Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Model based estimation of QT intervals in non-invasive fetal ECG signals.
    Widatalla, N ; Kasahara, Y ; Kimura, Y ; Khandoker, A ; Aalto-Setala, K (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020)
    The end timing of T waves in fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) is important for the evaluation of ST and QT intervals which are vital markers to assess cardiac repolarization patterns. Monitoring malignant fetal arrhythmias in utero is fundamental to care in congenital heart anomalies preventing perinatal death. Currently, reliable detection of end of T waves is possible only by using fetal scalp ECG (fsECG) and fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). fMCG is expensive and less accessible and fsECG is an invasive technique available only during intrapartum period. Another safer and affordable alternative is the non-invasive fECG (nfECG) which can provide similar assessment provided by fsECG and fMECG but with less accuracy (not beat by beat). Detection of T waves using nfECG is challenging because of their low amplitudes and high noise. In this study, a novel model-based method that estimates the end of T waves in nfECG signals is proposed. The repolarization phase has been modeled as the discharging phase of a capacitor. To test the model, fECG signals were collected from 58 pregnant women (age: (34 ± 6) years old) bearing normal and abnormal fetuses with gestational age (GA) 20-41 weeks. QT and QTc intervals have been calculated to test the level of agreement between the model-based and reference values (fsECG and Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signals) in normal subjects. The results of the test showed high agreement between model-based and reference values (difference < 5%), which implies that the proposed model could be an alternative method to detect the end of T waves in nfECG signals.
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    K-EmoCon, a multimodal sensor dataset for continuous emotion recognition in naturalistic conversations.
    Park, CY ; Cha, N ; Kang, S ; Kim, A ; Khandoker, AH ; Hadjileontiadis, L ; Oh, A ; Jeong, Y ; Lee, U (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-08)
    Recognizing emotions during social interactions has many potential applications with the popularization of low-cost mobile sensors, but a challenge remains with the lack of naturalistic affective interaction data. Most existing emotion datasets do not support studying idiosyncratic emotions arising in the wild as they were collected in constrained environments. Therefore, studying emotions in the context of social interactions requires a novel dataset, and K-EmoCon is such a multimodal dataset with comprehensive annotations of continuous emotions during naturalistic conversations. The dataset contains multimodal measurements, including audiovisual recordings, EEG, and peripheral physiological signals, acquired with off-the-shelf devices from 16 sessions of approximately 10-minute long paired debates on a social issue. Distinct from previous datasets, it includes emotion annotations from all three available perspectives: self, debate partner, and external observers. Raters annotated emotional displays at intervals of every 5 seconds while viewing the debate footage, in terms of arousal-valence and 18 additional categorical emotions. The resulting K-EmoCon is the first publicly available emotion dataset accommodating the multiperspective assessment of emotions during social interactions.
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    Direct Predictive Boundary Control of a First-order Quasilinear Hyperbolic PDE
    Strecker, T ; Aamo, OM ; Cantoni, M (IEEE, 2020-03-12)
    We present a method for the boundary control of a system governed by one hyperbolic PDE with a non-local coupling term by state feedback. The method is an extension of recently developed controllers for semilinear systems. The design consists of three steps: predicting the states up to the time when they are affected by the delayed input; virtually moving the input to the uncontrolled boundary (which makes characterizing stability trivial); and constructing the inputs by, starting with the desired boundary values at the uncontrolled boundary, solving an ODE governing the dynamics on the system's characteristic lines backwards in time. The controller steers the system to the origin in finite time. A discussion of potential extensions of the presented method is given.
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    Optimization based input preview filtering for dynamical systems
    Lang, A ; Cantoni, M (IEEE, 2020-03-12)
    This paper is about filtering uncertain forecast information to update a preview model of inputs to a linear dynamical system, as may be useful in predictive control schemes. A moving horizon optimization approach is proposed, with a view to smoothing abrupt changes in order based forecast information and to manage error, given observations of the dynamics. Numerical examples are used to illustrate a potential application of this approach within the context of processing demand profile requests in a water distribution system.
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    The Role of Visual Assessment of Clusters for Big Data Analysis: From Real-World Internet of Things
    Palaniswami, M ; Rao, AS ; Kumar, D ; Rathore, P ; Rajasegarar, S (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-10)
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is playing a vital role in shaping today?s technological world, including our daily lives. By 2025, the number of connected devices due to the IoT is estimated to surpass a whopping 75 billion. It is a challenging task to discover, integrate, and interpret processed big data from such ubiquitously available heterogeneous and actively natural resources and devices. Cluster analysis of IoT-generated big data is essential for the meaningful interpretation of such complex data. However, we often have very limited knowledge of the number of clusters actually present in the given data. The problem of finding whether clusters are present even before applying clustering algorithms is termed the assessment of clustering tendency. In this article, we present a set of useful visual assessment of cluster tendency (VAT) tools and techniques developed with major contributions from James C. Bezdek. The article further highlights how these techniques are advancing the IoT through large-scale IoT implementations.
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    Automated Scoring of Hemiparesis in Acute Stroke From Measures of Upper Limb Co-Ordination Using Wearable Accelerometry.
