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ItemExtremum Seeking Methods for Online Automotive CalibrationManzie, C ; Moase, W ; Shekhar, R ; Mohammadi, A ; Nesic, D ; Tan, Y ; Waschl, H ; Kolmanovsky, I ; Steinbuch, M ; del Re, L (Springer, 2014-01-01)The automotive calibration process is becoming increasingly difficult as the degrees of freedom in modern engines rises with the number of actuators. This is coupled with the desire to utilise alternative fuels to gasoline and diesel for the promise of lower CO2 levels in transportation. However, the range of fuel blends also leads to variability in the combustion properties, requiring additional sensing and calibration effort for the engine control unit (ECU). Shifting some of the calibration effort online whereby the engine controller adjusts its operation to account for the current operating conditions may be an effective alternative if the performance of the controller can be guaranteed within some performance characteristics. This tutorial chapter summarises recent developments in extremum seeking control, and investigates the potential of these methods to address some of the complexity in developing fuel-flexible controllers for automotive powertrains.
ItemNonlinear Sampled-Data SystemsNesic, D ; Postoyan, R ; Baillieul, J ; Samad, T (Springer, 2014)Sampled-data systems are control systems in which the feedback law is digitally implemented via a computer. They are prevalent nowadays due to the numerous advantages they offer compared to analog control. Nonlinear sampled-data systems arise in this context when either the plant model or the controller is nonlinear. While their linear counterpart is now a mature area, nonlinear sampled-data systems are much harder to deal with and, hence, much less understood. Their inherent complexity leads to a variety of methods for their modeling, analysis, and design. A summary of these methods is presented in this entry.