Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    How is physical activity measured in lung cancer? A systematic review of outcome measures and their psychometric properties
    Edbrooke, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Astin, R ; Jack, S ; Granger, CL (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures. For aim 2, studies identified in aim 1 reporting on at least one psychometric property (validity, reliability, responsiveness or measurement error) were included. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments. Thirty-four studies using 21 different measures of PA were identified. Seventeen studies used performance-based measures. The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was the most frequently used patient-reported measure. Psychometric properties were reported for 13 of these measures and most frequently for movement sensors. Two studies reported on properties of the GLTEQ. Quality ratings for risk of bias were low. There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding method of PA measurement along the lung cancer continuum. Greater consensus could be achieved by using a consensus approach such as a Delphi process. Future studies should include assessment of psychometric properties of the measurement tool being used. Currently, it is recommended where feasible, both performance-based and patient-reported measurements of PA should be undertaken.
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    Associations between nutritional energy delivery, bioimpedance spectroscopy and functional outcomes in survivors of critical illness
    Fetterplace, K ; Beach, LJ ; MacIsaac, C ; Presneill, J ; Edbrooke, L ; Parry, SM ; Rechnitzer, T ; Curtis, R ; Berney, S ; Deane, AM ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Patients who survive critical illness frequently develop muscle weakness that can impact on quality of life; nutrition is potentially a modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to explore the associations between cumulative energy deficits (using indirect calorimetry and estimated requirements), nutritional and functional outcomes. METHODS: A prospective single-centre observational study of 60 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, who were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h, was conducted. Cumulative energy deficit was determined from artificial nutrition delivery compared to targets. Measurements included: (i) at recruitment and ICU discharge, weight, fat-free mass (bioimpedance spectroscopy) and malnutrition (Subjective Global Assessment score B/C); (ii) at awakening and ICU discharge, physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test-scored) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council sum-score (MRC-SS). ICU-acquired weakness was defined as a MRC-SS score of less than 48/60. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) cumulative energy deficit compared to the estimated targets up to ICU day 12 was 3648 (2514-5650) kcal. Adjusting for body mass index, age and severity of illness, cumulative energy deficit (per 1000 kcal) was independently associated with greater odds of ICU-acquired weakness [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.3, P = 0.001] and malnutrition (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = 0.02). In similar multivariable linear models, cumulative energy deficit was associated with reductions in fat-free mass (-1.3 kg; 95% CI = -2.4 to -0.2, P = 0.02) and physical function scores (-0.6 points; 95% CI = -0.9 to -0.3, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative energy deficit from artificial nutrition support was associated with reduced functional outcomes and greater loss of fat-free mass in ventilated ICU patients.
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    Improving the delivery of physical activity services in lung cancer: A qualitative representation of the patient's perspective
    Granger, CL ; Parry, SM ; Edbrooke, L ; Abo, S ; Leggett, N ; Dwyer, M ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences of, and preferences for, physical activity after a lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving seven patients who had been treated for lung cancer within the previous 2 years. Participants attended a focus group interview. Conventional content analysis methodology was used to analyse the text by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Eight major themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: the influence of past lifestyle and chronic disease; the perceived benefits of physical activity; using physical activity to facilitate return to activities of daily living; the impact of symptoms, capacity and motivation; family and peer support; access to services; health professionals; and enjoyment of different types of physical activity. Patients suggested several factors that could improve their healthcare experience. These include access to exercise professionals particularly after cancer treatment; access to information about physical activity in different formats; supervision from health professionals and peer support; and use of behaviour change strategies to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our results should be considered in the improvement of lung cancer care pathways as we strive to implement physical activity services into routine clinical care.
