Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications

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    Effect of Pd-Sensitization on Poisonous Chlorine Gas Detection Ability of TiO2: Green Synthesis and Low-Temperature Operation.
    Ekar, S ; Nakate, UT ; Khollam, YB ; Shaikh, SF ; Mane, RS ; Rana, AUHS ; Palaniswami, M (MDPI AG, 2022-05-31)
    Ganoderma lucidum mushroom-mediated green synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) is explored via a low-temperature (≤70 °C) wet chemical method. The role of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom extract in the reaction is to release the ganoderic acid molecules that tend to bind to the Ti4+ metal ions to form a titanium-ganoderic acid intermediate complex for obtaining TiO2 nanocrystallites (NCs), which is quite novel, considering the recent advances in fabricated gas sensing materials. The X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements etc., are used to characterize the crystal structure, surface morphology, and surface area of as-synthesized TiO2 and Pd-TiO2 sensors, respectively. The chlorine (Cl2) gas sensing properties are investigated from a lower range of 5 ppm to a higher range of 400 ppm. In addition to excellent response-recovery time, good selectivity, constant repeatability, as well as chemical stability, the gas sensor efficiency of the as-synthesized Pd-TiO2 NC sensor is better (136% response at 150 °C operating temperature) than the TiO2 NC sensor (57% at 250 °C operating temperature) measured at 100 ppm (Cl2) gas concentration, suggesting that the green synthesized Pd-TiO2 sensor demonstrates efficient Cl2 gas sensing properties at low operating temperatures over pristine ones.
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    Real-time monitoring of construction sites: Sensors, methods, and applications
    Rao, AS ; Radanovic, M ; Liu, Y ; Hu, S ; Fang, Y ; Khoshelham, K ; Palaniswami, M ; Tuan, N (ELSEVIER, 2022-04-01)
    The construction industry is one of the world's largest industries, with an annual budget of $10 trillion globally. Despite its size, the efficiency and growth in labour productivity in the construction industry have been relatively low compared to other sectors, such as manufacturing and agriculture. To this extent, many studies have recognised the role of automation in improving the efficiency and safety of construction projects. In particular, automated monitoring of construction sites is a significant research challenge. This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent research on the real-time monitoring of construction projects. The review focuses on sensor technologies and methodologies for real-time mapping, scene understanding, positioning, and tracking of construction activities in indoor and outdoor environments. The review also covers various case studies of applying these technologies and methodologies for real-time hazard identification, monitoring workers’ behaviour, workers’ health, and monitoring static and dynamic construction environments.
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    Achieving AI-Enabled Robust End-to-End Quality of Experience Over Backhaul Radio Access Networks
    Roy, D ; Rao, AS ; Alpcan, T ; Das, G ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022-09-01)
    Emerging applications such as Augmented Reality, the Internet of Vehicles and Remote Surgery require both computing and networking functions working in harmony. The End-to-end (E2E) quality of experience (QoE) for these applications depends on the synchronous allocation of networking and computing resources. However, the relationship between the resources and the E2E QoE outcomes is typically stochastic and non-linear. In order to make efficient resource allocation decisions, it is essential to model these relationships. This article presents a novel machine-learning based approach to learn these relationships and concurrently orchestrate both resources for this purpose. The machine learning models further help make robust allocation decisions regarding stochastic variations and simplify robust optimization to a conventional constrained optimization. When resources are insufficient to accommodate all application requirements, our framework supports executing some of the applications with minimal degradation (graceful degradation) of E2E QoE. We also show how we can implement the learning and optimization methods in a distributed fashion by the Software-Defined Network (SDN) and Kubernetes technologies. Our results show that deep learning-based modelling achieves E2E QoE with approximately 99.8% accuracy, and our robust joint-optimization technique allocates resources efficiently when compared to existing differential services alternatives.
