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ItemEphA4 (Sek1) receptor tyrosine kinase is required for the development of the corticospinal tractDottori, M ; Hartley, L ; Galea, M ; Paxinos, G ; Polizzotto, M ; Kilpatrick, T ; Bartlett, PF ; Murphy, M ; Kontgen, F ; Boyd, AW (NATL ACAD SCIENCES, 1998-10-27)Members of the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in the regulation of developmental processes and, in particular, axon guidance in the developing nervous system. The function of the EphA4 (Sek1) receptor was explored through creation of a null mutant mouse. Mice with a null mutation in the EphA4 gene are viable and fertile but have a gross motor dysfunction, which is evidenced by a loss of coordination of limb movement and a resultant hopping, kangaroo-like gait. Consistent with the observed phenotype, anatomical studies and anterograde tracing experiments reveal major disruptions of the corticospinal tract within the medulla and spinal cord in the null mutant animals. These results demonstrate a critical role for EphA4 in establishing the corticospinal projection.
ItemModulation of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter by inhibitors of DNA synthesis.Pressacco, J ; Wiley, JS ; Jamieson, GP ; Erlichman, C ; Hedley, DW (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1995-10)Expression of the equilibrative, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive nucleoside transporter (es), a component of the nucleoside salvage pathway, was measured during unperturbed growth and following exposure to various antimetabolites at growth-inhibitory concentrations. The probe 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein is a highly modified form of adenosine incorporating a fluorescein molecule. It binds. with high affinity and specificity to the (es) nucleoside transporter at a 1:1 stoichiometry, allowing reliable estimates of es expression by flow cytometry. Using a dual labelling technique which combined the vital DNA dye Hoechst-33342 and 5-(SAENTA-x8)-fluorescein, we found that surface expression of es approximately doubled between G1 and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle. To address the question of whether es expression could be modulated in cells exposed to drugs which inhibit de novo synthesis of nucleotides, cells were exposed to antimetabolite drugs having different modes of action. Hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which inhibit the de novo synthesis of DNA precursors, produced increases in the expression of es. In contrast, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and aphidicolin, which directly inhibit DNA synthesis, produced no significant increase in es expression. Thymidine (TdR), which is an allosteric inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that depletes dATP, dCTP and dGTP pools while repleting the dTTP pool, had no significant effect on es expression. These data suggest that surface expression of the es nucleoside transporter is regulated by a mechanism which is sensitive to the supply of deoxynucleotides. Because 5-FU (which specifically depletes dTTP pools) causes a large increase in expression whereas TdR (which depletes all precursors except dTTP) does not, this mechanism might be particularly sensitive to dTTP pools.
ItemSTRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CHARGED LIPID MOLECULES TO DIRECTLY INCREASE OR SUPPRESS K+ CHANNEL ACTIVITY IN SMOOTH-MUSCLE CELLS - EFFECTS OF FATTY-ACIDS, LYSOPHOSPHATIDATE, ACYL COENZYME-A AND SPHINGOSINEPETROU, S ; ORDWAY, RW ; HAMILTON, JA ; WALSH, JV ; SINGER, JJ (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1994-03-01)We determined the structural features necessary for fatty acids to exert their action on K+ channels of gastric smooth muscle cells. Examination of the effects of a variety of synthetic and naturally occurring lipid compounds on K+ channel activity in cell-attached and excised membrane patches revealed that negatively charged analogs of medium to long chain fatty acids (but not short chain analogs) as well as certain other negatively charged lipids activate the channels. In contrast, positively charged, medium to long chain analogs suppress activity, and neutral analogs are without effect. The key requirements for effective compounds seem to be a sufficiently hydrophobic domain and the presence of a charged group. Furthermore, those negatively charged compounds unable to "flip" across the bilayer are effective only when applied at the cytosolic surface of the membrane, suggesting that the site of fatty acid action is also located there. Finally, because some of the effective compounds, for example, the fatty acids themselves, lysophosphatidate, acyl Coenzyme A, and sphingosine, are naturally occurring substances and can be liberated by agonist-activated or metabolic enzymes, they may act as second messengers targeting ion channels.
ItemRECOVERY OF MUSCLE AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS OF DENERVATION AND TREATMENTSFINKELSTEIN, DI ; DOOLEY, PC ; LUFF, AR (WILEY, 1993-07-01)Three aspects of reinnervation and recovery of skeletal muscle following various periods of denervation were investigated: (1) the effect of duration of denervation; (2) the effect of hyperthyroidism on recovery; and (3) whether the muscle or the nerve limits recovery. The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) nerve was cut and then resutured after 0, 3, 7, 21, or 56 days. In a second group of animals, the MG muscle was denervated and, in addition, the animal received triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation during reinnervation. The third group of animals had the denervated MG muscle reinnervated by a larger number of newly transected foreign axons. The force produced by the reinnervated muscle depends on the period that the muscle was denervated. Recovery was impaired when the period of denervation exceeded 7 days. T3 treatment did not benefit the return of force production, nor did providing the muscle with a larger number of newly transected axons.