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ItemOleic acid adsorption at the goethite-water interfaceJung, Robert Frederick ( 1976)The adsorption of oleate at the goethite-water interface has been studied. In addition, the interactions of oleate at other mineral-water interfaces were considered. Mainly by means of a literature review, a bulk equilibrium solubility diagram for oleic acid in water was constructed, as a function of total oleate concentration and pH. The competing bulk precipitation equilibria for oleic acid mineral phases such as iron (III) oxides, barite, calcite and fluorite and the relevant metal oleates, were considered graphically. Literature, adsorption, flotation recovery, electrokinetic and infrared work was examined in the light of this bulk precipitation data. It was found that many of these studies have been carried out in pH-concentration regions where bulk equilibrium phase changes were occurring, such as precipitation of oleic acid or of metal oleates. Adsorption behaviour in these systems was obscured by the bulk precipitation effects. Adsorption experiments were carried out with oleate in the presence of goethite, choosing pH and concentration such that bulk precipitation effects were not important. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as well as chemisorption, appeared to be of importance in the adsorption process. A new approach for surfactant adsorption, a multiple equilibrium model, was suggested to describe quantitatively, the adsorption of oleate at the goethite-water interface. This approach considers oleic acid solution equilibria. The adsorption process is represented by the reaction of neutral goethite surface sites with oleate and protons in the manner of solution equilibria. A good fit was obtained to the experimental data. The model predicts that the acid-soap species HOI2 is the most important adsorbed species.
ItemThe structure of the oxide/aqueous electrolyte interfaceYates, David Edwin ( 1975)The structure of the oxide/aqueous electrolyte interface has been studied. The surface porosity of several oxides to ions is evaluated and the contribution of such porosity to the double layer properties determined by surface charge measurements. The oxides studied are B.D.H. precipitated silica, before and after heat treatment, rutile, goethite, hematite and amorphous ferric oxide. The surface porosity was evaluated using nitrogen adsorption for physical porosity, tritium exchange for surface hydration and dissolution for surface crystallinity. It is found that the surfaces of metal oxides may be divided into two categories; those that are porous to ions and those that are non-porous. Of those studied only the precipitated silica and the amorphous ferric oxide are porous. The porosity is probably due to an easily permeated layer of hydrolysed oxidic material. It does lead to exceptionally high surface charges. However the non-porous oxides also exhibit high surface charges so that while surface porosity may, in some cases, contribute to oxide double layer properties, it cannot be a general explanation of the high differential capacities observed. A site-binding model for non-porous oxide/aqueous electrolyte interfaces is introduced, in which it is proposed that the adsorbed counter ions form interfacial ion pairs with discrete charged surface groups. This model is used to calculate theoretical surface charge densities and potentials at the Outer Helmholtz Plane. The calculated values are consistent with experimental data for oxides provided a high value of the inner zone capacity is accepted. An explanation is provided for the difference between silica and most other oxides in terms of the dissociation constants of the surface groups.
ItemHeavy metal ion activation of zinc sulphideRalston, John ( 1978)This thesis deals with the activation of zinc sulphide by the heavy metal ions Cu ll, Cd 11 and Pb II over a wide range of pH, metal ion concentration, zinc sulphide concentration and incident light conditions. At acid to neutral pH values the uptake of a heavy metal ion has been observed to take place in two stages: a fast, initial step followed by a second, slower step. Kinetic data have shown that heavy metal ion uptake generally follows a logarithmic dependence on time. At alkaline pH values heavy metal ion uptake is complicated by hydrolysis effects. A sensitive mass spectrometric technique has been developed and is capable of quantitatively detecting down to 1% of a nominal monolayer of elemental sulphur on a mineral of surface area 0.7 m2 g-1. Elemental sulphur was detected on sphalerite surfaces activated by Cu11 and Pb II up to pH 6.6, both in the dark and under UV irradiation. Elemental sulphur was only detected on Cd II activated and unactivated zinc sulphide surfaces under UV irradiation. A mechanism for the activation of zinc sulphide is advanced at acid, neutral and alkaline pH values. At acid to neutral pH values, metal ion uptake occurs by an exchange reaction This is coupled with a surface redox process, which is linked with the semiconductor properties of zinc sulphide. As a result of this surface redox process, elemental sulphur may form on the zinc sulphide surface, depending on the type of metal ion involved and on the incident light conditions. It is proposed that the rate determining step in the exchange reaction is the transfer of an adsorbed metal ion from a surface, adsorbed site to a lattice site. This leads to a logarithmic dependence of metal ion uptake on time, as observed experimentally. At alkaline pH values, the mechanism at acid to neutral pH values is complicated by metal ion hydrolysis, adsorption and precipitation effects. An overall mechanism is proposed which accounts for the observed behaviour.
ItemOrientated water under insoluble monolayersRalston, John ( 1970)The fact that oil could calm a rough sea was recorded by Pliny the Elder and by Plutarch. More quantitative information was provided by Benjamin Franklin in 1774 when he reported to the Royal Society that a teaspoonful of oil made a half-acre surface of pond ".... as smooth as a looking glass" (24). Subsequent experimentation showed that a similar effect could be observed when small amounts of insoluble soaps or "fatty" organic compounds were spread on water surfaces. Willard Gibbs published his thermodynamic treatment of surface tension and adsorption in 1878, providing the necessary theoretical background for explaining experimental results (66). In 1891 Fraulein Pockels developed the technique of manipulating these insoluble films between "barriers" extending across the entire width of a trough of water, filled so that it almost overflowed. This permitted quantitative information about surface tension and surface area to be obtained and led Rayleigh to propose, in 1899, that surface films were only one molecule thick. The basis for contemporary understanding of the behaviour of molecules in insoluble monolayers was provided in 1817 by Irving Langmuir (97), who devised the surface balance which still bears his name and whose results verified the theories of molecular orientation at surfaces. (From introduction)