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    Achieving QoS for bursty uRLLC applications over passive optical networks
    Roy, D ; Rao, AS ; Alpcan, T ; Das, G ; Palaniswami, M (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-05-01)
    Emerging real-time applications such as those classified under ultra-reliable low latency (uRLLC) generate bursty traffic and have strict quality of service (QoS) requirements. The passive optical network (PON) is a popular access network technology, which is envisioned to handle such applications at the access segment of the network. However, the existing standards cannot handle strict QoS constraints for such applications. The available solutions rely on instantaneous heuristic decisions and maintain QoS constraints (mostly bandwidth) in an average sense. Existing proposals in generic networks with optimal strategies are computationally complex and are, therefore, not suitable for uRLLC applications. This paper presents a novel computationally efficient, far-sighted bandwidth allocation policy design for facilitating bursty uRLLC traffic in a PON framework while satisfying strict QoS (age of information/delay and bandwidth) requirements. To this purpose, first we design a delay-tracking mechanism, which allows us to model the resource allocation problem from a control-theoretic viewpoint as a model predictive control (MPC) problem. MPC helps in making far-sighted decisions regarding resource allocations and captures the time-varying dynamics of the network. We provide computationally efficient polynomial time solutions and show their implementation in the PON framework. Compared to existing approaches, MPC can improve delay violations by 15% and 45% at loads of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively, for delay-constrained applications of 1 ms and 4 ms. Our approach is also robust to varying traffic arrivals.
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    Novel Measures of Similarity and Asymmetry in Upper Limb Activities for Identifying Hemiparetic Severity in Stroke Survivors
    Datta, S ; Karmakar, CK ; Yan, B ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2021-06-01)
    Stroke survivors are often characterized by hemiparesis, i.e., paralysis in one half of the body, severely affecting upper limb movements. Monitoring the progression of hemiparesis requires manual observation of limb movements at regular intervals, and hence is a labour intensive process. In this work, we use wrist-worn accelerometers for automated assessment of hemiparesis in acute stroke. We propose novel measures of similarity and asymmetry in hand activities through bivariate Poincaré analysis between two-hand accelerometer data for quantifying hemiparetic severity. The proposed descriptors characterize the distribution of activity surrogates derived from acceleration of the two hands, on a 2D bivariate Poincaré Plot. Experiments show that while the descriptors CSD1 and CSD2 can identify hemiparetic patients from control subjects, their normalized difference CSDR and the descriptors Complex Cross-Correlation Measure ( C3M) and Activity Asymmetry Index ( AAI) can distinguish between mild, moderate and severe hemiparesis. These measures are compared with traditional measures of cross-correlation and evaluated against the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the clinical gold standard for hemiparetic severity estimation. This study, undertaken on 40 acute stroke patients with varying levels of hemiparesis and 15 healthy controls, validates the use of short length ( 5 minutes) wearable accelerometry data for identifying hemiparesis with greater clinical sensitivity. Results show that the proposed descriptors with a hierarchical classification model outperform state-of-the-art methods with overall accuracy of 0.78 and 0.85 for 4-class and 3-class hemiparesis identification respectively.
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    Multifunctional Cu2SnS3 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Photocatalytic Dye Degradation and Antibacterial Activity.
    Shelke, HD ; Machale, AR ; Survase, AA ; Pathan, HM ; Lokhande, CD ; Lokhande, AC ; Shaikh, SF ; Rana, AUHS ; Palaniswami, M (MDPI AG, 2022-04-26)
    We present a simplistic, ultrafast, and facile hydrothermal deposition of ternary Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles (CTS NPs). The fabricated CTS NPs show superior antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities. In the presence of UV-Visible illumination, methylene blue (MB) dye was studied for photocatalytic dye degradation activity of CTS NPs. Excellent efficiency is shown by incorporating CTS NPs to degrade MB dye. There is a ~95% decrease in the absorbance peak of the dye solution within 120 min. Similarly, CTS NPs tested against three bacterial strains, i.e., B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, and one fungal strain C. albicans, defining the lowest inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition, revealed greater antimicrobial activity. Hence, it is concluded that the CTS NPs are photocatalytically and antimicrobially active and have potential in biomedicine.
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    Robustness of electrocardiogram signal quality indices.
