Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    The sit-to-stand test as a patient-centered functional outcome for critical care research: a pooled analysis of five international rehabilitation studies
    O'Grady, HK ; Edbrooke, L ; Farley, C ; Berney, S ; Denehy, L ; Puthucheary, Z ; Kho, ME (BMC, 2022-06-13)
    BACKGROUND: With ICU mortality rates decreasing, it is increasingly important to identify interventions to minimize functional impairments and improve outcomes for survivors. Simultaneously, we must identify robust patient-centered functional outcomes for our trials. Our objective was to investigate the clinimetric properties of a progression of three outcome measures, from strength to function. METHODS: Adults (≥ 18 years) enrolled in five international ICU rehabilitation studies. Participants required ICU admission were mechanically ventilated and previously independent. Outcomes included two components of the Physical Function in ICU Test-scored (PFIT-s): knee extensor strength and assistance required to move from sit to stand (STS); the 30-s STS (30 s STS) test was the third outcome. We analyzed survivors at ICU and hospital discharge. We report participant demographics, baseline characteristics, and outcome data using descriptive statistics. Floor effects represented ≥ 15% of participants with minimum score and ceiling effects ≥ 15% with maximum score. We calculated the overall group difference score (hospital discharge score minus ICU discharge) for participants with paired assessments. RESULTS: Of 451 participants, most were male (n = 278, 61.6%) with a median age between 60 and 66 years, a mean APACHE II score between 19 and 24, a median duration of mechanical ventilation between 4 and 8 days, ICU length of stay (LOS) between 7 and 11 days, and hospital LOS between 22 and 31 days. For knee extension, we observed a ceiling effect in 48.5% (160/330) of participants at ICU discharge and in 74.7% (115/154) at hospital discharge; the median [1st, 3rd quartile] PFIT-s difference score (n = 139) was 0 [0,1] (p < 0.05). For STS assistance, we observed a ceiling effect in 45.9% (150/327) at ICU discharge and in 77.5% (79/102) at hospital discharge; the median PFIT-s difference score (n = 87) was 1 [0, 2] (p < 0.05). For 30 s STS, we observed a floor effect in 15.0% (12/80) at ICU discharge but did not observe a floor or ceiling effect at hospital discharge. The median 30 s STS difference score (n = 54) was 3 [1, 6] (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among three progressive outcome measures evaluated in this study, the 30 s STS test appears to have the most favorable clinimetric properties to assess function at ICU and hospital discharge in moderate to severely ill participants.
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    Development and Feasibility of an Inpatient Cancer-Related Sarcopenia Pathway at a Major Cancer Centre
    Loeliger, J ; Edbrooke, L ; Daly, RM ; Stewart, J ; Bucci, L ; Puskas, C ; Fitzgerald, M ; Baguley, BJ ; Kiss, N (MDPI, 2022-04-01)
    Cancer-related sarcopenia is a complex condition; however, no cancer-specific clinical model is available to guide clinical practice. This study aims to (1) develop an evidence-based care pathway for the management of cancer-related sarcopenia ("sarc-pathway") and (2) pilot test the feasibility (reach, intervention fidelity, patient and clinician acceptability) of the sarc-pathway in an inpatient cancer ward. The sarc-pathway was developed using a care pathway format and informed by the current literature. Patients admitted to a 32-bed inpatient cancer ward were recruited to receive sarc-pathway care and the feasibility outcomes were assessed. Of the 317 participants admitted, 159 were recruited over 3.5-months (median age 61 years; 56.0% males). Participant consent was high (99.4% of those approached) and 30.2% were at risk of/had sarcopenia. The sarc-pathway screening, assessment and treatment components were delivered as intended; however, low completion of clinical assessment measures were observed for muscle mass (bioimpedance spectroscopy, 20.5%) and muscle function (5-times chair stand test, 50.0%). The sarc-pathway was demonstrated to be acceptable to patients and multidisciplinary clinicians. In an inpatient cancer ward, the sarc-pathway is a feasible and acceptable clinical model and method to deliver and adhere to the sarcopenia clinical parameters specified, albeit with further exploration of appropriate clinical assessment measures.
