Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    Exercise alone impacts short-term adult visual neuroplasticity in a monocular deprivation paradigm
    Virathone, L ; Nguyen, BN ; Dobson, F ; Carter, OL ; McKendrick, AM (ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, 2021-10-01)
    Adult homeostatic visual plasticity can be induced by short-term patching, heralded by a shift in ocular dominance in favor of the deprived eye after monocular occlusion. The potential to boost visual neuroplasticity with environmental enrichment such as exercise has also been explored; however, the results are inconsistent, with some studies finding no additive effect of exercise. Studies to date have only considered the effect of patching alone or in combination with exercise. Whether exercise alone affects typical outcome measures of experimental estimates of short-term visual neuroplasticity is unknown. We therefore measured binocular rivalry in 20 healthy young adults (20-34 years old) at baseline and after three 2-hour interventions: patching (of the dominant eye) only, patching with exercise, and exercise only. Consistent with previous work, the patching interventions produced a shift in ocular dominance toward the deprived (dominant) eye. Mild- to moderate-intensity exercise in the absence of patching had several effects on binocular rivalry metrics, including a reduction in the dominant eye percept. The proportion of mixed percept and the time to first switch (onset rivalry) did not change from baseline across all interventions. Thus, we demonstrate that exercise alone can impact binocular rivalry outcomes measures. We did not observe a synergistic effect between patching and exercise in our data.
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    VIRTUAL FRACTURE CLINIC: A PANDEMIC-READY TOOL for IMPROVING the EFFICIENCY of FRACTURE CLINIC
    McRae, B ; Shortt, N ; Campbell, N ; Burton, C ; Scott, J ; Fitzpatrick, J (Australasian College of Health Service Management, 2021-12-01)
    Background: The traditional model of care of the Orthopaedic Fracture Clinic (OFC) is labour intensive, expensive, has poor satisfaction rates, and often has minimal impact on management and outcomes of patients with minor injuries. Our aim was to implement a Virtual Fracture Clinic (VFC) for the management of minor injuries that is safe, reduces OFC clinic workload and reduces the OFC failure to attend (FTA) rate. Methods: This study was a retrospective longitudinal audit of OFC workload before (January 2012 -February 2017) and after (March 2017 – December 2019) implementation of the VFC. It was performed in an urban district general hospital in South East Queensland, Australia. The primary outcome measures included attendances per timepoint (month). Results: Overall, we observed a significant reduction in total number of patients from 1,055 (IQR 104.5) to 831 (IQR: 103) per month) coming through the OFC following the introduction of the VFC (F = 21.9; df=1; p <0.0001). The failure to attend rate was reduced by 44% from 271 (IQR: 127.3) to 151 (IQR: 72.8) (F=4.0; df=1; p = 0.047). Conclusion: The VFC implementation was successful in improving efficiency and reducing the current OFC workload, as well as reducing FTA rate. Reduction in clinic workload allows more time to be spent with complex patients, prevents clinic backlogs and overbooking, and crowding of waiting rooms. In the midst of a global pandemic that is spread by close contact, virtual clinics seem the way of the future to treat patients whilst minimising risk of COVID-19 spread.
