Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    Physical Therapists' Perceptions of Telephone- and Internet Video-Mediated Service Models for Exercise Management of People With Osteoarthritis
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Kasza, J ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2018-03-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical therapists' perceptions of, and willingness to use, telephone- and internet-mediated service models for exercise therapy for people with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis. METHODS: This study used an internet-based survey of Australian physical therapists, comprising 3 sections: 1 on demographic information and 2 with 16 positively framed perception statements about delivering exercise via telephone and video over the internet, for people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Levels of agreement with each statement were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to determine therapist characteristics influencing interest in delivering telerehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 217 therapists spanning metropolitan, regional, rural, and remote Australia completed the survey. For telephone-delivered care, there was consensus agreement that it would not violate patient privacy (81% agreed/strongly agreed) and would save patient's time (76%), but there was less than majority agreement for 10 statements. There was consensus agreement that video-delivered care would save a patient's time (82%), be convenient for patients (80%), and not violate patient privacy (75%). Most agreed with all other perception statements about video-delivered care, except for liking no physical contact (14%). Low confidence using internet video technologies, and inexperience with telerehabilitation, were significantly associated with reduced interest in delivering telephone and/or video-based services. CONCLUSION: Physical therapists agree that telerehabilitation offers time-saving and privacy advantages for people with osteoarthritis and perceive video-delivered care more favorably than telephone-delivered services. However, most do not like the lack of physical contact with either service model. These findings may inform the implementation of telerehabilitation osteoarthritis services and the training needs of clinicians involved in delivering care.
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    Frontal plane hip joint loading according to pain severity in people with hip osteoarthritis
    Hall, M ; Allison, K ; Wrigley, TV ; Metcalf, BR ; Pua, Y-H ; Van Ginckel, A ; Bennell, KL (WILEY, 2018-06-01)
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    Internet Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    O'moore, KA ; Newby, JM ; Andrews, G ; Hunter, DJ ; Bennell, K ; Smith, J ; Williams, AD (WILEY, 2018-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for depression in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 69 adults (ages ≥50 years) meeting criteria for MDD and OA of the knee with 1-week postintervention (week 11) and 3-month followup (week 24) end points. Patients were allocated to either a 10-week iCBT program for depression added to treatment as usual (TAU) or to a TAU control group. Primary outcomes were depression symptoms (9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) and psychological distress (Kessler-10 [K-10]). Secondary outcomes included arthritis self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale [ASES]), OA pain, stiffness, physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]), and physical and mental health (Short Form 12-Item health survey physical component and mental component summaries). Depression status was assessed by blinded diagnostic interview (the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) at intake and followup. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses indicated between-group superiority of iCBT over TAU on the primary outcomes (PHQ-9: Hedges g = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.47, 1.54; K-10: Hedges g = 0.75, 95% CI 0.23, 1.28), at postintervention and 3-month followup (PHQ-9: Hedges g = 0.90, 95% CI 0.36, 1.44; K-10: Hedges g = 0.94, 95% CI 0.41, 1.48), and on secondary OA-specific measures (ASES: Hedges g = -0.81, 95% CI -0.29, -1.33; WOMAC: Hedges g = 0.56-0.65, 95% CI 0.04, 1.18) at the 3-month followup. The majority of iCBT participants (84%) no longer met diagnostic criteria at 3-month followup. CONCLUSION: Results support the efficacy of an iCBT program (requiring no face-to-face contact) for depression in individuals with comorbid depression and OA of the knee. Importantly, the benefits of the program extended beyond reduced depressive symptoms and distress to include increased self-efficacy and improved pain, stiffness, and physical function at followup.
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    "Sounds a Bit Crazy, But It Was Almost More Personal:" A Qualitative Study of Patient and Clinician Experiences of Physical Therapist-Prescribed Exercise For Knee Osteoarthritis Via Skype
    Hinman, RS ; Nelligan, RK ; Bennell, KL ; Delany, C (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of patients and physical therapists with Skype for exercise management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The Donabedian model for quality assessment in health care (structure, process, and outcomes) informed semistructured individual interview questions. The study involved 12 purposively sampled patients with knee OA who received physical therapist-prescribed exercise over Skype, and all therapists (n = 8) who delivered the intervention in a clinical trial were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Two investigators undertook coding and analysis using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Six themes arose from both patients and therapists. The themes were Structure: technology (easy to use, variable quality, set-up assistance helpful) and patient convenience (time efficient, flexible, increased access); Process: empowerment to self-manage (facilitated by home environment and therapists focusing on effective treatment) and positive therapeutic relationships (personal undivided attention from therapists, supportive friendly interactions); and Outcomes: satisfaction with care (satisfying, enjoyable, patients would recommend, therapists felt Skype more useful as adjunct to usual practice) and patient benefits (reduced pain, improved function, improved confidence and self-efficacy). A seventh theme arose from therapists regarding process: adjusting routine treatment (need to modify habits, discomfort without hands-on, supported by research environment). CONCLUSION: Patients and physical therapists described mostly positive experiences using Skype as a service delivery model for physical therapist-supervised exercise management of moderate knee OA. Such a model is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to increase access to supervised exercise management for people with knee OA, either individually or in combination with traditional in-clinic visits.