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    ENhAncing Lifestyle Behaviors in EndometriaL CancEr (ENABLE): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Khaw, P ; Freimund, A ; Carpenter, D ; McNally, O ; Joubert, L ; Loeliger, J ; Traill, A ; Gough, K ; Mileshkin, L ; Denehy, L (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-01-01)
    PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer is associated with the highest comorbid disease burden of any cancer. The aim of this trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of an allied health intervention during adjuvant treatment. METHODS: A mixed-methods pilot randomized (2:1) controlled trial with concealed allocation and assessor-blinding. Eligibility criteria: adjuvant endometrial cancer treatment scheduled, disease stage I-IIIC1, ECOG 0-2 and able to perform unsupervised physical activity (PA). Participants received usual care and 8 sessions of weekly, individualized, lifestyle education (diet and PA) with behavior change and social support (intervention group), delivered predominantly by telehealth, or usual care alone. Feasibility outcomes: recruitment and consent rates, decline reasons, program acceptability, intervention adherence and retention. RESULTS: 22/44 eligible patients (50%, 95%CI: 36%, 64%) were recruited over 10 months (14 intervention, 8 usual care). The recruitment rate was 2.2 patients/month (95%CI: 1.4, 3.3). Patients who declined had too much going on (7/22, 32%) or were not interested (6/22, 27%). Mean (SD) age and BMI were 63.2 years (6.8) and 31.9 kg/m2 (6.7). A majority were FIGO stage I (15/22, 68%) and received vaginal brachytherapy (14/22, 64%). Adherence was high, 11/14 (79%, 95%CI: 52%, 92%) participants attended >70% of scheduled sessions. Retention was 100% (95%CI: 85%, 100%) at 9 weeks, however completion of objective measures was impacted by COVID-19 restrictions. Telehealth and online questionnaires enabled participation. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: The intervention was acceptable to participants with high levels of adherence and retention. Trial findings will be used to design a future RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12619000631101) 29/04/2019.
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    Effect of a postoperative home-based exercise and self-management programme on physical function in people with lung cancer (CAPACITY): protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Granger, CL ; Edbrooke, L ; Antippa, P ; Wright, G ; McDonald, CF ; Lamb, KE ; Irving, L ; Krishnasamy, M ; Abo, S ; Whish-Wilson, GA ; Truong, D ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is important in the postoperative management of lung cancer, yet no strong evidence exists for delivery of home-based programmes. Our feasibility (phase I) study established feasibility of a home-based exercise and self-management programme (the programme) delivered postoperatively. This efficacy (phase II) study aims to determine whether the programme, compared with usual care, is effective in improving physical function (primary outcome) in patients after lung cancer surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a prospective, multisite, two-arm parallel 1:1, randomised controlled superiority trial with assessors blinded to group allocation. 112 participants scheduled for surgery for lung cancer will be recruited and randomised to usual care (no exercise programme) or, usual care plus the 12-week programme. The primary outcome is physical function measured with the EORTC QLQ c30 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life (HRQoL); exercise capacity; muscle strength; physical activity levels and patient reported outcomes. HRQoL and patient-reported outcomes will be measured to 12 months, and survival to 5 years. In a substudy, patient experience interviews will be conducted in a subgroup of intervention participants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was gained from all sites. Results will be submitted for publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617001283369.
