, and packet loss rate (PLR), despite the control overhead introduced.
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    A Software-Defined Networking framework for IoT based on 6LoWPAN
    Lasso, FFJ ; Clarke, K ; Nirmalathas, A (IEEE, 2018-01-01)
    The software defined networking framework facilitates flexible and reliable internet of things networks by moving the network intelligence to a centralized location while enabling low power wireless network in the edge. In this paper, we present SD-WSN6Lo, a novel software-defined wireless management solution for 6LoWPAN networks that aims to reduce the management complexity in WSN's. As an example of the technique, a simulation of controlling the power consumption of sensor nodes is presented. The results demonstrate improved energy consumption of approximately 15% on average per node compared to the baseline condition.
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    Development and feasibility testing of an online virtual reality platform for delivering therapeutic group singing interventions for people living with spinal cord injury
    Tamplin, J ; Loveridge, B ; Clarke, K ; Li, Y ; Berlowitz, DJ (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-07-01)
    People with quadriplegia have a high risk for respiratory illness, social isolation and depression. Previous research has demonstrated that therapeutic singing interventions can not only improve breathing function and speech loudness, but also improve mood and social connectedness for people with quadriplegia. Face-to-face group attendance is difficult for this population due to difficulties with distance and travel. Online environments offer an accessible and cost-effective solution for people to connect with others without leaving their home. In a two-phase iterative design, we explored and tested different approaches for delivering online music therapy sessions with 12 patients from an inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation service. Six participants in Phase 1 trialled different virtual reality headsets and completed a short interview about their experience of the equipment and online singing trials. Outcomes from Phase 1 testing led to the development of a custom-built virtual reality application for online group music therapy sessions with low-latency audio. We tested the acceptability and feasibility of this platform in comparison to face-to-face and teleconference options for music therapy with six different patients. These participants completed three validated questionnaires: System Usability Scale, Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology, and Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale, and an interview about their experience. Questionnaire scores were good with mean ratings of 4.4 for Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology, 53 for System Usability Scale and positive mean Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale scores of 1.5 for competence, 2 for adaptability and 1.5 for self-esteem. Thematic analysis of post-session qualitative interviews revealed five themes: virtual reality was a positive experience, virtual reality was immersive and transportative, virtual reality reduced inhibitions about singing in front of others, virtual reality may reduce social cues, and the virtual reality equipment was comfortable, accessible and easy to use. Telehealth options, including a custom-designed virtual reality program, with low-latency audio are an acceptable and feasible mode of delivery for therapeutic singing interventions for people with spinal cord injury. Future non-inferiority research is needed to test online delivery modes for music therapy in comparison to face-to-face treatment.
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    Gathering data for decisions: best practice use of primary care electronic records for research
    Canaway, R ; Boyle, DIR ; Manski-Nankervis, J-AE ; Bell, J ; Hocking, JS ; Clarke, K ; Clark, M ; Gunn, JM ; Emery, JD (WILEY, 2019-03-31)
    In Australia, there is limited use of primary health care data for research and for data linkage between health care settings. This puts Australia behind many developed countries. In addition, without use of primary health care data for research, knowledge about patients' journeys through the health care system is limited. There is growing momentum to establish "big data" repositories of primary care clinical data to enable data linkage, primary care and population health research, and quality assurance activities. However, little research has been conducted on the general public's and practitioners' concerns about secondary use of electronic health records in Australia. International studies have identified barriers to use of general practice patient records for research. These include legal, technical, ethical, social and resource-related issues. Examples include concerns about privacy protection, data security, data custodians and the motives for collecting data, as well as a lack of incentives for general practitioners to share data. Addressing barriers may help define good practices for appropriate use of health data for research. Any model for general practice data sharing for research should be underpinned by transparency and a strong legal, ethical, governance and data security framework. Mechanisms to collect electronic medical records in ethical, secure and privacy-controlled ways are available. Before the potential benefits of health-related data research can be realised, Australians should be well informed of the risks and benefits so that the necessary social licence can be generated to support such endeavours.
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    Telerehabilitation versus traditional centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic respiratory disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Cox, NS ; McDonald, CF ; Alison, JA ; Mahal, A ; Wootton, R ; Hill, CJ ; Bondarenko, J ; Macdonald, H ; O'Halloran, P ; Zanaboni, P ; Clarke, K ; Rennick, D ; Borgelt, K ; Burge, AT ; Lahham, A ; Wageck, B ; Crute, H ; Czupryn, P ; Nichols, A ; Holland, AE (BMC, 2018-05-15)
    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective therapeutic intervention for people with chronic respiratory disease. However, fewer than 5% of eligible individuals receive pulmonary rehabilitation on an annual basis, largely due to limited availability of services and difficulties associated with travel and transport. The Rehabilitation Exercise At Home (REAcH) study is an assessor-blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled equivalence trial designed to compare the efficacy of home-based telerehabilitation and traditional centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation in people with chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: Participants will undertake an 8-week group-based pulmonary rehabilitation program of twice-weekly supervised exercise training, either in-person at a centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation program or remotely from their home via the Internet. Supervised exercise training sessions will include 30 min of aerobic exercise (cycle and/or walking training). Individualised education and self-management training will be delivered. All participants will be prescribed a home exercise program of walking and strengthening activities. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, after completion of the intervention, and 12-months post intervention. The primary outcome is change in dyspnea score as measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire - dyspnea domain (CRQ-D). Secondary outcomes will evaluate the efficacy of telerehabilitation on 6-min walk distance, endurance cycle time during a constant work rate test, physical activity and quality of life. Adherence to pulmonary rehabilitation between the two models will be compared. A full economic analysis from a societal perspective will be undertaken to determine the cost-effectiveness of telerehabilitation compared to centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation. DISCUSSION: Alternative models of pulmonary rehabilitation are required to improve both equity of access and patient-related outcomes. This trial will establish whether telerehabilitation can achieve equivalent improvement in outcomes compared to traditional centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation. If efficacious and cost-effective, the proposed telerehabilitation model is designed to be rapidly deployed into clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register at ( ACTRN12616000360415 ). Registered 21 March 2016.
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    Teleconsultation and Telediagnosis for Oral Health Assessment: An Australian Perspective
    Marino, R ; Clarke, K ; Manton, DJ ; Stranieri, A ; Collmann, R ; Kellet, H ; Borda, A ; Kumar, S (SPRINGER, 2015-01-01)
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    Teleconsultation/telediagnosis using teledentistry technology: a pilot feasibility study
    Marino, R ; Hopcraft, M ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Manton, D ; Marwaha, P ; Stranieri, A ; Collmann, R ; Clarke, K (IARIA, 2014-12-30)
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    Uni TV: trialing IPTV for education
    CLARKE, K ; McCullough, M ; Frukhtman, F ; Lodders, A (University of Melbourne, 2013-10-07)