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    Early rehabilitation in critical care (eRiCC): functional electrical stimulation with cycling protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Parry, SM ; Berney, S ; Koopman, R ; Bryant, A ; El-Ansary, D ; Puthucheary, Z ; Hart, N ; Warrillow, S ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2012-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Intensive care-acquired weakness is a common problem, leads to significant impairment in physical functioning and muscle strength, and is prevalent in individuals with sepsis. Early rehabilitation has been shown to be safe and feasible; however, commencement is often delayed due to a patient's inability to co-operate. An intervention that begins early in an intensive care unit (ICU) admission without the need for patient volition may be beneficial in attenuating muscle wasting. The eRiCC (early rehabilitation in critical care) trial will investigate the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling and cycling alone, compared to standard care, in individuals with sepsis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single centre randomised controlled trial. Participants (n=80) aged ≥18 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis or severe sepsis, who are expected to be mechanically ventilated for ≥48 h and remain in the intensive care ≥4 days will be randomised within 72 h of admission to (1) standard care or (2) intervention where participants will receive functional electrical muscle stimulation-assisted supine cycling on one leg while the other leg undergoes cycling alone. Primary outcome measures include: muscle mass (quadriceps ultrasonography; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy); muscle strength (Medical Research Council Scale; hand-held dynamometry) and physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test; Functional Status Score in intensive care; 6 min walk test). Blinded outcome assessors will assess measures at baseline, weekly, at ICU discharge and acute hospital discharge. Secondary measures will be evaluated in a nested subgroup (n=20) and will consist of biochemical/histological analyses of collected muscle, urine and blood samples at baseline and at ICU discharge. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the relevant institution, and results will be published to inform clinical practice in the care of patients with sepsis to optimise rehabilitation and physical function outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000528853.
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    Functional outcomes in ICU - what should we be using? - an observational study
    Parry, SM ; Denehy, L ; Beach, LJ ; Berney, S ; Williamson, HC ; Granger, CL (BMC, 2015-03-29)
    INTRODUCTION: With growing awareness of the importance of rehabilitation, new measures are being developed specifically for use in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are currently 26 measures reported to assess function in ICU survivors. The Physical Function in Intensive care Test scored (PFIT-s) has established clinimetric properties. It is unknown how other functional measures perform in comparison to the PFIT-s or which functional measure may be the most clinically applicable for use within the ICU. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the criterion validity of the Functional Status Score for the ICU (FSS-ICU), ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) against the PFIT-s; (2) the construct validity of these tests against muscle strength; (3) predictive utility of these tests to predict discharge to home; and (4) the clinical applicability. This was a nested study within an ongoing controlled study and an observational study. METHODS: Sixty-six individuals were assessed at awakening and ICU discharge. Measures included: PFIT-s, FSS-ICU, IMS and SPPB. Bivariate relationships (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and predictive validity (logistic regression) were determined. Responsiveness (effect sizes); floor and ceiling effects; and minimal important differences were calculated. RESULTS: Mean ± SD PFIT-s at awakening was 4.7 ± 2.3 out of 10. On awakening a large positive relationship existed between PFIT-s and the other functional measures: FSS-ICU (rho = 0.87, p < 0.005), IMS (rho = 0.81, p < 0.005) and SPPB (rho = 0.70, p < 0.005). The PFIT-s had excellent construct validity (rho = 0.8, p < 0.005) and FSS-ICU (rho = 0.69, p < 0.005) and IMS (rho = 0.57, p < 0.005) had moderate construct validity with muscle strength. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU had small floor/ceiling effects <11% at awakening and ICU discharge. The SPPB had a large floor effect at awakening (78%) and ICU discharge (56%). All tests demonstrated responsiveness; however highest effect size was seen in the PFIT-s (Cohen's d = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: There is high criterion validity for other functional measures against the PFIT-s. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU are promising functional measures and are recommended to measure function within the ICU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02214823. Registered 7 August 2014).
