 School of Physics  Theses
School of Physics  Theses
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ItemMatrix product states in quantum information processingDuan, Aochen ( 2015)We employ the newly developed Matrix Product State (MPS) formalism to simulate two problems in the context of quantum information processing. One is the Boson sampling problem, the other is the ground state energy density of an nqubit Hamiltonian. We find that the MPS representation of the Boson sampling problem is inefficient due to large entan glement as the number of photons increases. In the context of adiabatic quantum computing (AQC), MPS is used to find the first four moments of an nqubit Hamiltonian to approximate the ground state energy density of the Hamiltonian. We show an advantage of using the firstfourmoment method over the conventional adiabatic procedure. Future work around AQC using MPS is discussed.

ItemDonor activation and isotopic enrichment of silicon via ion implantation for quantum computingHolmes, Danielle ( 2020)Quantum computers are set to revolutionise technology by harnessing the immense promise of quantum mechanics, the law governing nature on the atomic scale, to enable a dramatically increased efficiency for certain algorithms over their classical counterparts. By storing and manipulating information on quantum bits (qubits), which can exist in a superposition of 0 and 1 at the same time and can be entangled with each other, instead of classical bits, which are strictly 0 or 1, certain problems that are intractable with classical computation can be solved. To realise a qubit, a quantum system that exists in two or more states, such as a spin in a magnetic field, is required. Group V donors in silicon (Si) are promising qubit candidates that can store quantum information in both the spin of the donor nucleus and the donor electron that it binds by the Coulomb potential. Si offers an ideal platform due to its isotopic composition of predominantly spinzero nuclei (over 92% is 28Si with nuclear spin I=0), that can provide a noisefree host lattice, and the wealth of knowledge accumulated in the microelectronics industry. The most versatile method for introducing donors in Si is ion implantation, a foundational technique of the information technology industry that has already demonstrated the production of longlived phosphorus (P) donor qubits. This method is explored in this thesis. The bismuth (Bi) donor offers some useful properties for quantum devices, such as an increased quantum memory, clock transitions and the potential to couple to superconducting flux qubits. To fabricate a quantum device that employs Bi, it is necessary to implant and activate a Bi donor in Si. Here, the optimum implantation and thermal annealing strategy is determined to maximise the operational yield of nearsurface Bi donor qubits by repairing the Si crystal damage and electrically activating the donor, evidenced by the measurement of Bi donor electron spin resonance. A further critical issue in donor qubit fabrication is the depletion of the nuclear spin1/2 29Si isotope to extend coherence times, which would be beneficial to be performed routinely. Accordingly, a method of isotopically enriching a surface layer of natural Si via sputtering during the high fluence implantation of 28Si ions was developed. This technique increases the accessibility of producing spinfree 28Si material by requiring only a conventional ion implanter and naturally abundant sources. The successful recrystallisation of this 28Si layer and the demonstration of increased coherence times for implanted P donors make this a promising technique for integrating into the fabrication of implanted donor qubits. Finally, the measurement of the full extent of the 29Si depletion on the coherence time requires a low concentration of donors implanted into this ~100 nm thick surface layer of 28Si. Therefore,a high sensitivity technique capable of probing a small number of spins is essential. This challenge is addressed by the design and implementation of a lowtemperature electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) system, capable of measuring spin transitions of donor electrons in Si with a sensitivity at least 5 orders of magnitude greater than for conventional electron spin resonance systems. In future, this will allow for the coherence times of donors implanted into our enriched 28Si layers to be determined from the linewidth of EDMR signals. This thesis lays the foundations for exploiting Bi donor clock transitions in qubit devices and addresses the challenge of providing an isotopically enriched 28Si matrix for donor qubits that is shown to extend qubit coherence times and thus makes progress towards the scalable fabrication of a donor spin quantum computer.

ItemRealistic readout and control for Si:P based quantum computersTestolin, Matthew J. ( 2008)This thesis identifies problems with the current operation proposals for Si:P based solidstate quantum computing architectures and outlines realistic alternatives as an effective fix. The focus is qubit readout and robust twoqubit control of the exchange interaction in the presence of both systematic and environmental errors. We develop a theoretical model of the doubly occupied D readout state found in Si:P based nuclear spin architectures. We test our theory by using it to determine the binding energy of the D state, comparing to known results. Our model can be used in detailed calculations of the adiabatic readout protocol proposed for these devices. Regarding this protocol, preliminary calculations suggest the small binding energy of the doubly occupied readout state will result in a state dwelltime less than that required for measurement using a single electron transistor (SET). We propose and analyse an alternative approach to singlespin readout using optically induced spin to charge transduction, showing that the top gate biases required for qubit selection are significantly less than those demanded by the adiabatic scheme, thereby increasing the D+D lifetime. Implications for singlettriplet discrimination for electron spin qubits are also discussed.