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    Patient-Facing Mobile Apps to Support Physiotherapy Care: Protocol for a Systematic Review of Apps Within App Stores
    Merolli, M ; Francis, JJ ; Vallance, P ; Bennell, KL ; Malliaras, P ; Hinman, RS (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2021-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Care delivered by physiotherapists aims to facilitate engagement in positive health behaviors by patients (eg, adherence to exercise). However, research suggests that behavioral interventions are frequently omitted from care. Hence, better understanding of strategies that can be used by physiotherapists to support patients to engage in positive behaviors is important and likely to optimize outcomes. Digital health interventions delivered via mobile apps are garnering attention for their ability to support behavior change. They have potential to incorporate numerous behavior change techniques (BCTs) to support goals of physiotherapy care, including but not limited to self-monitoring, goal setting, and prompts/alerts. Despite their potential to support physiotherapy care, much is still unknown about what apps are available to consumers, the BCTs they use, their quality, and their potential to change behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to systematically review the mobile apps available in app stores that are intended for use by patients to support physiotherapy care, including the BCTs within these apps. The secondary aims are to evaluate the quality and behavior change potential of these apps. METHODS: A systematic review of mobile apps in app stores will be undertaken. This will be guided by recommendations for systematic reviews in line with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement but adapted to suit our app store search, consistent with similar systematic reviews of apps published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. Apple Store and Google Play will be searched with a two-step search strategy, using terms relevant to physiotherapy, physiotherapists, and common physiotherapy care. Key eligibility criteria will include apps that are intended for use by patients and are self-contained or stand-alone without the need of additional wearable devices or other add-ons. Included apps will be coded for BCTs and rated for quality using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) and for potential to change behavior using the App Behavior Change Scale (ABACUS). RESULTS: App store search and screening are expected to be completed in 2021. Data extraction and quality appraisal are expected to commence by November 2021. The study results are expected to be published in a subsequent paper in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge gained from this review will support clinical practice and inform research by providing a greater understanding of the quality of currently available mobile apps and their potential to support patient behavior change goals of physiotherapy care. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/29047.
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    Changes in bone microarchitecture following parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism
    Ruderman, I ; Rajapakse, CS ; Xu, W ; Tang, S ; Robertson, PL ; Toussaint, ND (ELSEVIER, 2021-08-28)
    BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a significant effect on bone, affecting both trabecular and cortical compartments. Although parathyroidectomy results in biochemical improvement in mineral metabolism, changes in bone microarchitecture as evaluated by high-resolution imaging modalities are not known. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides in-depth three-dimensional assessment of bone microarchitecture, as well as determination of mechanical bone strength determined by finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: We conducted a single-centre longitudinal study to evaluate changes in bone microarchitecture with MRI in patients with SHPT undergoing parathyroidectomy. MRI was performed at the distal tibia at baseline (time of parathyroidectomy) and at least 12 months following surgery. Trabecular and cortical topological parameters as well as bone mechanical competence using FEA were assessed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with CKD (12 male, 3 female) underwent both MRI scans at the time of surgery and at least 12 months post-surgery. At baseline, 13 patients were on dialysis, one had a functioning kidney transplant, and one was pre-dialysis with stage 5 CKD. Seven patients received a kidney transplant following parathyroidectomy prior to follow-up MRI. MRI parameters in patients at follow up were consistent with loss in trabecular and cortical bone thickness (p = 0.006 and 0.03 respectively). Patients who underwent a kidney transplant in the follow-up period had reduction in trabecular thickness (p = 0.05), whereas those who continued on dialysis had reduction in cortical thickness (p = 0.04) and mechanical bone strength on FEA (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe SHPT requiring parathyroidectomy have persistent changes in bone microarchitecture at least 12 months following surgery with evidence of ongoing decline in trabecular and cortical thickness.
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    Very Preterm Early Motor Repertoire and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 8 Years
    Salavati, S ; Bos, AF ; Doyle, LW ; Anderson, PJ ; Spittle, AJ (AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS, 2021-09-01)
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (<32 weeks' gestation) have more neurodevelopmental problems compared with term-born peers. Aberrant fidgety movements (FMs) are associated with adverse motor outcomes in children born very preterm. However, associations of aberrant FMs combined with additional movements and postures to give a motor optimality score-revised (MOS-R) with school-aged cognitive and motor outcomes are unclear. Our aim with this study was to determine those associations. METHODS: Of 118 infants born <30 weeks' gestation recruited into a randomized controlled trial of early intervention, 97 had a general movements assessment at 3 months' corrected age and were eligible for this study. Early motor repertoire including FMs and MOS-R were scored from videos of infant's spontaneous movement at 3 months' corrected age. At 8 years' corrected age, cognitive and motor performances were evaluated. Associations of early FMs and MOS-R with outcomes at 8 years were determined using linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (80%) infants with early motor repertoire data had neurodevelopmental assessments at 8 years. A higher MOS-R, and favorable components of the individual subscales of the MOS-R, including the presence of normal FMs, were associated with better performance for general cognition, attention, working memory, executive function and motor function at 8 years; eg, presence of normal FMs was associated with a 21.6 points higher general conceptual ability score (95% confidence interval: 12.8-30.5; P < .001) compared with absent FMs. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable early motor repertoire of infants born <30 weeks is strongly associated with improved cognitive and motor performance at 8 years.
