Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    Early rehabilitation in critical care (eRiCC): functional electrical stimulation with cycling protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Parry, SM ; Berney, S ; Koopman, R ; Bryant, A ; El-Ansary, D ; Puthucheary, Z ; Hart, N ; Warrillow, S ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2012-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Intensive care-acquired weakness is a common problem, leads to significant impairment in physical functioning and muscle strength, and is prevalent in individuals with sepsis. Early rehabilitation has been shown to be safe and feasible; however, commencement is often delayed due to a patient's inability to co-operate. An intervention that begins early in an intensive care unit (ICU) admission without the need for patient volition may be beneficial in attenuating muscle wasting. The eRiCC (early rehabilitation in critical care) trial will investigate the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling and cycling alone, compared to standard care, in individuals with sepsis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single centre randomised controlled trial. Participants (n=80) aged ≥18 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis or severe sepsis, who are expected to be mechanically ventilated for ≥48 h and remain in the intensive care ≥4 days will be randomised within 72 h of admission to (1) standard care or (2) intervention where participants will receive functional electrical muscle stimulation-assisted supine cycling on one leg while the other leg undergoes cycling alone. Primary outcome measures include: muscle mass (quadriceps ultrasonography; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy); muscle strength (Medical Research Council Scale; hand-held dynamometry) and physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test; Functional Status Score in intensive care; 6 min walk test). Blinded outcome assessors will assess measures at baseline, weekly, at ICU discharge and acute hospital discharge. Secondary measures will be evaluated in a nested subgroup (n=20) and will consist of biochemical/histological analyses of collected muscle, urine and blood samples at baseline and at ICU discharge. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the relevant institution, and results will be published to inform clinical practice in the care of patients with sepsis to optimise rehabilitation and physical function outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000528853.
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    Effects of lumbar extensor muscle strengthening and neuromuscular control retraining on disability in patients with chronic low back pain: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Farragher, JB ; Pranata, A ; Williams, G ; El-Ansary, D ; Parry, SM ; Kasza, J ; Bryant, A (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-08-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. However, there is no consensus in the literature regarding optimal management. Exercise intervention is the most widely used treatment as it likely influences contributing factors such as physical and psychological. Literature evaluating the effects of exercise on CLBP is often generalised, non-specific and employs inconsistent outcome measures. Moreover, the mechanisms behind exercise-related improvements are poorly understood. Recently, research has emerged identifying associations between neuromuscular-biomechanical impairments and CLBP-related disability. This information can be used as the basis for more specific and, potentially more efficacious exercise interventions for CLBP patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Ninety-four participants (including both males and females) with CLBP aged 18-65 who present for treatment to a Melbourne-based private physiotherapy practice will be recruited and randomised into one of two treatment groups. Following baseline assessment, participants will be randomly allocated to receive either: (i) strengthening exercises in combination with lumbar force accuracy training exercises or (ii) strengthening exercises alone. Participants will attend exercise sessions twice a week for 12 weeks, with assessments conducted at baseline, midway (ie, 6 weeks into the trial) and at trial completion. All exercise interventions will be supervised by a qualified physiotherapist trained in the intervention protocol. The primary outcome will be functional disability measured using the Oswestry Disability Index. Other psychosocial and mechanistic parameters will also be measured. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was given approval by the University of Melbourne Behavioural and Social Sciences Human Ethics Sub-Committee on 8 August 2017, reference number 1 749 845. Results of the randomised controlled trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618000894291.
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    Architectural anatomy of the quadriceps and the relationship with muscle strength: An observational study utilising real-time ultrasound in healthy adults
    El-Ansary, D ; Marshall, CJ ; Farragher, J ; Annoni, R ; Schwank, A ; McFarlane, J ; Bryant, A ; Han, J ; Webster, M ; Zito, G ; Parry, S ; Pranata, A (WILEY, 2021-08-29)
    Quadriceps atrophy and morphological change is a known phenomenon that can impact significantly on strength and functional performance in patients with acute or chronic presentations conditions. Real-time ultrasound (RTUS) imaging is a noninvasive valid and reliable method of quantifying quadriceps muscle anatomy and architecture. To date, there is a paucity of normative data on the architectural properties of superficial and deep components of the quadriceps muscle group to inform assessment and evaluation of intervention programs. The aims of this study were to (1) quantify the anatomical architectural properties of the quadriceps muscle group (rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis) using RTUS in healthy older adults and (2) to determine the relationship between RTUS muscle parameters and measures of quadriceps muscle strength. Thirty middle aged to older males and females (age range 55-79 years; mean age =59.9 ± 7.08 years) were recruited. Quadriceps muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, pennation angle, and echogenicity were measured using RTUS. Quadriceps strength was measured using hand-held dynamometry. For the RTUS-derived quadriceps morphological data, rectus femoris mean results; circumference 9.3 cm; CSA 4.6 cm2 ; thickness 1.5 cm; echogenicity 100.2 pixels. Vastus intermedius mean results; thickness 1.8 cm; echogenicity 99.1 pixels. Vastus lateralis thickness 1.9 cm; pennation angle 17.3°; fascicle length 7.0 cm. Quadriceps force was significantly correlated only with rectus femoris circumference (r = 0.48, p = 0.007), RF echogenicity (r = 0.38, p = 0.037), VI echogenicity (r = 0.43, p = 0.018), and VL fascicle length (r = 0.43, p = 0.019). Quadriceps force was best predicted by a three-variable model (adjusted R2  = 0.46, p < 0.001) which included rectus femoris echogenicity (B = 0.43, p = 0.005), vastus lateralis fascicle length (B = 0.33, p = 0.025) and rectus femoris circumference (B = 0.31, p = 0.041). Thus respectively, rectus femoris echogenicity explains 43%, vastus lateralis fascicle length explains 33% and rectus femoris circumference explains 31% of the variance of quadriceps force. The study findings suggest that RTUS measures were reliable and further research is warranted to establish whether these could be used as surrogate measures for quadriceps strength in adults to inform exercise and rehabilitation programs.