    Rahman, S ; Karmakar, C ; Natgunanathan, I ; Yearwood, J ; Palaniswami, M (The Royal Society, 2022-04)
    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal quality indices (SQIs) are essential for improving diagnostic accuracy and reliability of ECG analysis systems. In various practical applications, the ECG signals are corrupted by different types of noise. These corrupted ECG signals often provide insufficient and incorrect information regarding a patient's health. To solve this problem, signal quality measurements should be made before an ECG signal is used for decision-making. This paper investigates the robustness of existing popular statistical signal quality indices (SSQIs): relative power of QRS complex (SQIp), skewness (SQIskew), signal-to-noise ratio (SQIsnr), higher order statistics SQI (SQIhos) and peakedness of kurtosis (SQIkur). We analysed the robustness of these SSQIs against different window sizes across diverse datasets. Results showed that the performance of SSQIs considerably fluctuates against varying datasets, whereas the impact of varying window sizes was minimal. This fluctuation occurred due to the use of a static threshold value for classifying noise-free ECG signals from the raw ECG signals. Another drawback of these SSQIs is the bias towards noise-free ECG signals, that limits their usefulness in clinical settings. In summary, the fixed threshold-based SSQIs cannot be used as a robust noise detection system. In order to solve this fixed threshold problem, other techniques can be developed using adaptive thresholds and machine-learning mechanisms.
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    Automatic Detection and Classification of Convulsive Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Using a Wearable Device
    Gubbi, J ; Kusmakar, S ; Rao, AS ; Yan, B ; O'Brien, T ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2016-07-01)
    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and patients suffer from unprovoked seizures. In contrast, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are another class of seizures that are involuntary events not caused by abnormal electrical discharges but are a manifestation of psychological distress. The similarity of these two types of seizures poses diagnostic challenges that often leads in delayed diagnosis of PNES. Further, the diagnosis of PNES involves high-cost hospital admission and monitoring using video-electroencephalogram machines. A wearable device that can monitor the patient in natural setting is a desired solution for diagnosis of convulsive PNES. A wearable device with an accelerometer sensor is proposed as a new solution in the detection and diagnosis of PNES. The seizure detection algorithm and PNES classification algorithm are developed. The developed algorithms are tested on data collected from convulsive epileptic patients. A very high seizure detection rate is achieved with 100% sensitivity and few false alarms. A leave-one-out error of 6.67% is achieved in PNES classification, demonstrating the usefulness of wearable device in the diagnosis of PNES.
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    Crowd Event Detection on Optical Flow Manifolds
    Rao, AS ; Gubbi, J ; Marusic, S ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2016-07-01)
    Analyzing crowd events in a video is key to understanding the behavioral characteristics of people (humans). Detecting crowd events in videos is challenging because of articulated human movements and occlusions. The aim of this paper is to detect the events in a probabilistic framework for automatically interpreting the visual crowd behavior. In this paper, crowd event detection and classification in optical flow manifolds (OFMs) are addressed. A new algorithm to detect walking and running events has been proposed, which uses optical flow vector lengths in OFMs. Furthermore, a new algorithm to detect merging and splitting events has been proposed, which uses Riemannian connections in the optical flow bundle (OFB). The longest vector from the OFB provides a key feature for distinguishing walking and running events. Using a Riemannian connection, the optical flow vectors are parallel transported to localize the crowd groups. The geodesic lengths among the groups provide a criterion for merging and splitting events. Dispersion and evacuation events are jointly modeled from the walking/running and merging/splitting events. Our results show that the proposed approach delivers a comparable model to detect crowd events. Using the performance evaluation of tracking and surveillance 2009 dataset, the proposed method is shown to produce the best results in merging, splitting, and dispersion events, and comparable results in walking, running, and evacuation events when compared with other methods.
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    Real-Time Urban Microclimate Analysis Using Internet of Things
    Rathore, P ; Rao, AS ; Rajasegarar, S ; Vanz, E ; Gubbi, J ; Palaniswami, M (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018-04-01)
    Real-time environment monitoring and analysis is an important research area of Internet of Things (IoT). Understanding the behavior of the complex ecosystem requires analysis of detailed observations of an environment over a range of different conditions. One such example in urban areas includes the study of tree canopy cover over the microclimate environment using heterogeneous sensor data. There are several challenges that need to be addressed, such as obtaining reliable and detailed observations over monitoring area, detecting unusual events from data, and visualizing events in real-time in a way that is easily understandable by the end users (e.g., city councils). In this regard, we propose an integrated geovisualization framework, built for real-time wireless sensor network data on the synergy of computational intelligence and visual methods, to analyze complex patterns of urban microclimate. A Bayesian maximum entropy-based method and a hyperellipsoidal model-based algorithm have been build in our integrated framework to address above challenges. The proposed integrated framework was verified using the dataset from an indoor and two outdoor network of IoT devices deployed at two strategically selected locations in Melbourne, Australia. The data from these deployments are used for evaluation and demonstration of these components' functionality along with the designed interactive visualization components.