Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 136
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Phospholipid Profiles Are Selectively Altered in the Putamen and White Frontal Cortex of Huntington's Disease.
    Phillips, GR ; Hancock, SE ; Jenner, AM ; McLean, C ; Newell, KA ; Mitchell, TW (MDPI AG, 2022-05-16)
    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative illness that onsets in late adulthood as a series of progressive and terminal cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deficits. The disease is caused by a polyQ mutation in the Huntingtin gene (HTT), producing a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein (HTT). HTT interacts with phospholipids in vitro; however, its interactions are changed when the protein is mutated in HD. Emerging evidence suggests that the susceptibility of brain regions to pathological stimuli is influenced by lipid composition. This study aimed to identify where and how phospholipids are changed in human HD brain tissue. Phospholipids were extracted using a modified MTBE method from the post-mortem brain of 13 advanced-stage HD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Targeted precursor ion scanning mass spectrometry was used to detect phospholipid species. In the white cortex of HD patients, there was a significantly lower abundance of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS), but no difference in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In HD putamen, ester-linked 22:6 was lower in all phospholipid classes promoting a decrease in the relative abundance of ester polyunsaturated fatty acids in PE. No differences in phospholipid composition were identified in the caudate, grey cortex or cerebellum. Ether-linked PE fatty acids appear protected in the HD brain, as no changes were identified. The nature of phospholipid alterations in the HD brain is dependent on the lipid (subclass, species, and bond type) and the location.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Biallelic hypomorphic variants in ALDH1A2 cause a novel lethal human multiple congenital anomaly syndrome encompassing diaphragmatic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular defects
    Beecroft, SJ ; Ayala, M ; McGillivray, G ; Nanda, V ; Agolini, E ; Novelli, A ; Digilio, MC ; Dotta, A ; Carrozzo, R ; Clayton, J ; Gaffney, L ; McLean, CA ; Ng, J ; Laing, NG ; Matteson, P ; Millonig, J ; Ravenscroft, G (WILEY, 2021-04-01)
    This study shows a causal association between ALDH1A2 variants and a novel, severe multiple congenital anomaly syndrome in humans that is neonatally lethal due to associated pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory failure. In two families, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous missense variants in ALDH1A2. ALDH1A2 is involved in the conversion of retinol (vitamin A) into retinoic acid (RA), which is an essential regulator of diaphragm and cardiovascular formation during embryogenesis. Reduced RA causes cardiovascular, diaphragmatic, and associated pulmonary defects in several animal models, matching the phenotype observed in our patients. In silico protein modeling showed probable impairment of ALDH1A2 for three of the four substitutions. In vitro studies show a reduction of RA. Few pathogenic variants in genes encoding components of the retinoic signaling pathway have been described to date, likely due to embryonic lethality. Thus, this study contributes significantly to knowledge of the role of this pathway in human diaphragm and cardiovascular development and disease. Some clinical features in our patients are also observed in Fryns syndrome (MIM# 229850), syndromic microphthalmia 9 (MIM# 601186), and DiGeorge syndrome (MIM# 188400). Patients with similar clinical features who are genetically undiagnosed should be tested for recessive ALDH1A2-deficient malformation syndrome.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Distal oesophageal giant fibrovascular polyp in a patient with laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
    Yang, TWW ; Packiyanathan, A ; Tagkalidis, P ; McLean, C ; Brown, W (WILEY, 2021-03-18)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Erratum to: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to 31 December 2020.
    Stehmann, C ; Senesi, M ; Sarros, S ; McGlade, A ; Lewis, V ; Simpson, M ; Klug, G ; McLean, C ; Masters, CL ; Collins, SJ (Australian Government Department of Health, 2021-08-09)
    Erratum to Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2021;45 (https://doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2021.45.38).
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Endoplasmic reticulum stress and induction of the unfolded protein response in human sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Retraction of Vol 30, art no 400, 2008)
    Atkin, JD ; Farg, MA ; Walker, AK ; McLean, C ; Tomas, D ; Horne, MK (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-02-05)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to 31 December 2020 (vol 22, 45, 2021)
    Stehmann, C ; Senesi, M ; Sarros, S ; McGlade, A ; Lewis, V ; Simpson, M ; Klug, G ; McLean, C ; Masters, CL ; Collins, S (AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT, DEPT HEALTH & AGEING, 2021-08-09)
    ABSTRACT: Nationwide surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human prion diseases is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry (ANCJDR). National surveillance encompasses the period since 1 January 1970, with prospective surveillance occurring from 1 October 1993. Over this prospective surveillance period, considerable developments have occurred in pre-mortem diagnostics; in the delineation of new disease subtypes; and in a heightened awareness of prion diseases in healthcare settings. Surveillance practices of the ANCJDR have evolved and adapted accordingly. This report summarises the activities of the ANCJDR during 2020. Since the ANCJDR began offering diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein testing in Australia in September 1997, the annual number of referrals has steadily increased. In 2020, 510 domestic CSF specimens were referred for 14-3-3 protein testing and 85 persons with suspected human prion disease were formally added to the national register. As of 31 December 2020, just over half (44 cases) of the 85 suspect case notifications remain classified as 'incomplete'; 27 cases were excluded through either detailed clinical follow-up (9 cases) or neuropathological examination (18 cases); 18 cases were classified as 'definite' and eleven as 'probable' prion disease. For 2020, sixty percent of all suspected human-prion-disease-related deaths in Australia underwent neuropathological examination. No cases of variant or iatrogenic CJD were identified. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic did not affect prion disease surveillance outcomes in Australia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Does Data-Independent Acquisition Data Contain Hidden Gems? A Case Study Related to Alzheimer's Disease