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    Which field walking test should be used to assess functional exercise capacity in lung cancer? an observational study
    Granger, CL ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Martin, J ; Dimitriadis, T ; Sorohan, M ; Irving, L (BMC, 2015-08-12)
    BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence regarding the efficacy of exercise training to improve exercise capacity for individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard measure of exercise capacity; however this laboratory test has limitations for use in research and clinical practice. Alternative field walking tests are the six-minute walk test (6MWT), incremental-shuttle walk test (ISWT) and endurance-shuttle walk test (ESWT); however there is limited information about their clinimetric properties in NSCLC. AIMS: In NSCLC to determine the 1) criterion validity of the 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT against CPET; 2) construct validity of the 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT against measures of function, strength, respiratory function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and 3) clinical applicability of the tests. METHODS: Twenty participants (40 % male, mean ± SD age 66.1 ± 6.5 years) with stage I-IIIb NSCLC completed the 6MWT, ISWT, ESWT and CPET within six months of treatment. Testing order was randomised. Additional measures included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance-Status (ECOG-PS, function), respiratory function, hand-grip dynamometry and HRQoL. Correlations and regression analyses were used to assess relationships. RESULTS: The ISWT demonstrated criterion validity with a moderate relationship between ISWT distance and CPET peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.61, p = 0.007). Relationships between CPET and six minute walk distance (6MWD) (r = 0.24, p = 0.329) or ESWT time (r = 0.02, p = 0.942) were poor. Moderate construct validity existed for the 6MWD and respiratory function (forced vital capacity % predicted r = 0.53, p = 0.019; forced expiratory volume in the first second % predicted r = 0.55, p = 0.015). There were no relationships between the walking tests and measures of function, strength or HRQoL. The ESWT had a ceiling effect with 18 % reaching maximum time. No floor effects were seen in the tests. The mean ± SD time required to perform the individual 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT was 12.8 ± 2.5, 14.7 ± 3.7 and 16.3 ± 5.0 min respectively; in comparison to CPET which was 51.2 ± 12.7 min. Only one assessor was required to perform all field walking tests and no adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The ISWT is a promising measure of functional exercise capacity in lung cancer. Findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample prior to translation into practice.
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    Non-Invasive Positive airway Pressure thErapy to Reduce Postoperative Lung complications following Upper abdominal Surgery (NIPPER PLUS): protocol for a single-centre, pilot, randomised controlled trial
    Lockstone, J ; Boden, I ; Robertson, IK ; Story, D ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are a common serious complication following upper abdominal surgery leading to significant consequences including increased mortality, hospital costs and prolonged hospitalisation. The primary objective of this study is to detect whether there is a possible signal towards PPC reduction with the use of additional intermittent non-invasive ventilation (NIV) compared with continuous high-flow nasal oxygen therapy alone following high-risk elective upper abdominal surgery. Secondary objectives are to measure feasibility of: (1) trial conduct and design and (2) physiotherapy-led NIV and a high-flow nasal oxygen therapy protocol, safety of NIV and to provide preliminary costs of care information of NIV and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, parallel group, assessor blinded, pilot, randomised trial, with 130 high-risk upper abdominal surgery patients randomly assigned via concealed allocation to either (1) usual care of continuous high-flow nasal oxygen therapy for 48 hours following extubation or (2) usual care plus five additional 30 min physiotherapy-led NIV sessions within the first two postoperative days. Both groups receive standardised preoperative physiotherapy and postoperative early ambulation. No additional respiratory physiotherapy is provided to either group. Outcome measures will assess incidence of PPC within the first 14 postoperative days, recruitment ability, physiotherapy-led NIV and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy protocol adherence, adverse events relating to NIV delivery and costs of providing a physiotherapy-led NIV and a high-flow nasal oxygen therapy service following upper abdominal surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the relevant institution and results will be published to inform future multicentre trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617000269336; Pre-results.
