Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies
    Mason, N ; Halgamuge, MN ; Aiyar, K ; Mahmood, Z (IGI Global, 2021)
    In financial trading, cryptocurrencies like bitcoin use decentralization, traceability, and anonymity features to perform transactional activities. These digital currencies, using the emerging blockchain technologies, are forming the basis of the largest unregulated markets in the world. This creates various regulatory challenges, including the illicit purchase of drugs and weapons, money laundering, and funding terrorist activities. This chapter analyzes various legal and ethical implications, their effects, and various solutions to overcome the inherent issues that are currently faced by the policymakers and regulators. The authors present the result of an analysis of 30 recently published peer-reviewed scientific publications and suggest various mechanisms that can help in the detection and prevention of illegal activities that currently account for a substantial proportion of cryptocurrency trading. They suggest methods and applications that can also be used to identify the dark marketplaces in the future.
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    Internet of Things for Structural Health Monitoring
    SRIDHARA RAO, A ; Gubbi, J ; Ngo, T ; Mendis, P ; Palaniswami, M ; Epaarachchi, A ; Chanaka Kahandawa, G (CRC Press, 2016-05)
    The Internet revolution led to the interconnection between people at an unprecedented scale and pace. The ability of the sensor networks to send data over the Internet further enhanced the scope and usage of the sensor networks. The Internet uses unique address to identify the devices connected to the network. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) implies monitoring of the state of the structures through sensor networks in an online mode and are pertinent to aircraft and buildings. SHM can be further divided into two categories: global health monitoring and local health monitoring. Continuous online SHM would be an ideal solution. SHM is performed by using acoustic sensors, ultrasonic sensors, strain gauges, optical fibers, and so on. Video cameras can also be used for SHM. SHM can be achieved in real-time and rich analytics. With the advent of smart sensors—sensors with programmable microprocessors, memory, and processing—has reduced load of central data processing, communication overhead while proving continuous SHM status.
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    PATIENT-SPECIFIC NEURAL MASS MODELING - STOCHASTIC AND DETERMINISTIC METHODS
    Freestone, DR ; Kuhlmann, L ; Chong, MS ; Nesic, D ; Grayden, DB ; Aram, P ; Postoyan, R ; CooK, MJ ; Tetzlaff, R ; Elger, CE ; Lehnertz, K (WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, 2013-01-01)
    Deterministic and stochastic methods for online state and parameter estimation for neural mass models are presented and applied to synthetic and real seizure electrocorticographic signals in order to determine underlying brain changes that cannot easily be measured. The first ever online estimation of neural mass model parameters from real seizure data is presented. It is shown that parameter changes occur that are consistent with expected brain changes underlying seizures, such as increases in postsynaptic potential amplitudes, increases in the inhibitory postsynaptic time-constant and decreases in the firing threshold at seizure onset, as well as increases in the firing threshold as the seizure progresses towards termination. In addition, the deterministic and stochastic estimation methods are compared and contrasted. This work represents an important foundation for the development of biologically-inspired methods to image underlying brain changes and to develop improved methods for neurological monitoring, control and treatment.
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    Extremum Seeking Methods for Online Automotive Calibration
    Manzie, C ; Moase, W ; Shekhar, R ; Mohammadi, A ; Nesic, D ; Tan, Y ; Waschl, H ; Kolmanovsky, I ; Steinbuch, M ; del Re, L (Springer, 2014-01-01)
    The automotive calibration process is becoming increasingly difficult as the degrees of freedom in modern engines rises with the number of actuators. This is coupled with the desire to utilise alternative fuels to gasoline and diesel for the promise of lower CO2 levels in transportation. However, the range of fuel blends also leads to variability in the combustion properties, requiring additional sensing and calibration effort for the engine control unit (ECU). Shifting some of the calibration effort online whereby the engine controller adjusts its operation to account for the current operating conditions may be an effective alternative if the performance of the controller can be guaranteed within some performance characteristics. This tutorial chapter summarises recent developments in extremum seeking control, and investigates the potential of these methods to address some of the complexity in developing fuel-flexible controllers for automotive powertrains.
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    Nonlinear Sampled-Data Systems
    Nesic, D ; Postoyan, R ; Baillieul, J ; Samad, T (Springer, 2014)
    Sampled-data systems are control systems in which the feedback law is digitally implemented via a computer. They are prevalent nowadays due to the numerous advantages they offer compared to analog control. Nonlinear sampled-data systems arise in this context when either the plant model or the controller is nonlinear. While their linear counterpart is now a mature area, nonlinear sampled-data systems are much harder to deal with and, hence, much less understood. Their inherent complexity leads to a variety of methods for their modeling, analysis, and design. A summary of these methods is presented in this entry.