ItemControllable few state quantum systems for information processingCole, Jared H. ( 200610)This thesis investigates several different aspects of the physics of few state quantum systems and their use in information processing applications. The main focus is performing high precision computations or experiments using imperfect quantum systems. Specifically looking at methods to calibrate a quantum system once it has been manufactured or performing useful tasks, using a quantum system with only limited spatial or temporal coherence. A novel method for characterising an unknown twostate Hamiltonian is presented which is based on the measurement of coherent oscillations. The method is subsequently extended to include the effects of decoherence and enable the estimation of uncertainties. Using the uncertainty estimates, the achievable precision for a given number of measurements is computed. This method is tested experimentally using the nitrogenvacancy defect in diamond as an example of a twostate quantum system of interest for quantum information processing. The method of characterisation is extended to higher dimensional systems and this is illustrated using the Heisenberg interaction between spins as an example. The use of buried donors in silicon is investigated as an architecture for realising quantumdot cellular automata as an example of quantum systems used for classical information processing. The interaction strengths and time scales are calculated and both coherent and incoherent evolution are assessed as possible switching mechanisms. The effects of decoherence on the operation of a single cell and the scaling behaviour of a line of cells is investigated. The use of typeII quantum computers for simulating classical systems is studied as an application of small scale quantum computing. An algorithm is developed for simulating the classical Ising model using Metropolis MonteCarlo where random number generation is incorporated using quantum superposition. This suggests that several new algorithms could be developed for a typeII quantum computer based on probabilistic cellular automata.

ItemTowards largescale quantum computationFOWLER, AUSTIN GREIG ( 200505)This thesis deals with a series of quantum computer implementation issues from the Kane 31P in 28Si architecture to Shor’s integer factoring algorithm and beyond. The discussion begins with simulations of the adiabatic Kane CNOT and readout gates, followed by linear nearest neighbor implementations of 5qubit quantum error correction with and without fast measurement. A linear nearest neighbor circuit implementing Shor’s algorithm is presented, then modified to remove the need for exponentially small rotation gates. Finally, a method of constructing optimal approximations of arbitrary singlequbit faulttolerant gates is described and applied to the specific case of the remaining rotation gates required by Shor’s algorithm.

ItemTopological quantum error correction and quantum algorithm simulationsWang, David ( 2011)Quantum computers are machines that manipulate quantum information stored in the form of qubits, the quantum analogue to the classical bit. Unlike the bit, quantum mechanics allows a qubit to be in a linear superposition of both its basis states. Given the same number of bits and qubits, the latter stores exponentially more information. Quantum algorithms exploit these superposition states, allowing quantum computers to solve problems such as prime number factorisation and searches faster than classical computers. Realising a largescale quantum computer is difficult because quantum information is highly susceptible to noise. Error correction may be employed to suppress the noise, so that the results of large quantum algorithms are valid. The overhead incurred from introducing error correction is neutralised if all elementary quantum operations are constructed with an error rate below some threshold error rate. Below threshold, arbitrary length quantum computation is possible. We investigate two topological quantum error correcting codes, the planar code and the 2D colour code. We find the threshold for the 2D colour code to be 0.1%, and improve the planar code threshold from 0.75% to 1.1%. Existing protocols for the transmission of quantum states are hindered by maximum communication distances and low communication rates. We adapt the planar code for use in quantum communication, and show that this allows the faulttolerant transmission of quantum information over arbitrary distances at a rate limited only by local quantum gate speed. Error correction is an expensive investment and thus one seeks to employ as little as possible without compromising the integrity of the results. It is therefore important to study the robustness of algorithms to noise. We show that using the matrix product state representation allows one to simulate far larger instances of the quantum factoring algorithm than under the traditional amplitude formalism representation. We simulate systems with as many as 42 qubits on a single processor with 32GB RAM, comparable to amplitude formalism simulations performed on far larger computers.