Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    How is physical activity measured in lung cancer? A systematic review of outcome measures and their psychometric properties
    Edbrooke, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Astin, R ; Jack, S ; Granger, CL (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures. For aim 2, studies identified in aim 1 reporting on at least one psychometric property (validity, reliability, responsiveness or measurement error) were included. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments. Thirty-four studies using 21 different measures of PA were identified. Seventeen studies used performance-based measures. The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was the most frequently used patient-reported measure. Psychometric properties were reported for 13 of these measures and most frequently for movement sensors. Two studies reported on properties of the GLTEQ. Quality ratings for risk of bias were low. There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding method of PA measurement along the lung cancer continuum. Greater consensus could be achieved by using a consensus approach such as a Delphi process. Future studies should include assessment of psychometric properties of the measurement tool being used. Currently, it is recommended where feasible, both performance-based and patient-reported measurements of PA should be undertaken.
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    Associations between nutritional energy delivery, bioimpedance spectroscopy and functional outcomes in survivors of critical illness
    Fetterplace, K ; Beach, LJ ; MacIsaac, C ; Presneill, J ; Edbrooke, L ; Parry, SM ; Rechnitzer, T ; Curtis, R ; Berney, S ; Deane, AM ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Patients who survive critical illness frequently develop muscle weakness that can impact on quality of life; nutrition is potentially a modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to explore the associations between cumulative energy deficits (using indirect calorimetry and estimated requirements), nutritional and functional outcomes. METHODS: A prospective single-centre observational study of 60 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, who were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h, was conducted. Cumulative energy deficit was determined from artificial nutrition delivery compared to targets. Measurements included: (i) at recruitment and ICU discharge, weight, fat-free mass (bioimpedance spectroscopy) and malnutrition (Subjective Global Assessment score B/C); (ii) at awakening and ICU discharge, physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test-scored) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council sum-score (MRC-SS). ICU-acquired weakness was defined as a MRC-SS score of less than 48/60. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) cumulative energy deficit compared to the estimated targets up to ICU day 12 was 3648 (2514-5650) kcal. Adjusting for body mass index, age and severity of illness, cumulative energy deficit (per 1000 kcal) was independently associated with greater odds of ICU-acquired weakness [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.3, P = 0.001] and malnutrition (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = 0.02). In similar multivariable linear models, cumulative energy deficit was associated with reductions in fat-free mass (-1.3 kg; 95% CI = -2.4 to -0.2, P = 0.02) and physical function scores (-0.6 points; 95% CI = -0.9 to -0.3, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative energy deficit from artificial nutrition support was associated with reduced functional outcomes and greater loss of fat-free mass in ventilated ICU patients.
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    Improving the delivery of physical activity services in lung cancer: A qualitative representation of the patient's perspective
    Granger, CL ; Parry, SM ; Edbrooke, L ; Abo, S ; Leggett, N ; Dwyer, M ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences of, and preferences for, physical activity after a lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving seven patients who had been treated for lung cancer within the previous 2 years. Participants attended a focus group interview. Conventional content analysis methodology was used to analyse the text by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Eight major themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: the influence of past lifestyle and chronic disease; the perceived benefits of physical activity; using physical activity to facilitate return to activities of daily living; the impact of symptoms, capacity and motivation; family and peer support; access to services; health professionals; and enjoyment of different types of physical activity. Patients suggested several factors that could improve their healthcare experience. These include access to exercise professionals particularly after cancer treatment; access to information about physical activity in different formats; supervision from health professionals and peer support; and use of behaviour change strategies to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our results should be considered in the improvement of lung cancer care pathways as we strive to implement physical activity services into routine clinical care.
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    Can an accelerometer-based monitor be used to accurately assess physical activity in a population of survivors of critical illness?
    Edbrooke, L ; Lythgo, N ; Goldsworthy, U ; Denehy, L (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2012-04-28)
    PURPOSE: To investigate the validity and reliability of the Activity Monitoring Pod (AMP331) to record gait parameters in  healthy young adults (YA) and intensive care unit inpatients (ICU). METHODS: Fifteen YA completed a series of over-ground walks. Another 15 YA completed a series of treadmill walks. The ICU group (N=20) completed a series of over-ground walks with repeat trials. Gait parameters were recorded simultaneously for each walk. RESULTS: For the YA over-ground condition, no significant differences were found between the measures recorded by the systems. For the YA treadmill condition, 43% of the measures differed (P < .05). For the ICU group, the AMP331 underestimated distance and speed by 3m and 25cm/s respectively. Reliability measures for distance (ICC 0.99, 95%CI 0.98 - 0.99) and step count (ICC 0.99, 95%CI 0.99 - 1.00) were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The AMP 331 is a valid instrument for recording basic gait parameters for over-ground walking in healthy YA and ICU survivors.