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    Reliability of lumbar multifidus and iliocostalis lumborum thickness and echogenicity measurements using ultrasound imaging.
    Farragher, J ; Pranata, A ; El-Ansary, D ; Parry, S ; Williams, G ; Royse, C ; Royse, A ; O'Donohue, M ; Bryant, A (Wiley, 2021-08)
    PURPOSE: To establish the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of lumbar multifidus (LM) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle thickness and echogenicity as derived using ultrasound imaging. METHODS: Ultrasound images of the LM and IL were collected from 11 healthy participants on two occasions, 1 week apart, by two independent assessors. Measures of LM and IL thickness and echogenicity were subject to test-retest and inter-rater reliability, which was assessed by calculation of an F statistic, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of measurement, 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. This study was given approval by The University of Melbourne Behavioural and Social Sciences Human Ethics Sub-Committee (ref: 1749845). RESULTS: Assessors A and B showed good to excellent test-retest reliability for LM thickness (ICC3,3 A: 0.89 and B: 0.98), LM echogenicity (ICC3,3 A: 0.93 and B: 0.95) and IL echogenicity (ICC3,3 A: 0.87 and B: 0.83). Test-retest reliability for IL thickness was poor for Assessor A but excellent for Assessor B. Both assessors demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability for LM thickness and echogenicity (ICC2,3: 0.79 and 0.94), but poor reliability for IL thickness and echogenicity (ICC2,3: 0.00 and 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Inter-rater and test-retest reliability was excellent for LM but was less reliable for measures of the IL muscle.
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    Ultrasonography in the intensive care setting can be used to detect changes in the quality and quantity of muscle and is related to muscle strength and function
    Parry, SM ; El-Ansary, D ; Cartwright, MS ; Sarwal, A ; Berney, S ; Koopman, R ; Annoni, R ; Puthucheary, Z ; Gordon, IR ; Morris, PE ; Denehy, L (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2015-10-01)
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) document patterns of quadriceps muscle wasting in the first 10 days of admission and (2) determine the relationship between muscle ultrasonography and volitional measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two adults ventilated for more than 48 hours were included. Sequential quadriceps ultrasound images were obtained over the first 10 days and at awakening and intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Muscle strength and function were assessed at awakening and ICU discharge. RESULTS: A total of 416 images were analyzed. There was a 30% reduction in vastus intermedius (VI) thickness, rectus femoris (RF) thickness, and cross-sectional area within 10 days of admission. Muscle echogenicity scores increased for both RF and VI muscles by +12.7% and +25.5%, respectively (suggesting deterioration in muscle quality). There was a strong association between function and VI thickness (r = 0.82) and echogenicity (r = -0.77). There was a moderate association between function and RF cross-sectional area (r = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle wasting occurs rapidly in the ICU setting. Ultrasonography is a useful surrogate measure for identifying future impairment. Vastus intermedius may be an important muscle to monitor in the future because it demonstrated the greatest change in muscle quality and had the strongest relationship to volitional measures.
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    Functional electrical stimulation with cycling in the critically ill: A pilot case-matched control study
    Parry, SM ; Berney, S ; Warrillow, S ; El-Ansary, D ; Bryant, AL ; Hart, N ; Puthucheary, Z ; Koopman, R ; Denehy, L (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2014-08-01)
    PURPOSE: The purpose was to determine (a) safety and feasibility of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-cycling and (b) compare FES-cycling to case-matched controls in terms of functional recovery and delirium outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen adult intensive care unit patients with sepsis ventilated for more than 48 hours and in the intensive care unit for at least 4 days were included. Eight subjects underwent FES-cycling in addition to usual care and were compared to 8 case-matched control individuals. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of FES-cycling. Secondary outcomes were Physical Function in Intensive Care Test scored on awakening, time to reach functional milestones, and incidence and duration of delirium. RESULTS: One minor adverse event was recorded. Sixty-nine out of total possible 95 FES sessions (73%) were completed. A visible or palpable contraction was present 80% of the time. There was an improvement in Physical Function in Intensive Care Test score of 3.9/10 points in the intervention cohort with faster recovery of functional milestones. There was also a shorter duration of delirium in the intervention cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The delivery of FES-cycling is both safe and feasible. The preliminary findings suggest that FES-cycling may improve function and reduce delirium. Further research is required to confirm the findings of this study and evaluate the efficacy of FES-cycling.