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    A most painful knee does not induce interlimb differences in knee and hip moments during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis
    Bakker, NF ; Schrijvers, JC ; van den Noort, JC ; Hall, M ; van der Krogt, MM ; Harlaar, J ; van der Esch, M (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2021-08-25)
    BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis can adapt their gait to unload the most painful knee joint in order to try to reduce pain and improve physical function. However, these gait adaptations can cause higher loads on the contralateral joints. The aim of the study was to investigate the interlimb differences in knee and hip frontal plane moments during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis and in healthy controls. METHODS: Forty patients with knee osteoarthritis and 19 healthy matched controls were measured during comfortable treadmill walking. Frontal plane joint moments were obtained of both hip and knee joints. Differences in interlimb moments within each group were assessed using statistical parametric mapping and discrete gait parameters. FINDINGS: No interlimb differences were observed in patients with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects at group level. Furthermore, the patients presented similar interlimb variability as the controls. In a small subgroup (n = 12) of patients, the moments in the most painful knee were lower than in the contralateral knee, while the other patients (n = 28) showed higher moments in the most painful knee compared to the contralateral knee. However, no interlimb differences in the hip moments were observed within the subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Patients with knee osteoarthritis do not have interlimb differences in knee and hip joint moments. Patients and healthy subjects demonstrate a similar interlimb variability in the moments of the lower extremities. In this context, differences in knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis did not induce any interlimb differences in the frontal plane knee and hip moments.
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    REPORT-PFP: a consensus from the International Patellofemoral Research Network to improve REPORTing of quantitative PatelloFemoral Pain studies
    Barton, CJ ; De Oliveira Silva, D ; Morton, S ; Collins, NJ ; Rathleff, MS ; Vicenzino, B ; van Middelkoop, M ; Crossley, KM ; Callaghan, MJ ; Selfe, J ; Holden, S ; Lack, S ; Macri, EM ; Bazett-Jones, DM ; Earl-Boehm, JE ; Riel, H ; Powers, CM ; Davis, IS ; Morrissey, D (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-10-01)
    Patellofemoral pain is a common and often debilitating musculoskeletal condition. Clinical translation and evidence synthesis of patellofemoral pain research are compromised by heterogenous and often inadequately reported study details. This consensus statement and associated checklist provides standards for REPORTing of quantitative PatelloFemoral Pain (REPORT-PFP) research to enhance clinical translation and evidence synthesis, and support clinician engagement with research and data collection. A three-stage Delphi process was initiated at the 2015 International Patellofemoral Research Network (iPFRN) retreat. An initial e-Delphi activity (n=24) generated topics and items, which were refined at the 2017 iPFRN retreat, and voted on prior to and following the 2019 iPFRN retreat (n=51 current and past retreat participants). Voting criteria included 'strongly recommended' (essential), 'recommended' (encouraged) and uncertain/unsure. An item was included in the checklist if ≥70% respondents voted 'recommended'. Items receiving ≥70% votes for 'strongly recommended' were labelled as such. The final REPORT-PFP checklist includes 31 items (11 strongly recommended, 20 recommended), covering (i) demographics (n=2,4); (ii) baseline symptoms and previous treatments (n=3,7); (iii) outcome measures (2,4); (iv) outcomes measure description (n=1,2); (v) clinical trial methodology (0,3) and (vi) reporting study results (n=3,0). The REPORT-PFP checklist is ready to be used by researchers and clinicians. Strong stakeholder engagement from clinical academics during development means consistent application by the international patellofemoral pain research community is likely. Checklist adherence will improve research accessibility for clinicians and enhance future evidence synthesis.