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    Predicting muscle loss during lung cancer treatment (PREDICT): protocol for a mixed methods prospective study
    Kiss, NK ; Denehy, L ; Edbrooke, L ; Prado, CM ; Ball, D ; Siva, S ; Abbott, G ; Ugalde, A ; Fraser, SF ; Everitt, S ; Hardcastle, N ; Wirth, A ; Daly, RM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Low muscle mass and low muscle attenuation (radiodensity), reflecting increased muscle adiposity, are prevalent muscle abnormalities in people with lung cancer receiving curative intent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) or radiation therapy (RT). Currently, there is a limited understanding of the magnitude, determinants and clinical significance of these muscle abnormalities in the lung cancer CRT/RT population. The primary objective of this study is to identify the predictors of muscle abnormalities (low muscle mass and muscle attenuation) and their depletion over time in people with lung cancer receiving CRT/RT. Secondary objectives are to assess the magnitude of change in these parameters and their association with health-related quality of life, treatment completion, toxicities and survival. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer and planned for treatment with CRT/RT are invited to participate in this prospective observational study, with a target of 120 participants. The impact and predictors of muscle abnormalities (assessed via CT at the third lumbar vertebra) prior to and 2 months post CRT/RT on the severity of treatment toxicities, treatment completion and survival will be assessed by examining the following variables: demographic and clinical factors, weight loss, malnutrition, muscle strength, physical performance, energy and protein intake, physical activity and sedentary time, risk of sarcopenia (Strength, Assistance in walking, Rise from a chair, Climb stairs, Falls history (SARC-F) score alone and with calf-circumference) and systemic inflammation. A sample of purposively selected participants with muscle abnormalities will be invited to take part in semistructured interviews to understand their ability to cope with treatment and explore preference for treatment strategies focused on nutrition and exercise. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PREDICT study received ethics approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (HREC/53147/PMCC-2019) and Deakin University (2019-320). Findings will be disseminated through peer review publications and conference presentations.
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    How is physical activity measured in lung cancer? A systematic review of outcome measures and their psychometric properties
    Edbrooke, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Astin, R ; Jack, S ; Granger, CL (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures. For aim 2, studies identified in aim 1 reporting on at least one psychometric property (validity, reliability, responsiveness or measurement error) were included. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments. Thirty-four studies using 21 different measures of PA were identified. Seventeen studies used performance-based measures. The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was the most frequently used patient-reported measure. Psychometric properties were reported for 13 of these measures and most frequently for movement sensors. Two studies reported on properties of the GLTEQ. Quality ratings for risk of bias were low. There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding method of PA measurement along the lung cancer continuum. Greater consensus could be achieved by using a consensus approach such as a Delphi process. Future studies should include assessment of psychometric properties of the measurement tool being used. Currently, it is recommended where feasible, both performance-based and patient-reported measurements of PA should be undertaken.
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    Comparison of the GLIM, ESPEN and ICD-10 Criteria to Diagnose Malnutrition and Predict 30-Day Outcomes: An Observational Study in an Oncology Population
    Poulter, S ; Steer, B ; Baguley, B ; Edbrooke, L ; Kiss, N (MDPI, 2021-08-01)
    The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria are consensus criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition. This study aimed to investigate and compare the prevalence of malnutrition using the GLIM, European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) criteria; compare the level of agreement between these criteria; and identify the predictive validity of each set of criteria with respect to 30-day outcomes in a large cancer cohort. GLIM, ESPEN and ICD-10 were applied to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in 2794 participants from two cancer malnutrition point prevalence studies. Agreement between the criteria was analysed using the Cohen's Kappa statistic. Binary logistic regression models were used to determine the ability of each set of criteria to predict 30-day mortality and unplanned admission or readmission. GLIM, ESPEN and ICD-10 criteria identified 23.0%, 5.5% and 12.6% of the cohort as malnourished, respectively. Slight-to-fair agreement was reported between the criteria. All three criteria were predictive of mortality, but only the GLIM and ICD-10 criteria were predictive of unplanned admission or readmission at 30 days. The GLIM criteria identified the highest prevalence of malnutrition and had the greatest predictive ability for mortality and unplanned admission or readmission in an oncology population.