    Hubbard, EE ; Heil, LR ; Merrihew, GE ; Chhatwal, JP ; Farlow, MR ; McLean, CA ; Ghetti, B ; Newell, KL ; Frosch, MP ; Bateman, RJ ; Larson, EB ; Keene, CD ; Perrin, RJ ; Montine, TJ ; MacCoss, MJ ; Julian, RR (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2022-01-07)
    One of the potential benefits of using data-independent acquisition (DIA) proteomics protocols is that information not originally targeted by the study may be present and discovered by subsequent analysis. Herein, we reanalyzed DIA data originally recorded for global proteomic analysis to look for isomerized peptides, which occur as a result of spontaneous chemical modifications to long-lived proteins. Examination of a large set of human brain samples revealed a striking relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) status and isomerization of aspartic acid in a peptide from tau. Relative to controls, a surprising increase in isomer abundance was found in both autosomal dominant and sporadic AD samples. To explore potential mechanisms that might account for these observations, quantitative analysis of proteins related to isomerization repair and autophagy was performed. Differences consistent with reduced autophagic flux in AD-related samples relative to controls were found for numerous proteins, including most notably p62, a recognized indicator of autophagic inhibition. These results suggest, but do not conclusively demonstrate, that lower autophagic flux may be strongly associated with loss of function in AD brains. This study illustrates that DIA data may contain unforeseen results of interest and may be particularly useful for pilot studies investigating new research directions. In this case, a promising target for future investigations into the therapy and prevention of AD has been identified.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Dramatic clinical response in the treatment of small cell glioblastoma multiforme
    Zaman, FY ; McLean, C ; Ameratunga, M (WILEY, 2022-01-11)
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Small cell glioblastoma (scGBM) is a rare subtype of primary glioblastoma, which typically behave more aggressively compared with classical glioblastoma (GBMs). They are generally associated with poor responses to treatment, and optimal treatment is not known. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with scGBM with O6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, demonstrating an unexpected dramatic clinical response to chemoradiotherapy. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This case highlights that treatment with temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy is justified in patients with scGBM, despite their poor prognosis. MGMT methylation may be associated with clinical responses.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Control of hippocampal prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) expression reduces neurotoxic symptoms in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice
    Kim, S ; Moon, GJ ; Kim, HJ ; Kim, D-G ; Kim, J ; Nam, Y ; Sharma, C ; Leem, E ; Lee, S ; Kim, K-S ; Ha, CM ; McLean, C ; Jin, BK ; Shin, W-H ; Kim, DW ; Oh, Y-S ; Hong, C-W ; Kim, SR (WILEY, 2021-10-24)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a scarcity of information regarding the role of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which can be generated by active thrombin, in hippocampal neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To assess the role of pKr-2 in association with the neurotoxic symptoms of AD, we determined pKr-2 protein levels in post-mortem hippocampal tissues of patients with AD and the hippocampi of five familial AD (5XFAD) mice compared with those of age-matched controls and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. In addition, we investigated whether the hippocampal neurodegeneration and object memory impairments shown in 5XFAD mice were mediated by changes to pKr-2 up-regulation. KEY RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that pKr-2 was up-regulated in the hippocampi of patients with AD and 5XFAD mice, but was not associated with amyloid-β aggregation in 5XFAD mice. The up-regulation of pKr-2 expression was inhibited by preservation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via addition of caffeine to their water supply or by treatment with rivaroxaban, an inhibitor of factor Xa that is associated with thrombin production. Moreover, the prevention of up-regulation of pKr-2 expression reduced neurotoxic symptoms, such as hippocampal neurodegeneration and object recognition decline due to neurotoxic inflammatory responses in 5XFAD mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: We identified a novel pathological mechanism of AD mediated by abnormal accumulation of pKr-2, which functions as an important pathogenic factor in the adult brain via blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Thus, pKr-2 represents a novel target for AD therapeutic strategies and those for related conditions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A method for simultaneous detection of small and long RNA biotypes by ribodepleted RNA-Seq
    Potemkin, N ; Cawood, SMF ; Treece, J ; Guevremont, D ; Rand, CJ ; McLean, C ; Stanton, J-AL ; Williams, JM (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-01-12)
    RNA sequencing offers unprecedented access to the transcriptome. Key to this is the identification and quantification of many different species of RNA from the same sample at the same time. In this study we describe a novel protocol for simultaneous detection of coding and non-coding transcripts using modifications to the Ion Total RNA-Seq kit v2 protocol, with integration of QIASeq FastSelect rRNA removal kit. We report highly consistent sequencing libraries can be produced from both frozen high integrity mouse hippocampal tissue and the more challenging post-mortem human tissue. Removal of rRNA using FastSelect was extremely efficient, resulting in less than 1.5% rRNA content in the final library. We identified > 30,000 unique transcripts from all samples, including protein-coding genes and many species of non-coding RNA, in biologically-relevant proportions. Furthermore, the normalized sequencing read count for select genes significantly negatively correlated with Ct values from qRT-PCR analysis from the same samples. These results indicate that this protocol accurately and consistently identifies and quantifies a wide variety of transcripts simultaneously. The highly efficient rRNA depletion, coupled with minimized sample handling and without complicated and high-loss size selection protocols, makes this protocol useful to researchers wishing to investigate whole transcriptomes.