    Datta, S ; Karmakar, CK ; Rao, AS ; Yan, B ; Palaniswami, M (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020-04)
    Stroke survivors usually experience paralysis in one half of the body, i.e., hemiparesis, and the upper limbs are severely affected. Continuous monitoring of hemiparesis progression hours after the stroke attack involves manual observation of upper limb movements by medical experts in the hospital. Hence it is resource and time intensive, in addition to being prone to human errors and inter-rater variability. Wearable devices have found significance in automated continuous monitoring of neurological disorders like stroke. In this paper, we use accelerometer signals acquired using wrist-worn devices to analyze upper limb movements and identify hemiparesis in acute stroke patients, while they perform a set of proposed spontaneous and instructed movements. We propose novel measures of time (and frequency) domain coherence between accelerometer data from two arms at different lags (and frequency bands). These measures correlate well with the clinical gold standard of measurement of hemiparetic severity in stroke, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The study, undertaken on 32 acute stroke patients with varying levels of hemiparesis and 15 healthy controls, validates the use of short length (< 10 minutes) accelerometry data to identify hemiparesis through leave-one-subject-out cross-validation based hierarchical discriminant analysis. The results indicate that the proposed approach can distinguish between controls, moderate and severe hemiparesis with an average accuracy of 91%.
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    Vision-based automated crack detection using convolutional neural networks for condition assessment of infrastructure
    Rao, AS ; Tuan, N ; Palaniswami, M ; Tuan, N (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-11-01)
    With the growing number of aging infrastructure across the world, there is a high demand for a more effective inspection method to assess its conditions. Routine assessment of structural conditions is a necessity to ensure the safety and operation of critical infrastructure. However, the current practice to detect structural damages, such as cracks, depends on human visual observation methods, which are prone to efficiency, cost, and safety concerns. In this article, we present an automated detection method, which is based on convolutional neural network models and a non-overlapping window-based approach, to detect crack/non-crack conditions of concrete structures from images. To this end, we construct a data set of crack/non-crack concrete structures, comprising 32,704 training patches, 2074 validation patches, and 6032 test patches. We evaluate the performance of our approach using 15 state-of-the-art convolutional neural network models in terms of number of parameters required to train the models, area under the curve, and inference time. Our approach provides over 95% accuracy and over 87% precision in detecting the cracks for most of the convolutional neural network models. We also show that our approach outperforms existing models in literature in terms of accuracy and inference time. The best performance in terms of area under the curve was achieved by visual geometry group-16 model (area under the curve = 0.9805) and best inference time was provided by AlexNet (0.32 s per image in size of 256 × 256 × 3). Our evaluation shows that deeper convolutional neural network models have higher detection accuracies; however, they also require more parameters and have higher inference time. We believe that this study would act as a benchmark for real-time, automated crack detection for condition assessment of infrastructure.
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    When to stop value iteration: stability and near-optimality versus computation
    Granzotto, M ; Postoyan, R ; Nešić, D ; Buşoniu, L ; Daafouz, J ( 2020-11-19)
    Value iteration (VI) is a ubiquitous algorithm for optimal control, planning, and reinforcement learning schemes. Under the right assumptions, VI is a vital tool to generate inputs with desirable properties for the controlled system, like optimality and Lyapunov stability. As VI usually requires an infinite number of iterations to solve general nonlinear optimal control problems, a key question is when to terminate the algorithm to produce a “good” solution, with a measurable impact on optimality and stability guarantees. By carefully analysing VI under general stabilizability and detectability properties, we provide explicit and novel relationships of the stopping criterion’s impact on near-optimality, stability and performance, thus allowing to tune these desirable properties against the induced computational cost. The considered class of stopping criteria encompasses those encountered in the control, dynamic programming and reinforcement learning literature and it allows considering new ones, which may be useful to further reduce the computational cost while endowing and satisfying stability and near-optimality properties. We therefore lay a foundation to endow machine learning schemes based on VI with stability and performance guarantees, while reducing computational complexity.
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    Active Learning for Linear Parameter-Varying System Identification
    Chin, R ; Maass, AI ; Ulapane, N ; Manzie, C ; Shames, I ; Nešić, D ; Rowe, JE ; Nakada, H ( 2020-05-02)
    Active learning is proposed for selection of the next operating points in the design of experiments, for identifying linear parameter-varying systems. We extend existing approaches found in literature to multiple-input multiple-output systems with a multivariate scheduling parameter. Our approach is based on exploiting the probabilistic features of Gaussian process regression to quantify the overall model uncertainty across locally identified models. This results in a flexible framework which accommodates for various techniques to be applied for estimation of local linear models and their corresponding uncertainty. We perform active learning in application to the identification of a diesel engine air-path model, and demonstrate that measures of model uncertainty can be successfully reduced using the proposed framework.
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    Tracking and regret bounds for online zeroth-order Euclidean and Riemannian optimisation
    Maass, AI ; Manzie, C ; Nesic, D ; Manton, JH ; Shames, I ( 2020-10-01)
    We study numerical optimisation algorithms that use zeroth-order information to minimise time-varying geodesically-convex cost functions on Riemannian manifolds. In the Euclidean setting, zeroth-order algorithms have received a lot of attention in both the time-varying and time-invariant cases. However, the extension to Riemannian manifolds is much less developed. We focus on Hadamard manifolds, which are a special class of Riemannian manifolds with global nonpositive curvature that offer convenient grounds for the generalisation of convexity notions. Specifically, we derive bounds on the expected instantaneous tracking error, and we provide algorithm parameter values that minimise the algorithm’s performance. Our results illustrate how the manifold geometry in terms of the sectional curvature affects these bounds. Additionally, we provide dynamic regret bounds for this online optimisation setting. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first regret bounds even for the Euclidean version of the problem. Lastly, via numerical simulations, we demonstrate the applicability of our algorithm on an online Karcher mean problem.