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    Understanding factors influencing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: a systematic review
    Granger, CL ; Connolly, B ; Denehy, L ; Hart, N ; Antippa, P ; Lin, K-Y ; Parry, SM (SPRINGER, 2017-03-01)
    PURPOSE: Despite evidence and clinical practice guidelines supporting physical activity (PA) for people with lung cancer, this evidence has not translated into clinical practice. This review aims to identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for patients with lung cancer to participate in PA from the perspective of patients, carers and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: Systematic review of articles using electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2016), CINAHL (1982-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Scopus (2004-2016) and Cochrane (2016). Quantitative and qualitative studies, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, which assessed the barriers or enablers to PA for patients with lung cancer were included. Registered-PROSPERO (CRD4201603341). RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (n = 9 cross-sectional, n = 4 case series, n = 11 qualitative) including 1074 patients, 23 carers and 169 HCPs were included. Barriers and enablers to PA were identified (6 major themes, 18 sub-themes): Barriers included patient-level factors (physical capability, symptoms, comorbidities, previous sedentary lifestyle, psychological influences, perceived relevance), HCP factors (time/knowledge to deliver information) and environmental factors (access to services, resources, timing relative to treatment). Enablers included anticipated benefits, opportunity for behaviour change and influences from HCPs and carers. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has identified the volume of literature demonstrating that barriers and enablers to PA in lung cancer are multidimensional and span diverse factors. These include patient-level factors, such as symptoms, comorbidities, sedentary lifestyle, mood and fear, and environmental factors. These factors should be considered to identify and develop suitable interventions and clinical services in attempt to increase PA in patients with lung cancer.
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    Factors influencing physical activity and rehabilitation in survivors of critical illness: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies
    Parry, SM ; Knight, LD ; Connolly, B ; Baldwin, C ; Puthucheary, Z ; Morris, P ; Mortimore, J ; Hart, N ; Denehy, L ; Granger, CL (SPRINGER, 2017-04-01)
    PURPOSE: To identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for survivors of critical illness to participate in physical activity in the ICU and post-ICU settings from the perspective of patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. METHODS: Systematic review of articles using five electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus. Quantitative and qualitative studies that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal and assessed barriers or enablers for survivors of critical illness to perform physical activity were included. Prospero ID: CRD42016035454. RESULTS: Eighty-nine papers were included. Five major themes and 28 sub-themes were identified, encompassing: (1) patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, including delirium, sedation, illness severity, comorbidities, weakness, anxiety, confidence and motivation; (2) safety influences, including physiological stability and concern for lines, e.g. risk of dislodgement; (3) culture and team influences, including leadership, interprofessional communication, administrative buy-in, clinician expertise and knowledge; (4) motivation and beliefs regarding the benefits/risks; and (5) environmental influences, including funding, access to rehabilitation programs, staffing and equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The main barriers identified were patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, safety concerns, lack of leadership and ICU culture of mobility, lack of interprofessional communication, expertise and knowledge, and lack of staffing/equipment and funding to provide rehabilitation programs. Barriers and enablers are multidimensional and span diverse factors. The majority of these barriers are modifiable and can be targeted in future clinical practice.
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    Ultrasonography in the intensive care setting can be used to detect changes in the quality and quantity of muscle and is related to muscle strength and function
    Parry, SM ; El-Ansary, D ; Cartwright, MS ; Sarwal, A ; Berney, S ; Koopman, R ; Annoni, R ; Puthucheary, Z ; Gordon, IR ; Morris, PE ; Denehy, L (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2015-10-01)
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) document patterns of quadriceps muscle wasting in the first 10 days of admission and (2) determine the relationship between muscle ultrasonography and volitional measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two adults ventilated for more than 48 hours were included. Sequential quadriceps ultrasound images were obtained over the first 10 days and at awakening and intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Muscle strength and function were assessed at awakening and ICU discharge. RESULTS: A total of 416 images were analyzed. There was a 30% reduction in vastus intermedius (VI) thickness, rectus femoris (RF) thickness, and cross-sectional area within 10 days of admission. Muscle echogenicity scores increased for both RF and VI muscles by +12.7% and +25.5%, respectively (suggesting deterioration in muscle quality). There was a strong association between function and VI thickness (r = 0.82) and echogenicity (r = -0.77). There was a moderate association between function and RF cross-sectional area (r = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle wasting occurs rapidly in the ICU setting. Ultrasonography is a useful surrogate measure for identifying future impairment. Vastus intermedius may be an important muscle to monitor in the future because it demonstrated the greatest change in muscle quality and had the strongest relationship to volitional measures.