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    Associations between nutritional energy delivery, bioimpedance spectroscopy and functional outcomes in survivors of critical illness
    Fetterplace, K ; Beach, LJ ; MacIsaac, C ; Presneill, J ; Edbrooke, L ; Parry, SM ; Rechnitzer, T ; Curtis, R ; Berney, S ; Deane, AM ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Patients who survive critical illness frequently develop muscle weakness that can impact on quality of life; nutrition is potentially a modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to explore the associations between cumulative energy deficits (using indirect calorimetry and estimated requirements), nutritional and functional outcomes. METHODS: A prospective single-centre observational study of 60 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, who were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h, was conducted. Cumulative energy deficit was determined from artificial nutrition delivery compared to targets. Measurements included: (i) at recruitment and ICU discharge, weight, fat-free mass (bioimpedance spectroscopy) and malnutrition (Subjective Global Assessment score B/C); (ii) at awakening and ICU discharge, physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test-scored) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council sum-score (MRC-SS). ICU-acquired weakness was defined as a MRC-SS score of less than 48/60. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) cumulative energy deficit compared to the estimated targets up to ICU day 12 was 3648 (2514-5650) kcal. Adjusting for body mass index, age and severity of illness, cumulative energy deficit (per 1000 kcal) was independently associated with greater odds of ICU-acquired weakness [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.3, P = 0.001] and malnutrition (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = 0.02). In similar multivariable linear models, cumulative energy deficit was associated with reductions in fat-free mass (-1.3 kg; 95% CI = -2.4 to -0.2, P = 0.02) and physical function scores (-0.6 points; 95% CI = -0.9 to -0.3, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative energy deficit from artificial nutrition support was associated with reduced functional outcomes and greater loss of fat-free mass in ventilated ICU patients.
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    Improving the delivery of physical activity services in lung cancer: A qualitative representation of the patient's perspective
    Granger, CL ; Parry, SM ; Edbrooke, L ; Abo, S ; Leggett, N ; Dwyer, M ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences of, and preferences for, physical activity after a lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving seven patients who had been treated for lung cancer within the previous 2 years. Participants attended a focus group interview. Conventional content analysis methodology was used to analyse the text by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Eight major themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: the influence of past lifestyle and chronic disease; the perceived benefits of physical activity; using physical activity to facilitate return to activities of daily living; the impact of symptoms, capacity and motivation; family and peer support; access to services; health professionals; and enjoyment of different types of physical activity. Patients suggested several factors that could improve their healthcare experience. These include access to exercise professionals particularly after cancer treatment; access to information about physical activity in different formats; supervision from health professionals and peer support; and use of behaviour change strategies to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our results should be considered in the improvement of lung cancer care pathways as we strive to implement physical activity services into routine clinical care.
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    Efficacy of Prehabilitation Including Exercise on Postoperative Outcomes Following Abdominal Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Waterland, JL ; McCourt, O ; Edbrooke, L ; Granger, CL ; Ismail, H ; Riedel, B ; Denehy, L (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-03-19)
    Objectives: This systematic review set out to identify, evaluate and synthesise the evidence examining the effect of prehabilitation including exercise on postoperative outcomes following abdominal cancer surgery. Methods: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE 1946-2020, EMBASE 1947-2020, CINAHL 1937-2020, PEDro 1999-2020, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials 1991-2020) were systematically searched (until August 2020) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of prehabilitation interventions in patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery. This review included any form of prehabilitation either unimodal or multimodal that included whole body and/or respiratory exercises as a stand-alone intervention or in addition to other prehabilitation interventions (such as nutrition and psychology) compared to standard care. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 21 studies in the meta-analysis. There was moderate quality of evidence that multimodal prehabilitation improves pre-operative functional capacity as measured by 6 min walk distance (Mean difference [MD] 33.09 metres, 95% CI 17.69-48.50; p = <0.01) but improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness such as preoperative oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO2 peak; MD 1.74 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.03-3.50; p = 0.05) and anaerobic threshold (AT; MD 1.21 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.34-2.76; p = 0.13) were not significant. A reduction in hospital length of stay (MD 3.68 days, 95% CI 0.92-6.44; p = 0.009) was observed but no effect was observed for postoperative complications (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.18; p = 0.27), pulmonary complications (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01; p = 0.05), hospital re-admission (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61-1.90; p = 0.81) or postoperative mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.43-2.09, p = 0.90). Conclusion: Multimodal prehabilitation improves preoperative functional capacity with reduction in hospital length of stay. This supports the need for ongoing research on innovative cost-effective prehabilitation approaches, research within large multicentre studies to verify this effect and to explore implementation strategies within clinical practise.