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    Hip abductor muscle activity during walking in individuals with gluteal tendinopathy
    Allison, K ; Salomoni, SE ; Bennell, KL ; Wrigley, TV ; Hug, F ; Vicenzino, B ; Grimaldi, A ; Hodges, PW (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    The external hip adduction moment during walking is greater in individuals with gluteal tendinopathy (GT) than pain-free controls. Although this likely represents a greater demand on the hip abductor muscles implicated in GT, no study has investigated activation of these muscles in GT. For this purpose, fine wire electrodes were inserted into the segments of the gluteus minimus and medius muscles, and surface electrodes placed on the tensor fascia lata, upper gluteus maximus, and vastus lateralis muscles of eight individuals with, and eight without, GT. Participants underwent six walking trials. Individual muscle patterns were compared between groups using a wavelet-based linear effects model and muscle synergy analysis performed using non-negative matrix factorization to evaluate muscle activation patterns, within- and between-participant variability. Compared to controls, individuals with GT exhibited a more sustained initial burst of the posterior gluteus minimus and middle gluteus medius muscle segments. Two muscle synergies were identified; Synergy-1 activated in early-mid stance and Synergy-2 in early stance. In GT participants, posterior gluteus minimus and posterior gluteus medius and tensor fascia lata contributed more to Synergy-1 active during the period of single leg support. Participants with GT exhibited reduced within-participant variability of posterior gluteus medius and reduced between-participant variability of anterior gluteus minimus and medius and upper gluteus maximus. In conclusion, individuals with GT exhibit modified muscle activation patterns of the hip abductor muscles during walking, with potential relevance for gluteal tendon loading.
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    Consumer Perceptions of and Willingness to Use Remotely Delivered Service Models For Exercise Management of Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions of people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA) about the remote delivery of exercise therapy by a physical therapist. METHODS: A survey of people age ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of hip and/or knee OA was conducted. The survey comprised 3 sections, including 1) demographic information, 2) statements about receiving exercise via the telephone, and 3) statements about receiving exercise via video over the internet. Data were analyzed by calculating response proportions and evaluating levels of agreement with each statement. Exploratory binomial regression analyses were performed to determine whether participant characteristics influenced perceptions of tele-rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 330 people spanning metropolitan, regional, and rural Australia completed the survey. Respondents were in majority (≥50%) agreement with 13 of 17 statements, with most agreement about tele-rehabilitation saving time (telephone versus video: 78% versus 81%), being easy to use (79% versus 78%), and maintaining privacy (86% versus 82%). There was no consensus agreement with liking the lack of physical contact (telephone versus video: 20% agreement versus 22%), willingness to pay (32% versus 46%), belief that telephone-delivered exercise would be effective (45%), and belief that a physical therapist could adequately monitor OA over the telephone (42%). CONCLUSION: People with knee and/or hip OA hold mostly positive perceptions about tele-rehabilitation, delivered via the telephone or by video over the internet, for provision of physical therapist-prescribed exercise services. There was concern about the lack of physical contact with the therapist when using tele-rehabilitation.
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    Telephone Coaching to Enhance a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Bennell, KL ; Campbell, PK ; Egerton, T ; Metcalf, B ; Kasza, J ; Forbes, A ; Bills, C ; Gale, J ; Harris, A ; Kolt, GS ; Bunker, SJ ; Hunter, DJ ; Brand, CA ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether simultaneous telephone coaching improves the clinical effectiveness of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A total of 168 inactive adults ages ≥50 years with knee pain on a numeric rating scale ≥4 (NRS; range 0-10) and knee OA were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a physiotherapy (PT) and coaching group (n = 84) or PT-only (n = 84) group. All participants received five 30-minute consultations with a physiotherapist over 6 months for education, home exercise, and physical activity advice. PT+coaching participants also received 6-12 telephone coaching sessions by clinicians trained in behavioral-change support for exercise and physical activity. Primary outcomes were pain (NRS) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC; score range 0-68]) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were these same measures at 12 and 18 months, as well as physical activity, exercise adherence, other pain and function measures, and quality of life. Analyses were intent-to-treat with multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS: A total of 142 (85%), 136 (81%), and 128 (76%) participants completed 6-, 12-, and 18-month measurements, respectively. The change in NRS pain (mean difference 0.4 unit [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.4, 1.3]) and in WOMAC function (1.8 [95% CI -1.9, 5.5]) did not differ between groups at 6 months, with both groups showing clinically relevant improvements. Some secondary outcomes related to physical activity and exercise behavior favored PT+coaching at 6 months but generally not at 12 or 18 months. There were no between-group differences in most other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The addition of simultaneous telephone coaching did not augment the pain and function benefits of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program.
