Physiotherapy - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 309
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Effects of Footwear on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Forces during Landing in Young Adult Females
    Akhundov, R ; Bryant, AL ; Sayer, T ; Paterson, K ; Saxby, DJ ; Nasseri, A (MDPI, 2022-08-01)
    Rates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in young people have increased markedly over the past two decades, with females experiencing greater growth in their risk compared to males. In this study, we determined the effects of low- and high-support athletic footwear on ACL loads during a standardized drop-land-lateral jump in 23 late-/post-pubertal females. Each participant performed the task unshod, wearing low- (Zaraca, ASICS) or high- (Kayano, ASICS) support shoes (in random order), and three-dimensional body motions, ground-reaction forces, and surface electromyograms were synchronously acquired. These data were then used in a validated computational model of ACL loading. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping paired t-tests were used to compare ACL loads between footwear conditions during the stance phase of the task. Participants generated lower ACL forces during push-off when shod (Kayano: 624 N at 71-84% of stance; Zaraca: 616 N at 68-86% of stance) compared to barefoot (770 N and 740 N, respectively). No significant differences in ACL force were observed between the task performed wearing low- compared to high-support shoes. Compared to barefoot, both shoe types significantly lowered push-off phase peak ACL forces, potentially lowering risk of ACL injury during performance of similar tasks in sport and recreation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Inertia Sensors for Measuring Spasticity of the Ankle Plantarflexors Using the Modified Tardieu Scale-A Proof of Concept Study.
    Banky, M ; Williams, G ; Davey, R ; Tirosh, O (MDPI AG, 2022-07-09)
    Ankle spasticity is clinically assessed using goniometry to measure the angle of muscle reaction during the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS). The precision of the goniometric method is questionable as the measured angle may not represent when the spastic muscle reaction occurred. This work proposes a method to accurately determine the angle of muscle reaction during the MTS assessment by measuring the maximum angular velocity and the corresponding ankle joint angle, using two affordable inertial sensors. Initially we identified the association between muscle onset and peak joint angular velocity using surface electromyography and an inertial sensor. The maximum foot angular velocity occurred 0.049 and 0.032 s following the spastic muscle reaction for Gastrocnemius and Soleus, respectively. Next, we explored the use of two affordable inertial sensors to identify the angle of muscle reaction using the peak ankle angular velocity. The angle of muscle reaction and the maximum dorsiflexion angle were significantly different for both Gastrocnemius and Soleus MTS tests (p = 0.028 and p = 0.009, respectively), indicating that the system is able to accurately detect a spastic muscle response before the end of the movement. This work successfully demonstrates how wearable technology can be used in a clinical setting to identify the onset of muscle spasticity and proposes a more accurate method that clinicians can use to measure the angle of muscle reaction during the MTS assessment. Furthermore, the proposed method may provide an opportunity to monitor the degree of spasticity where the direct help of experienced therapists is inaccessible, e.g., in rural or remote areas.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The AktiWeb study: feasibility of a web-based exercise program delivered by a patient organisation to patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis.