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    Multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation in inoperable lung cancer: a randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Irving, L ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and high symptom burden. This trial aimed to assess the efficacy of home-based rehabilitation versus usual care in inoperable lung cancer. METHODS: A parallel-group, assessor-blinded, allocation-concealed, randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were allocated (1:1) to usual care (UC) plus 8 weeks of aerobic and resistance exercise with behaviour change strategies and symptom support (intervention group (IG)) or UC alone. Assessments occurred at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome, change in between-group 6 min walk distance (6MWD), was analysed using intention-to-treat (ITT). Subsequent analyses involved modified ITT (mITT) and included participants with at least one follow-up outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included HRQoL and symptoms. RESULTS: Ninety-two participants were recruited. Characteristics of participants (UC=47, IG=45): mean (SD) age 64 (12) years; men 55%; disease stage n (%) III=35 (38) and IV=48 (52); radical treatment 46%. There were no significant between-group differences for the 6MWD (n=92) at 9 weeks (p=0.308) or 6 months (p=0.979). The mITT analyses of 6MWD between-group differences were again non-significant (mean difference (95% CI): 9 weeks: -25.4 m (-64.0 to 13.3), p=0.198 and 6 months: 41.3 m (-26.7 to 109.4), p=0.232). Significant 6-month differences, favouring the IG, were found for HRQoL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung: 13.0 (3.9 to 22.1), p=0.005) and symptom severity (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Lung Cancer: -2.2 (-3.6 to -0.9), p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based rehabilitation did not improve functional exercise capacity but there were improvements in patient-reported exploratory secondary outcomes measures observed at 6 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001268639).
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    Physical Activity Levels Are Low in Inoperable Lung Cancer: Exploratory Analyses from a Randomised Controlled Trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Granger, CL ; Clark, RA ; Denehy, L (MDPI AG, 2019-09-01)
    Background: In inoperable lung cancer, evidence is limited regarding physical activity (PA) and associations with other outcomes. Aims: in the usual care (UC) group of an RCT to (1) explore whether baseline PA was associated with improved follow-up outcomes, (2) identify baseline variables associated with higher follow-up PA and in all RCT participants, to (3) analyse patterns of objectively measured PA, and (4) report on characteristics of those who were able to maintain or increase PA levels. Methods: exploratory analyses of an assessor-blinded RCT. Outcomes, assessed at baseline, nine weeks and six months, included PA (seven-days of accelerometry), six-minute walk distance (6MWD), muscle strength, symptoms, mood and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: 92 participants were randomised, 80 completed baseline accelerometry (39 intervention group (IG), 41 UC), characteristics: mean (SD) age 63.0 (12.3) years, 56% male, 51% stage IV disease. Baseline PA: median (IQR) steps/day 2859.6 (2034.0–3849.2) IG versus 3195.2 (2161.2–4839.0) UC. Associations between baseline PA and six-month outcomes were significant for HRQoL and 6MWD. PA at six months was significantly associated with baseline age, 6MWD and quadriceps strength. Between-group change score (steps/day) mean differences (95% CI) at nine weeks (174.5 (−1504.7 to 1853.7), p = 0.84) and six months (574.0 (−1162.3 to 2310.3), p = 0.52). Conclusions: further research is required to determine patient subgroups deriving the greatest benefits from PA interventions.
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    Outcome measures report different aspects of patient function three months following critical care
    Denehy, L ; Nordon-Craft, A ; Edbrooke, L ; Malone, D ; Berney, S ; Schenkman, M ; Moss, M (SPRINGER, 2014-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Previous investigation of the relationship between physical performance and patient self-report physical function (PF) measures in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors have not been performed. OBJECTIVES: To (1) analyze the extent to which other activity-based measures of physical performance may serve as proxies for the 6-min walk test (6 MWT); (2) determine the extent to which the Short Form (SF) 36 domain of PF and physical component summary (PCS) score, reflect components of physical performance and (3) examine the relationship between demographic and ICU variables and the 6 MWT. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from two clinical trials. SETTING: Two acute care hospitals (Melbourne, Australia and Denver, USA). PATIENTS: A total of 177 survivors of ICU. MEASUREMENTS: Were evaluated at 3 months. Performance-based measures were: 6 MWT, timed up and go test (TUG), the five times sit to stand test (5 × STS), the Berg balance scale (BBS) and two self-report measures: the SF-36 PF domain and the PCS score. MAIN RESULTS: 6 MWT showed excellent correlation with the TUG (rho = -0.79) and BBS (rho = 0.80); and good correlation with 5 × STS (rho = -0.69) and SF-36 PF scores (rho = 0.69). 6 MWT explained 54 and 33% of variance in SF-36 PF and PCS scores respectively. No variables were clinically important in predicting 6 MWT. CONCLUSIONS: The 6 MWT and TUG may both be acceptable measures of PF performance 3 months after ICU. Performance-based tests measure different constructs than self-report measures and choice of outcome variables should be aligned with study aims to ensure the most appropriate measure is used.
