Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health - Research Publications

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    5-fluorouracil steady state pharmacokinetics and outcome in patients receiving protracted venous infusion for advanced colorectal cancer
    Jodrell, DI ; Stewart, M ; Aird, R ; Knowles, G ; Bowman, A ; Wall, L ; Cummings, J ; McLean, C (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2001-03-02)
    PVI 5FU gives increased response rates and reduced toxicity when compared to bolus 5FU (J Clin Oncol 1989, 425-432). PVI 5FU administration was reported to give highly variable (>1000-fold) plasma 5FU concentrations at steady state (FU Css) which correlated with toxicity (Ann Oncol 1996, 47-53); but only 19 patients were studied. Therefore, we performed a study of PVI 5FU in 61 patients with advanced colorectal cancer to assess the variability (inter- and intra-subject) in 5FU Css associated with PVI 5FU (300 mg m(-2)day(-1)) and to attempt to correlate pharmacodynamic end-points (anti-tumour activity, toxicity) with 5FU Css as a prelude to 'exposure-guided' 5FU administration. All 5FU sampling was performed between 10 am and noon. PVI 5FU administration continued to 26 weeks in patients with disease improvement or stabilization. The response rate was 26% (33% stable disease) and median survival was 11 months. Hand-foot syndrome was the most common dose limiting toxicity. Variability in 5FU(300)Css was considerably less than previously reported; 94 +/- 25 ng ml(-1)(CV = 27%). No relationships were demonstrated between subject mean 5FU(300)Css and PD end-points such as response, mucositis, diarrhoea and hand-foot syndrome. The lack of correlation suggests that measurement of 5FU concentrations should not be used to individualize dosing in patients receiving PVI 5FU for advanced colorectal cancer.
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    Family clustering of viliuisk encephalomyelitis in traditional and new geographic regions
    Vladimirtsev, VA ; Nikitina, RS ; Renwick, N ; Ivanova, AA ; Danilova, AP ; Platonov, FA ; Krivoshapkin, VG ; McLean, CA ; Masters, CL ; Gajdusek, C ; Goldfarb, LG (CENTER DISEASE CONTROL, 2007-09-01)
    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is an acute, often fatal, meningoencephalitis that tends to develop into a prolonged chronically progressive panencephalitis. Clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data argue for an infectious cause, although multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. To assess mechanisms of disease transmission and spread, we studied 6 multiplex families. Secondary cases occurred among genetically related and unrelated persons in a setting of prolonged intrahousehold contact with a patient manifesting the disease. Transmission to unrelated persons was documented in a densely populated region around the city of Yakutsk in which Viliuisk encephalomyelitis had not been previously known. Initially identified in a small Yakut-Evenk population on the Viliui River of eastern Siberia, the disease subsequently spread through human contacts to new geographic areas, thus characterizing Viliuisk encephalomyelitis as an emerging infectious disease.
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    The neuropathology of kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    McLean, CA (ROYAL SOC, 2008-11-27)
    A comparison of the pathological profiles of two spongiform encephalopathies with a similar presumptive route of infection was performed. Archival kuru and recent variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases reveal distinct lesional differences, particularly with respect to prion protein, suggesting that the strain of agent is important in determining the phenotype. Genotype analysis of the polymorphism on codon 129 reveals (in conjunction with updated information from more kuru cases) that all three genotypes (VV, MV and MM (where M is methionine and V is valine)) are detected in kuru with some preference for MM homozygosity. The presence of valine does not therefore appear to determine peripheral selection of PrPCJD. vCJD remains restricted to date to MM homozygosity on codon 129. It remains to be determined whether this genotype is dictating a shorter incubation period.
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    Development and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in an HIV-infected man with hepatitis C and B co-infection following interferon therapy: a case report.
    Abbott, IJ ; Chang, CC ; Skinner, MJ ; Street, A ; Perry, G ; McLean, C ; Wright, EJ ; Cameron, PU (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2009-06-10)
    INTRODUCTION: The association of human immunodeficiency virus and immune dysfunction leading to development of autoimmune markers is well described, but human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively protective for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, development of systemic lupus erythematosus with hepatitis C and with interferon therapy is well described in a number of case reports. We here describe the first case of systemic lupus erythematosus developing in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infection where the onset seems to have been temporally related to interferon therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus complicating interferon-alpha therapy for hepatitis C in a 47-year-old asplenic male with haemophilia co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B. He presented with a truncal rash, abdominal pains and headache and later developed grade IV lupus nephritis requiring haemodialysis, mycophenolate mofetil and steroid therapy. We were able to successfully withdraw dialysis and mycophenolate while maintaining stable renal function. CONCLUSION: Interferon-alpha is critical in antiviral immunity against hepatitis C but also acts as a pathogenic mediator for systemic lupus erythematosus, a condition associated with activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are depleted in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The occurrence of auto-antibodies and lupus-like features in the coinfections with hepatitis C require careful assessment. Immunosuppressant therapy for lupus risks exacerbating underlying infections in patients with concurrent human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C.