    Joseph, KL ; Dagfinrud, H ; Hagen, KB ; Nordén, KR ; Fongen, C ; Wold, O-M ; Hinman, RS ; Nelligan, RK ; Bennell, KL ; Tveter, AT (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-07-20)
    BACKGROUND: Patient organisations may be an under-utilised resource in follow-up of patients requiring long-term exercise as part of their disease management. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of a web-based exercise program delivered by a patient organisation to patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: In this pre-post feasibility study, patients aged 40-80 years with hip and/or knee OA were recruited from Diakonhjemmet Hospital. The 12-week intervention was delivered through a patient organisation's digital platform. Feasibility was evaluated by proportion of eligible patients enrolled, proportion of enrolled patients who provided valid accelerometer data at baseline, and proportion completing the cardiorespiratory exercise test according to protocol at baseline and completed follow-up assessments. Patient acceptability was evaluated for website usability, satisfaction with the initial exercise level and comprehensibility of the exercise program. Change in clinical outcomes were assessed for physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and patient-reported variables. RESULTS: In total, 49 eligible patients were identified and 35 were enrolled. Thirty (86%) of these attended baseline assessments and provided valid accelerometer data and 18 (51%) completed the maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test according to protocol. Twenty-two (63%) patients completed the follow-up questionnaire, and they rated the website usability as 'acceptable' [median 77.5 out of 100 (IQR 56.9, 85.6)], 19 (86%) reported that the initial exercise level was 'just right' and 18 (82%) that the exercise program was 'very easy' or 'quite easy' to comprehend. Improvement in both moderate to vigorous physical activity (mean change 16.4 min/day; 95% CI 6.9 to 25.9) and cardiorespiratory fitness, VO2peak (mean change 1.83 ml/kg/min; 95% CI 0.29 to 3.36) were found in a subgroup of 8 patients completing these tests. Across all patient-reported outcomes 24-52% of the patients had a meaningful improvement (n = 22). CONCLUSION: A web-based exercise program delivered by a patient organisation was found to be feasible and acceptable in patients with hip and/or knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04084834 (registered 10 September 2019). The Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics south-east, 2018/2198. URL: Prosjekt #632074 - Aktiv med web-basert støtte. - Cristin (registered 7 June 2019).
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Injury surveillance in community cricket: A new inning for South Africa.
    Olivier, B ; Obiora, OL ; MacMillan, C ; Finch, C (AOSIS, 2022)
    Published injury rates amongst elite and club-level youth cricketers highlight the need to implement injury risk-reducing strategies amongst the youth cricketing population. Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite for the development and evaluation of strategies to reduce injury risk. Therefore, collecting injury surveillance data is a positive move towards reducing injuries in cricket. In South Africa, a systematic, standardised, evidence-informed injury surveillance system currently does not exist for community levels of play, namely, in cricket-playing high schools and cricket clubs. Although injury surveillance systems exist at elite levels, the obvious differences in elite versus community cricket settings mean that these systems cannot be implemented in their current form at community-level cricket. An innovative model is required to implement an injury surveillance system in community cricket. Clinical implications: This article proposes and describes a new research-practice partnership model to implement a systematic, standardised, evidence-informed injury surveillance system at cricket-playing high schools or cricket clubs within South Africa. Once this model has been employed, database systems will need to be established to allow long-term data management and sharing.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The sit-to-stand test as a patient-centered functional outcome for critical care research: a pooled analysis of five international rehabilitation studies
    O'Grady, HK ; Edbrooke, L ; Farley, C ; Berney, S ; Denehy, L ; Puthucheary, Z ; Kho, ME (BMC, 2022-06-13)
    BACKGROUND: With ICU mortality rates decreasing, it is increasingly important to identify interventions to minimize functional impairments and improve outcomes for survivors. Simultaneously, we must identify robust patient-centered functional outcomes for our trials. Our objective was to investigate the clinimetric properties of a progression of three outcome measures, from strength to function. METHODS: Adults (≥ 18 years) enrolled in five international ICU rehabilitation studies. Participants required ICU admission were mechanically ventilated and previously independent. Outcomes included two components of the Physical Function in ICU Test-scored (PFIT-s): knee extensor strength and assistance required to move from sit to stand (STS); the 30-s STS (30 s STS) test was the third outcome. We analyzed survivors at ICU and hospital discharge. We report participant demographics, baseline characteristics, and outcome data using descriptive statistics. Floor effects represented ≥ 15% of participants with minimum score and ceiling effects ≥ 15% with maximum score. We calculated the overall group difference score (hospital discharge score minus ICU discharge) for participants with paired assessments. RESULTS: Of 451 participants, most were male (n = 278, 61.6%) with a median age between 60 and 66 years, a mean APACHE II score between 19 and 24, a median duration of mechanical ventilation between 4 and 8 days, ICU length of stay (LOS) between 7 and 11 days, and hospital LOS between 22 and 31 days. For knee extension, we observed a ceiling effect in 48.5% (160/330) of participants at ICU discharge and in 74.7% (115/154) at hospital discharge; the median [1st, 3rd quartile] PFIT-s difference score (n = 139) was 0 [0,1] (p < 0.05). For STS assistance, we observed a ceiling effect in 45.9% (150/327) at ICU discharge and in 77.5% (79/102) at hospital discharge; the median PFIT-s difference score (n = 87) was 1 [0, 2] (p < 0.05). For 30 s STS, we observed a floor effect in 15.0% (12/80) at ICU discharge but did not observe a floor or ceiling effect at hospital discharge. The median 30 s STS difference score (n = 54) was 3 [1, 6] (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among three progressive outcome measures evaluated in this study, the 30 s STS test appears to have the most favorable clinimetric properties to assess function at ICU and hospital discharge in moderate to severely ill participants.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Young children's footwear taxonomy: An international Delphi survey of parents, health and footwear industry professionals.