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    Nonlinear Sampled-Data Systems
    Nesic, D ; Postoyan, R ; Baillieul, J ; Samad, T (Springer London, 2015)
    Sampled-data systems are control systems in which the feedback law is digitally implemented via a computer. They are prevalent nowadays due to the numerous advantages they offer compared to analog control. Nonlinear sampled-data systems arise in this context when either the plant model or the controller is nonlinear. While their linear counterpart is now a mature area, nonlinear sampled-data systems are much harder to deal with and, hence, much less understood. Their inherent complexity leads to a variety of methods for their modeling, analysis, and design. A summary of these methods is presented in this entry.
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    Output Feedback Event-Triggered Control
    Abdelrahim, M ; Postoyan, R ; Daafouz, J ; Nesic, D ; Seuret, A ; Hetel, L ; Daafouz, J ; Johansson, KH (Springer, 2016)
    Event-triggered control has been proposed as an alternative implementation to conventional time-triggered approach in order to reduce the amount of transmissions. The idea is to adapt transmissions to the state of the plant such that the loop is closed only when it is needed according to the stability or/and the performance requirements. Most of the existing event-triggered control strategies assume that the full state measurement is available. Unfortunately, this assumption is often not satisfied in practice. There is therefore a strong need for appropriate tools in the context of output feedback control. Most existing works on this topic focus on linear systems. The objective of this chapter is to first summarize our recent results on the case where the plant dynamics is nonlinear. The approach we follow is emulation as we first design a stabilizing output feedback law in the absence of sampling then we consider the network and we synthesize the event-triggering condition. The latter combines techniques from event-triggered and time-triggered control. The results are then proved to be applicable to linear time-invariant (LTI) systems as a particular case. We then use these results as a starting point to elaborate a co-design method, which allows us to jointly construct the feedback law and the triggering condition for LTI systems where the problem is formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). We then exploit the flexibility of the method to maximize the guaranteed minimum amount of time between two transmissions. The results are illustrated on physical and numerical examples.
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    Periodic Event-Triggered Control
    H. Heemels, WPM ; Postoyan, R ; Donkers, MCFT ; Teel, AR ; Anta, A ; Tabuada, P ; Nešić, D ; Miskowicz, M (CRC Press, 2015-11-24)
    This chapter discusses periodic event-triggered control (PETC) strategies, their benefits, and two analysis and design frameworks for linear and nonlinear plants. It focuses on approaches to PETC that include a formal analysis framework, which apply for continuous- time plants and incorporate intersample behavior in the analysis. The chapter explores PETC as a class of event-triggered control (ETC) strategies that combines the benefits of periodic time-triggered control and event-triggered control. In ETC, the control task is executed after the occurrence of an event, generated by some well-designed event-triggering condition, rather than the elapse of a certain fixed period of time, as in conventional periodic sampled-data control. The PETC strategy is based on the idea of having an event-triggering condition that is verified only periodically, instead of continuously as in most existing ETC schemes. There is a strong need for systematic methods to construct PETC strategies that appropriately take into account the features of the paradigm.
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    Nonlinear Sampled-Data Systems
    Nesic, D ; Postoyan, R ; Baillieul, J ; Samad, T (Springer International Publishing, 2021)
    Sampled-data systems are control systems in which the feedback law is digitally implemented via a computer. They are prevalent nowadays due to the numerous advantages they offer compared to analog control. Nonlinear sampled-data systems arise in this context when either the plant model or the controller are nonlinear. While their linear counterpart is now a mature area, nonlinear sampled-data systems are much harder to deal with and, hence, much less understood. Their inherent complexity leads to a variety of methods for their modeling, analysis and design. A summary of these methods is presented in this article.
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    Information-theoretic privacy through chaos synchronization and optimal additive noise
    Murguia, C ; Shames, I ; Farokhi, F ; Nešić, D ; Farokhi, F (Springer, 2020)
    We study the problem of maximizing privacy of data sets by adding random vectors generated via synchronized chaotics oscillators. In particular, we consider the setup where information about data sets, queries, is sent through public (unsecured) communication channels to a remote station. To hide private features (specific entries) within the data set, we corrupt the response to queries by adding random vectors.We send the distorted query (the sum of the requested query and the random vector) through the public channel. The distribution of the additive random vector is designed to minimize the mutual information (our privacy metric) between private entries of the data set and the distorted query. We cast the synthesis of this distribution as a convex program in the probabilities of the additive random vector. Once we have the optimal distribution, we propose an algorithm to generate pseudorandom realizations from this distribution using trajectories of a chaotic oscillator. At the other end of the channel, we have a second chaotic oscillator, which we use to generate realizations from the same distribution. Note that if we obtain the same realizations on both sides of the channel, we can simply subtract the realization from the distorted query to recover the requested query. To generate equal realizations, we need the two chaotic oscillators to be synchronized, i.e., we need them to generate exactly the same trajectories on both sides of the channel synchronously in time. We force the two chaotic oscillators into exponential synchronization using a driving signal. Simulations are presented to illustrate our results.