School of Physics - Theses

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    Electrical Characterisation of Ion Implantation Induced Defects in Silicon Based Devices for Quantum Applications
    Duan, Aochen ( 2020)
    Quantum devices that leverage the manufacturing techniques of silicon-based classical computers make them strong candidates for future quantum computers. However, the demands on device quality are much more stringent given that quantum states can decohere via interactions with their environment. In this thesis, a detailed investigation of ion implantation induced defects generated during device fabrication in a regime relevant to quantum device fabrication is presented. We identify different types of defects in Si using various advanced electrical characterisation techniques. The first experimental technique, electrical conductance, was used for the investigation of the interface state density of both n- and p-type MOS capacitors after ion implantation of various species followed by a rapid thermal anneal. As precise atomic placement is critical for building Si based quantum computers, implantation through the oxide in fully fabricated devices is necessary for some applications. However, implanting through the oxide might affect the quality of the Si/SiO_2 interface which is in close proximity to the region in which manipulation of the qubits take place. Implanting ions in MOS capacitors through the oxide is a model for the damage that might be observed in other fabricated devices. It will be shown that the interface state density only changes significantly after a fuence of 10^13 ions/cm^2 except for Bi in p-type silicon, where significant increase in interface state density was observed after a fuence of 10^11 Bi/cm^2. The second experimental technique, deep level transient spectroscopy, was used to study the defects in the substrate of Si after ion implantation. As Er has the potential of interfacing electrical and optical properties of Si based quantum computers, it is important to know what defects will be present after the implantation because of its large atomic mass. H and Er implantation damages were compared to demonstrate the more complex defect evolution for Er implantation. Although defects were still present after a 400 C anneal, the concentration was reduced by at least one order of magnitude. The last experimental technique, charge pumping, was used on MOSFETs to study the interface state density directly in device structures that can be directly used in, for example, magnetic resonance and quantum sensing applications. Charge pumping has the potential of allowing measurement and manipulation of both electronic and magnetic properties of the interface defects and defects in the MOSFET channel. For such applications it may be necessary to operate the device close to absolute zero temperature. The work presented here represents a first step towards device and technique development with the ultimate aim of pushing measurements to mK temperatures where quantum device operations typically operate.