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    Benefits of home-based multidisciplinary exercise and supportive care in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer - protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Irving, L ; Braat, S ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Denehy, L (BMC, 2017-09-29)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and is a leading cause of cancer mortality world-wide. Due to lack of early specific symptoms, the majority of patients present with advanced, inoperable disease and five-year relative survival across all stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 14%. People with lung cancer also report higher levels of symptom distress than those with other forms of cancer. Several benefits for survival and patient reported outcomes are reported from physical activity and exercise in other tumour groups. We report the protocol for a study investigating the benefits of exercise, behaviour change and symptom self-management for patients with recently diagnosed, inoperable, NSCLC. METHODS: This multi-site, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, aims to assess functional and patient-reported outcomes of a multi-disciplinary, home-based exercise and supportive care program for people commencing treatment. Ninety-two participants are being recruited from three tertiary-care hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Following baseline testing, participants are randomised using concealed allocation, to receive either: a) 8 weeks of home-based exercise (comprising an individualised endurance and resistance exercise program and behaviour change coaching) and nurse-delivered symptom self-management intervention or b) usual care. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in the change in functional exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance) from baseline to post-program assessment. Secondary outcomes include: objective and self-reported physical activity levels, physical activity self-efficacy, behavioural regulation of motivation to exercise and resilience, muscle strength (quadriceps and grip), health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression and symptom interference. DISCUSSION: There is a lack of evidence regarding the benefit of exercise intervention for people with NSCLC, particularly in those with inoperable disease receiving treatment. This trial will contribute to evidence currently being generated in national and international trials by implementing and evaluating a home-based program including three components not yet combined in previous research, for people with inoperable NSCLC receiving active treatment and involving longer-term follow-up of outcomes. This trial is ongoing and currently recruiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614001268639 : (4/12/14).
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    The Physical Function Intensive Care Test: Implementation in Survivors of Critical Illness
    Nordon-Craft, A ; Schenkman, M ; Edbrooke, L ; Malone, DJ ; Moss, M ; Denehy, L (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2014-10-01)
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated safety, feasibility, and decreased hospital length of stay for patients with weakness acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) who receive early physical rehabilitation. The scored Physical Function in Intensive Care Test (PFIT-s) was specifically designed for this population and demonstrated excellent psychometrics in an Australian ICU population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the responsiveness and predictive capabilities of the PFIT-s in patients in the United States admitted to the ICU who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for 4 days or longer. METHODS: This nested study within a randomized trial administered the PFIT-s, Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score, and grip strength test at ICU recruitment and then weekly until hospital discharge, including at ICU discharge. Spearman rho was used to determine validity. The effect size index was used to calculate measurement responsiveness for the PFIT-s. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used in predicting participants' ability to perform functional components of the PFIT-s. RESULTS: From August 2009 to July 2012, 51 patients were recruited from 4 ICUs in the Denver, Colorado, metro area. At ICU discharge, PFIT-s scores were highly correlated to MRC sum scores (rho=.923) and grip strength (rho=.763) (P<.0005). Using baseline test with ICU discharge (26 pairs), test responsiveness was large (1.14). At ICU discharge, an MRC sum score cut-point of 41.5 predicted participants' ability to perform the standing components of the PFIT-s. LIMITATIONS: The small sample size was a limitation. However, the findings are consistent with those in a larger sample from Australia. CONCLUSIONS: The PFIT-s is a feasible and valid measure of function for individuals who require MV for 4 days or longer and who are alert, able to follow commands, and have sufficient strength to participate.
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    Quantifying Physical Activity Levels of Survivors of Intensive Care: A Prospective Observational Study
    Denehy, L ; Berney, S ; Whitburn, L ; Edbrooke, L (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2012-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Promotion of increased physical activity is advocated for survivors of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission to improve physical function and health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of this study were: (1) to measure free-living physical activity levels and (2) to correlate the measurements with scores on a self-reported activity questionnaire. A secondary aim was to explore factors associated with physical activity levels. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Nested within a larger randomized controlled trial, participants were block randomized to measure free-living physical activity levels. Included participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days during waking hours at 2 months after ICU discharge. At completion of the 7 days of monitoring, participants were interviewed using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire. Factors associated with physical activity were explored using regression analysis. RESULTS: The ICU survivors (median age=59 years, interquartile range=49-66; mean Acute Physiologic Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE II] score=18, interquartile range=16-21) were inactive when quantitatively measured at 2 months after hospital discharge. Participants spent an average of 90% of the time inactive and only 3% of the time walking. Only 37% of the sample spent 30 minutes or more per day in the locomotion category (more than 20 steps in a row). Activity reported using the PASE questionnaire was lower than that reported in adults who were healthy. The PASE scores correlated only fairly with activity measured by steps per day. The presence of comorbidities explained one third of the variance in physical activity levels. LIMITATIONS: Accelerometer overreading, patient heterogeneity, selection bias, and sample size not reached were limitations of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of an ICU admission greater than 5 days demonstrated high levels of inactivity for prolonged periods at 2 months after ICU discharge, and the majority did not meet international recommendations regarding physical activity. Comorbidity appears to be a promising factor associated with activity levels.