 Electrical and Electronic Engineering  Research Publications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering  Research Publications
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ItemOn Eigenvalues of Laplacian Matrix for a Class of Directed Signed GraphsAhmadizadeh, S ; Shames, I ; Martin, S ; Nesic, D ( 20170512)The eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix for a class of directed graphs with both positive and negative weights are studied. First, a class of directed signed graphs is investigated in which one pair of nodes (either connected or not) is perturbed with negative weights. A necessary condition is proposed to attain the following objective for the perturbed graph: the real parts of the nonzero eigenvalues of its Laplacian matrix are positive. A sufficient condition is also presented that ensures the aforementioned objective for unperturbed graph. It is then highlighted the case where the condition becomes necessary and sufficient. Secondly, for directed graphs, a subset of pairs of nodes are identified where if any of the pairs is connected by an edge with infinitesimal negative weight, the resulting Laplacian matrix will have at least one eigenvalue with negative real part. Illustrative examples are presented to show the applicability of our results.

ItemSupervisory observer for parameter and state estimation of nonlinear systems using the DIRECT algorithmChong, MS ; Postoyan, R ; Khong, SZ ; Nesic, D ( 20170905)A supervisory observer is a multiplemodel architecture, which estimates the parameters and the states of nonlinear systems. It consists of a bank of state observers, where each observer is designed for some nominal parameter values sampled in a known parameter set. A selection criterion is used to select a single observer at each time instant, which provides its state estimate and parameter value. The sampling of the parameter set plays a crucial role in this approach. Existing works require a sufficiently large number of parameter samples, but no explicit lower bound on this number is provided. The aim of this work is to overcome this limitation by sampling the parameter set automatically using an iterative global optimisation method, called DIviding RECTangles (DIRECT). Using this sampling policy, we start with 1 + 2np parameter samples where np is the dimension of the parameter set. Then, the algorithm iteratively adds samples to improve its estimation accuracy. Convergence guarantees are provided under the same assumptions as in previous works, which include a persistency of excitation condition. The efficacy of the supervisory observer with the DIRECT sampling policy is illustrated on a model of neural populations.

ItemA Robust Circlecriterion Observerbased Estimator for Discretetime Nonlinear Systems in the Presence of Sensor Attacks and Measurement NoiseYang, T ; Murguia, C ; Kuijper, M ; Nešić, D ( 20180511)We address the problem of robust state estimation and attack isolation for a class of discretetime nonlinear systems with positiveslope nonlinearities under (potentially unbounded) sensor attacks and measurement noise. We consider the case when a subset of sensors is subject to additive false data injection attacks. Using a bank of circlecriterion observers, each observer leading to an InputtoState Stable (ISS) estimation error, we propose a estimator that provides robust estimates of the system state in spite of sensor attacks and measurement noise; and an algorithm for detecting and isolating sensor attacks. Our results make use of the ISS property of the observers to check whether the trajectories of observers are consistent with the attackfree trajectories of the system. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the performance of the results.

ItemA MultiObserver Approach for Attack Detection and Isolation of DiscreteTime Nonlinear SystemsYang, T ; Murguia, C ; Kuijper, M ; Nešić, D ( 20180913)We address the problem of attack detection and isolation for a class of discretetime nonlinear systems under (potentially unbounded) sensor attacks and measurement noise. We consider the case when a subset of sensors is subject to additive false data injection attacks. Using a bank of observers, each observer leading to an InputtoState Stable (ISS) estimation error, we propose two algorithms for detecting and isolating sensor attacks. These algorithms make use of the ISS property of the observers to check whether the trajectories of observers are “consistent” with the attackfree trajectories of the system. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

ItemSecurity Metrics of Networked Control Systems under Sensor Attacks (extended preprint)Murguia, C ; Shames, I ; Ruths, J ; Nesic, D ( 20180914)As more attention is paid to security in the context of control systems and as attacks occur to real control systems throughout the world, it has become clear that some of the most nefarious attacks are those that evade detection. The term stealthy has come to encompass a variety of techniques that attackers can employ to avoid being detected. In this manuscript, for a class of perturbed linear timeinvariant systems, we propose two security metrics to quantify the potential impact that stealthy attacks could have on the system dynamics by tampering with sensor measurements. We provide analysis mathematical tools (in terms of linear matrix inequalities) to quantify these metrics for given system dynamics, control structure, system monitor, and set of sensors being attacked. Then, we provide synthesis tools (in terms of semidefinite programs) to redesign controllers and monitors such that the impact of stealthy attacks is minimized and the required attackfree system performance is guaranteed.