    Williams, CM ; Morrison, SC ; Paterson, K ; Gobbi, K ; Burton, S ; Hill, M ; Harber, E ; Banwell, H ; Reassignment, PLOSM (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    OBJECTIVE: There is little consistency between commercial grade footwear brands for determining shoe sizing, and no universally accepted descriptors of common types or features of footwear. The primary aim of this research was to develop a footwear taxonomy about the agreed types of footwear commonly worn by children under the age of six. Secondary aims were to gain consensus of the common footwear features, when different types of footwear would be commonly worn, common terms for key footwear parts, and how movement at some of these footwear parts should be described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Opinions were collected through a three-round modified Delphi international online survey from parents, health professionals, researchers, and footwear industry professionals. The first survey displayed generic pictures about different footwear types and asked participants to provide a grouping term, when the footwear would be worn (for what type of activity) and any grouping features. The second and third rounds presented consensus and gathered agreement on statements. RESULTS: There were 121 participants who provided detailed feedback to open-ended questions. The final round resulted in consensus and agreement on the names of 14 different footwear types, when they are commonly worn and their common features. Participants also reached consensus and agreement on the terms heel counter to describe the back part of footwear and fixtures as the collective term for features allowing footwear adjustability and fastening. They also agreed on terms to quantify the flexibility at footwear sole (bend or twist) or the heel counter. CONCLUSION: This first taxonomy of children's footwear represents consensus amongst different stakeholders and is an important step in promoting consistency within footwear research. One shoe does not fit all purposes, and the recommendations from this work help to inform the next steps towards ensuring greater transparency and commonality with footwear recommendations.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Patient and clinician perspectives of pelvic floor dysfunction after gynaecological cancer
    Brennen, R ; Lin, K-Y ; Denehy, L ; Soh, S-E ; Frawley, H (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2022-06-01)
    Purpose: To explore and compare patient and clinician experiences, knowledge and preferences in relation to screening and management of pelvic floor (PF) dysfunction in the gynaecology-oncology setting. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women reporting PF symptoms after gynaecological cancer treatment, and gynaecology-oncology clinicians. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed and were conducted until data saturation was reached. Results: We interviewed 12 patients and 13 clinicians. We identified two main themes: (1) Experience with PF symptoms, screening, disclosure and management and (2) Future hope of what should happen to screen and manage PF symptoms. Differences between what participants had experienced and what they felt should happen highlighted a perceived need for improving PF screening and management. A sub-theme that reflected relevant barriers and enablers was also identified. Barriers included time pressure, being focussed on cancer treatment and not side-effects, and patients feeling unwell, emotional, and overwhelmed with the logistics of oncology appointments. Enablers included the patient-clinician relationship, and opportunities for improving management included integrating nursing and PF physiotherapy with oncology appointments. Conclusions: Gynaecological cancer survivors and clinicians perceive a need to improve screening and management for PF symptoms. While barriers and differences in perception exist, there are opportunities to improve how PF symptoms can be screened and managed in this population. Further studies exploring the feasibility of providing integrated multidisciplinary PF therapy services may be warranted.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Effect of a valgus brace on medial tibiofemoral joint contact force in knee osteoarthritis with varus malalignment: A within-participant cross-over randomised study with an uncontrolled observational longitudinal follow-up.