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    Consensus for experimental design in electromyography (CEDE) project: Terminology matrix
    McManus, L ; Lowery, M ; Merletti, R ; Sogaard, K ; Besomi, M ; Clancy, EA ; van Dieen, JH ; Hug, F ; Wrigley, T ; Besier, T ; Carson, RG ; Disselhorst-Klug, C ; Enoka, RM ; Falla, D ; Farina, D ; Gandevia, S ; Holobar, A ; Kiernan, MC ; McGill, K ; Perreault, E ; Rothwell, JC ; Tucker, K ; Hodges, PW (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2021-06-05)
    Consensus on the definition of common terms in electromyography (EMG) research promotes consistency in the EMG literature and facilitates the integration of research across the field. This paper presents a matrix developed within the Consensus for Experimental Design in Electromyography (CEDE) project, providing definitions for terms used in the EMG literature. The definitions for physiological and technical terms that are common in EMG research are included in two tables, with key information on each definition provided in a comment section. A brief outline of some basic principles for recording and analyzing EMG is included in an appendix, to provide researchers new to EMG with background and context for understanding the definitions of physiological and technical terms. This terminology matrix can be used as a reference to aid researchers new to EMG in reviewing the EMG literature.
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    Early Intervention for Children Aged 0 to 2 Years With or at High Risk of Cerebral Palsy International Clinical Practice Guideline Based on Systematic Reviews
    Morgan, C ; Fetters, L ; Adde, L ; Badawi, N ; Bancale, A ; Boyd, RN ; Chorna, O ; Cioni, G ; Damiano, DL ; Darrah, J ; de Vries, LS ; Dusing, S ; Einspieler, C ; Eliasson, A-C ; Ferriero, D ; Fehlings, D ; Forssberg, H ; Gordon, AM ; Greaves, S ; Guzzetta, A ; Hadders-Algra, M ; Harbourne, R ; Karlsson, P ; Krumlinde-Sundholm, L ; Latal, B ; Loughran-Fowlds, A ; Mak, C ; Maitre, N ; McIntyre, S ; Mei, C ; Morgan, A ; Kakooza-Mwesige, A ; Romeo, DM ; Sanchez, K ; Spittle, A ; Shepherd, R ; Thornton, M ; Valentine, J ; Ward, R ; Whittingham, K ; Zamany, A ; Novak, I (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-17)
    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood physical disability. Early intervention for children younger than 2 years with or at risk of CP is critical. Now that an evidence-based guideline for early accurate diagnosis of CP exists, there is a need to summarize effective, CP-specific early intervention and conduct new trials that harness plasticity to improve function and increase participation. Our recommendations apply primarily to children at high risk of CP or with a diagnosis of CP, aged 0 to 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the best available evidence about CP-specific early interventions across 9 domains promoting motor function, cognitive skills, communication, eating and drinking, vision, sleep, managing muscle tone, musculoskeletal health, and parental support. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The literature was systematically searched for the best available evidence for intervention for children aged 0 to 2 years at high risk of or with CP. Databases included CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Scopus. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were appraised by A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) or Cochrane Risk of Bias tools. Recommendations were formed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. FINDINGS: Sixteen systematic reviews and 27 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Quality varied. Three best-practice principles were supported for the 9 domains: (1) immediate referral for intervention after a diagnosis of high risk of CP, (2) building parental capacity for attachment, and (3) parental goal-setting at the commencement of intervention. Twenty-eight recommendations (24 for and 4 against) specific to the 9 domains are supported with key evidence: motor function (4 recommendations), cognitive skills (2), communication (7), eating and drinking (2), vision (4), sleep (7), tone (1), musculoskeletal health (2), and parent support (5). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When a child meets the criteria of high risk of CP, intervention should start as soon as possible. Parents want an early diagnosis and treatment and support implementation as soon as possible. Early intervention builds on a critical developmental time for plasticity of developing systems. Referrals for intervention across the 9 domains should be specific as per recommendations in this guideline.
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