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    Coordination of deep hip muscle activity is altered in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement
    Diamond, LE ; Van den Hoorn, W ; Bennell, KL ; Wrigley, TV ; Hinman, RS ; O'Donnell, J ; Hodges, PW (WILEY, 2017-07-01)
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    Patient Knowledge and Beliefs About Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction
    Bennell, KL ; van Ginckel, A ; Kean, CO ; Nelligan, RK ; French, SD ; Stokes, M ; Pietrosimone, B ; Blackburn, T ; Batt, M ; Hunter, DJ ; Spiers, L ; Hinman, RS (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' knowledge and beliefs about osteoarthritis (OA) and OA risk following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, to explore the extent to which information about these risks is provided by health professionals, and to examine associations among participant characteristics, knowledge, and risk beliefs and health professional advice. METHODS: A custom-designed survey was conducted in Australian and American adults who sustained an ACL injury, with or without reconstruction, 1-5 years prior. The survey comprised 3 sections: participant characteristics, knowledge about OA and OA risk, and health professional advice. RESULTS: Complete data sets from 233 eligible respondents were analyzed. Most (70%, n = 164) rated themselves as being at greater risk of OA than their healthy peers, although only 56% (n = 130) were able to identify the correct OA definition. While most agreed that ACL (73%, n = 168) and/or meniscal injuries (n = 181, 78%) increase the risk of OA, 65% (n = 152) believed that ACL reconstruction reduced the risk of OA, or they did not know. A total of 27% (n = 62) recalled discussing their OA risk with a health professional. Participants who were female, younger, or had a lower body mass index or higher physical activity level were more likely to recognize meniscal tears and meniscectomy as risk factors of OA. A history of professional advice was associated with beliefs about increased OA risks. CONCLUSION: Patients sustaining an ACL injury require better education from health professionals about OA as a disease entity and their elevated risk of OA, irrespective of whether or not they undergo surgical reconstruction.
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    Physical Therapist-Delivered Pain Coping Skills Training and Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis: Randomized Controlled Trial
    Bennell, KL ; Ahamed, Y ; Jull, G ; Bryant, C ; Hunt, MA ; Forbes, AB ; Kasza, J ; Akram, M ; Metcalf, B ; Harris, A ; Egerton, T ; Kenardy, JA ; Nicholas, MK ; Keefe, FJ (WILEY, 2016-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a 12-week physical therapist-delivered combined pain coping skills training (PCST) and exercise (PCST/exercise) is more efficacious and cost effective than either treatment alone for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This was an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomized controlled trial in 222 people (73 PCST/exercise, 75 exercise, and 74 PCST) ages ≥50 years with knee OA. All participants received 10 treatments over 12 weeks plus a home program. PCST covered pain education and training in cognitive and behavioral pain coping skills, exercise comprised strengthening exercises, and PCST/exercise integrated both. Primary outcomes were self-reported average knee pain (visual analog scale, range 0-100 mm) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, range 0-68) at week 12. Secondary outcomes included other pain measures, global change, physical performance, psychological health, physical activity, quality of life, and cost effectiveness. Analyses were by intent-to-treat methodology with multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS: A total of 201 participants (91%), 181 participants (82%), and 186 participants (84%) completed week 12, 32, and 52 measurements, respectively. At week 12, there were no significant between-group differences for reductions in pain comparing PCST/exercise versus exercise (mean difference 5.8 mm [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.4, 13.0]) and PCST/exercise versus PCST (6.7 mm [95% CI -0.6, 14.1]). Significantly greater improvements in function were found for PCST/exercise versus exercise (3.7 units [95% CI 0.4, 7.0]) and PCST/exercise versus PCST (7.9 units [95% CI 4.7, 11.2]). These differences persisted at weeks 32 (both) and 52 (PCST). Benefits favoring PCST/exercise were seen on several secondary outcomes. Cost effectiveness of PCST/exercise was not demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This model of care could improve access to psychological treatment and augment patient outcomes from exercise in knee OA, although it did not appear to be cost effective.