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ItemPostural Control and Fear of Falling Assessment in People With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review of Instruments, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linkage, and Measurement PropertiesOliveira, CC ; Lee, A ; Granger, CL ; Miller, KJ ; Irving, LB ; Denehy, L (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2013-09-01)OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the instruments used to assess postural control and fear of falling in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to synthesize and evaluate their breadth of content and measurement properties. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, and OTSeeker databases searched in September 2012. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed the selection of articles, the ICF linking process and quality assessment. Only quantitative studies were included, irrespective of language or publication date. DATA EXTRACTION: This systematic review comprised two phases. Phase 1 aimed to identify the commonly used instruments to assess postural control and fear of falling in the COPD literature. The breadth of content of each instrument was examined based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In phase 2, a measurement property search filter was adopted and used in four electronic databases to retrieve properties reported in the COPD population. The COSMIN checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of each measurement property reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventeen out of 401 publications were eligible in phase 1. Seventeen instruments were identified including 15 for postural control and 2 for fear of falling assessment. The Berg Balance Scale, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were the most frequently used instruments to assess postural control and fear of falling respectively. The ICF categories covered varied considerably among instruments. The Balance Evaluation Systems test and ABC presented the greatest breadth of content. Measurement properties reported included criterion predictive validity (4 instruments), construct validity (11 instruments) and responsiveness (1 instrument), with inconsistent findings based on 'fair' and 'poor' quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: Different instruments with heterogeneous content have been used to assess postural control and fear of falling outcomes. Standardized assessment methods and best evidence on measurement properties is required in the COPD literature.
ItemProximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasisLee, AL ; Button, BM ; Denehy, L ; Roberts, SJ ; Bamford, TL ; Ellis, SJ ; Mu, F-T ; Heine, RG ; Stirling, RG ; Wilson, JW (WILEY, 2014-02-01)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aims of this observational study were (i) to examine the prevalence of symptomatic and clinically silent proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis, (ii) the presence of gastric aspiration, and (iii) to explore the possible clinical significance of this comorbidity in these conditions. METHODS: Twenty-seven participants with COPD, 27 with bronchiectasis and 17 control subjects completed reflux symptom evaluation and dual-channel 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. In those with lung disease, pepsin levels in sputum samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with disease severity (lung function and high-resolution computed tomography) also measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of GOR in COPD was 37%, in bronchiectasis was 40% and in control subjects was 18% (P = 0.005). Of those diagnosed with GOR, clinically silent reflux was detected in 20% of participants with COPD and 42% with bronchiectasis. While pepsin was found in 33% of COPD and 26% of bronchiectasis participants, the presence of pepsin in sputum was not related to a diagnosis of GOR based on oesophageal pH monitoring in either condition. Neither a diagnosis of GOR nor the presence of pepsin was associated with increased severity of lung disease in COPD or bronchiectasis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GOR in COPD or bronchiectasis is twice that of the control population, and the diagnosis could not be based on symptoms alone. Pepsin was detected in sputum in COPD and bronchiectasis, suggesting a possible role of pulmonary aspiration, which requires further exploration.
ItemNo Preview AvailableClinical determinants of the 6-Minute Walk Test in bronchiectasisLee, AL ; Button, BM ; Ellis, S ; Stirling, R ; Wilson, JW ; Holland, AE ; Denehy, L (W B SAUNDERS CO LTD, 2009-05-01)BACKGROUND: The 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is a widely used measurement of functional exercise capacity in chronic lung disease. While exercise intolerance has been identified in patients with bronchiectasis, the clinical determinants of the 6MWT in this population have not been examined. The aim of this study was to 1) establish the relationship between the 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD), disease severity and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and 2) identify predictors of exercise tolerance in adults with bronchiectasis. METHODS: The 6MWT was performed in 27 patients with bronchiectasis (mean [SD] FEV(1) 73.9% predicted [23.4]). Disease severity was assessed using spirometry and HRCT scoring while HRQOL was evaluated using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36). The relationships were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression. RESULTS: The 6MWD correlated positively with FVC (r=0.52, p<0.01), generations of bronchopulmonary divisions (r(s)=0.38, p<0.05) and SF-36 physical summary (r=0.71, p<0.001) while a negative correlation was observed between all domains of the SGRQ (all correlations r>0.5, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the SGRQ activity, symptom scores and generations of bronchial divisions involved were identified as independent predictors of the 6MWD, explaining 76% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of HRQOL demonstrated a stronger association with the 6MWD compared to physiological measures of disease severity in patients with predominantly mild to moderate bronchiectasis.