ItemOn Privacy of Quantized Sensor Measurements through Additive NoiseMurguia, C ; Shames, I ; Farokhi, F ; Nesic, D ( 20180910)We study the problem of maximizing privacy of quantized sensor measurements by adding random variables. In particular, we consider the setting where information about the state of a process is obtained using noisy sensor measurements. This information is quantized and sent to a remote station through an unsecured communication network. It is desired to keep the state of the process private; however, because the network is not secure, adversaries might have access to sensor information, which could be used to estimate the process state. To avoid an accurate state estimation, we add random numbers to the quantized sensor measurements and send the sum to the remote station instead. The distribution of these random variables is designed to minimize the mutual information between the sum and the quantized sensor measurements for a desired level of distortion  how different the sum and the quantized sensor measurements are allowed to be. Simulations are presented to illustrate our results.

ItemCloseness of Solutions for Singularly Perturbed Systems via AveragingDeghat, M ; Ahmadizadeh, S ; Nesic, D ; Manzie, C ( 20180920)This paper studies the behavior of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations with boundarylayer solutions that do not necessarily converge to an equilibrium. Using the average of the fast variable and assuming the boundary layer solutions converge to a bounded set, results on the closeness of solutions of the singularly perturbed system to the solutions of the reduced average and boundary layer systems over a finite time interval are presented. The closeness of solutions error is shown to be of order O(\sqrt(\epsilon)), where \epsilon is the perturbation parameter.

ItemAn Unknown Input MultiObserver Approach for Estimation, Attack Isolation, and Control of LTI Systems under Actuator AttacksYang, T ; Murguia, C ; Kuijper, M ; Nesic, D ( 20181125)We address the problem of state estimation, attack isolation, and control for discretetime Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems under (potentially unbounded) actuator false data injection attacks. Using a bank of Unknown Input Observers (UIOs), each observer leading to an exponentially stable estimation error in the attackfree case, we propose an estimator that provides exponential estimates of the system state and the attack signals when a sufficiently small number of actuators are attacked. We use these estimates to control the system and isolate actuator attacks. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the performance of the results.

ItemAdaptive Scan for Atomic Force Microscopy Based on Online Optimisation: Theory and ExperimentWang, K ; Ruppert, MG ; Manzie, C ; Nesic, D ; Yong, YK ( 20190211)A major challenge in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is to reduce the scan duration while retaining the image quality. Conventionally, the scan rate is restricted to a sufficiently small value in order to ensure a desirable image quality as well as a safe tipsample contact force. This usually results in a conservative scan rate for samples that have a large variation in aspect ratio and/or for scan patterns that have a varying linear velocity. In this paper, an adaptive scan scheme is proposed to alleviate this problem. A scan linebased performance metric balancing both imaging speed and accuracy is proposed, and the scan rate is adapted such that the metric is optimised online in the presence of aspect ratio and/or linear velocity variations. The online optimisation is achieved using an extremumseeking (ES) approach, and a semiglobal practical asymptotic stability (SGPAS) result is shown for the overall system. Finally, the proposed scheme is demonstrated via both simulation and experiment.

ItemA MultiObserver Based Estimation Framework for Nonlinear Systems under Sensor AttacksYang, T ; Murguia, C ; Kuijper, M ; Nesic, D ( 20190406)We address the problem of state estimation and attack isolation for general discretetime nonlinear systems when sensors are corrupted by (potentially unbounded) attack signals. For a large class of nonlinear plants and observers, we provide a general estimation scheme, built around the idea of sensor redundancy and multiobserver, capable of reconstructing the system state in spite of sensor attacks and noise. This scheme has been proposed by others for linear systems/observers and here we propose a unifying framework for a much larger class of nonlinear systems/observers. Using the proposed estimator, we provide a n isolation algorithm to pinpoint attacks on sensors during sliding time windows. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of our tools.