    Hall, M ; Starkey, S ; Hinman, RS ; Diamond, LE ; Lenton, GK ; Knox, G ; Pizzolato, C ; Saxby, DJ ; Abdelbasset, WK (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Functional correlates of clinical phenotype and severity in recurrent SCN2A variants
    Berecki, G ; Howell, KB ; Heighway, J ; Olivier, N ; Rodda, J ; Overmars, I ; Vlaskamp, DRM ; Ware, TL ; Ardern-Holmes, S ; Lesca, G ; Alber, M ; Veggiotti, P ; Scheffer, IE ; Berkovic, SF ; Wolff, M ; Petrou, S (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-05-30)
    In SCN2A-related disorders, there is an urgent demand to establish efficient methods for determining the gain- (GoF) or loss-of-function (LoF) character of variants, to identify suitable candidates for precision therapies. Here we classify clinical phenotypes of 179 individuals with 38 recurrent SCN2A variants as early-infantile or later-onset epilepsy, or intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorder (ID/ASD) and assess the functional impact of 13 variants using dynamic action potential clamp (DAPC) and voltage clamp. Results show that 36/38 variants are associated with only one phenotypic group (30 early-infantile, 5 later-onset, 1 ID/ASD). Unexpectedly, we revealed major differences in outcome severity between individuals with the same variant for 40% of early-infantile variants studied. DAPC was superior to voltage clamp in predicting the impact of mutations on neuronal excitability and confirmed GoF produces early-infantile phenotypes and LoF later-onset phenotypes. For one early-infantile variant, the co-expression of the α1 and β2 subunits of the Nav1.2 channel was needed to unveil functional impact, confirming the prediction of 3D molecular modeling. Neither DAPC nor voltage clamp reliably predicted phenotypic severity of early-infantile variants. Genotype, phenotypic group and DAPC are accurate predictors of the biophysical impact of SCN2A variants, but other approaches are needed to predict severity.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tibiofemoral contact force differences between flat flexible and stable supportive walking shoes in people with varus-malaligned medial knee osteoarthritis: A randomized cross-over study
    Starkey, S ; Hinman, R ; Paterson, K ; Saxby, D ; Knox, G ; Hall, M ; Peyré-Tartaruga, LA (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2022-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of stable supportive to flat flexible walking shoes on medial tibiofemoral contact force (MTCF) in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. DESIGN: This was a randomized cross-over study. Twenty-eight participants aged ≥50 years with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment were recruited from the community. Three-dimensional full-body motion, ground reaction forces and surface electromyograms from twelve lower-limb muscles were acquired during six speed-matched walking trials for flat flexible and stable supportive shoes, tested in random order. An electromyogram-informed neuromusculoskeletal model with subject-specific geometry estimated bodyweight (BW) normalized MTCF. Waveforms were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping with a repeated measures analysis of variance model. Peak MTCF, MTCF impulse and MTCF loading rates (discrete outcomes) were evaluated using a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance model. RESULTS: Statistical parametric mapping showed lower MTCF in stable supportive compared to flat flexible shoes during 5-18% of stance phase (p = 0.001). For the discrete outcomes, peak MTCF and MTCF impulse were not different between the shoe styles. However, mean differences [95%CI] in loading impulse (-0.02 BW·s [-0.02, 0.01], p<0.001), mean loading rate (-1.42 BW·s-1 [-2.39, -0.45], p = 0.01) and max loading rate (-3.26 BW·s-1 [-5.94, -0.59], p = 0.02) indicated lower measure of loading in stable supportive shoes compared to flexible shoes. CONCLUSIONS: Stable supportive shoes reduced MTCF during loading stance and reduced loading impulse/rates compared to flat flexible shoes and therefore may be more suitable in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12619000622101).