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ItemThe structure of the oxide/aqueous electrolyte interfaceYates, David Edwin ( 1975)The structure of the oxide/aqueous electrolyte interface has been studied. The surface porosity of several oxides to ions is evaluated and the contribution of such porosity to the double layer properties determined by surface charge measurements. The oxides studied are B.D.H. precipitated silica, before and after heat treatment, rutile, goethite, hematite and amorphous ferric oxide. The surface porosity was evaluated using nitrogen adsorption for physical porosity, tritium exchange for surface hydration and dissolution for surface crystallinity. It is found that the surfaces of metal oxides may be divided into two categories; those that are porous to ions and those that are non-porous. Of those studied only the precipitated silica and the amorphous ferric oxide are porous. The porosity is probably due to an easily permeated layer of hydrolysed oxidic material. It does lead to exceptionally high surface charges. However the non-porous oxides also exhibit high surface charges so that while surface porosity may, in some cases, contribute to oxide double layer properties, it cannot be a general explanation of the high differential capacities observed. A site-binding model for non-porous oxide/aqueous electrolyte interfaces is introduced, in which it is proposed that the adsorbed counter ions form interfacial ion pairs with discrete charged surface groups. This model is used to calculate theoretical surface charge densities and potentials at the Outer Helmholtz Plane. The calculated values are consistent with experimental data for oxides provided a high value of the inner zone capacity is accepted. An explanation is provided for the difference between silica and most other oxides in terms of the dissociation constants of the surface groups.
ItemInterfacial effects on aqueous sonochemistry and sonoluminescenceSostaric, Joe Zeljko ( 1999-06)The dissolution of quantum sized CdS and MnO2 particles in water was conducted using 20 kHz ultrasound. CdS particles were found to dissolve chemically via an oxidation process while MnO2 particles dissolved via a reductive process. It was found that the dissolution of the colloids could be controlled via the addition of surface active chemicals to solution and by varying the saturation gas type. In the presence of Na2S or propan-2-ol and argon gas, the dissolution of CdS was inhibited, whereas the addition of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol) to the MnO2 system led to an increase in the amount of dissolution for a given time of sonication. This increase in dissolution was found to be dependent on the ability of the surface active radical scavenger to accumulate around the bubble interface during the cavitation process. Eventually, at higher alcohol concentration there was a plateau or a limiting value reached for the efficiency of colloid dissolution which was common for each alcohol. (For complete abstract open document)