Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    How is physical activity measured in lung cancer? A systematic review of outcome measures and their psychometric properties
    Edbrooke, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Astin, R ; Jack, S ; Granger, CL (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures. For aim 2, studies identified in aim 1 reporting on at least one psychometric property (validity, reliability, responsiveness or measurement error) were included. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments. Thirty-four studies using 21 different measures of PA were identified. Seventeen studies used performance-based measures. The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was the most frequently used patient-reported measure. Psychometric properties were reported for 13 of these measures and most frequently for movement sensors. Two studies reported on properties of the GLTEQ. Quality ratings for risk of bias were low. There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding method of PA measurement along the lung cancer continuum. Greater consensus could be achieved by using a consensus approach such as a Delphi process. Future studies should include assessment of psychometric properties of the measurement tool being used. Currently, it is recommended where feasible, both performance-based and patient-reported measurements of PA should be undertaken.
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    The Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire is a valid measure of pelvic floor symptoms in patients following surgery for colorectal cancer
    Lin, K-Y ; Frawley, HC ; Granger, CL ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2017-06-01)
    AIMS: This study evaluated the construct validity of the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire against two alternative measures of the severity of bladder and bowel symptoms. METHODS: This was an exploratory analysis of data from two prospective studies. Patients who had undergone surgery for colorectal cancer were analysed. Bladder and bowel symptoms were measured using three validated questionnaires: the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form Questionnaire for urinary incontinence and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel Module post-cancer treatment. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 44 participants, including 25 men and 19 women. The Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire bladder and bowel domain scores demonstrated moderate positive correlations with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form Questionnaire for urinary incontinence (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel Module (r = 0.69-0.78, P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained in each gender subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire may be a valid measurement tool for use in colorectal cancer populations in clinical trials and practice. Future research using larger cohorts is warranted.
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    Improving the delivery of physical activity services in lung cancer: A qualitative representation of the patient's perspective
    Granger, CL ; Parry, SM ; Edbrooke, L ; Abo, S ; Leggett, N ; Dwyer, M ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences of, and preferences for, physical activity after a lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving seven patients who had been treated for lung cancer within the previous 2 years. Participants attended a focus group interview. Conventional content analysis methodology was used to analyse the text by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Eight major themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: the influence of past lifestyle and chronic disease; the perceived benefits of physical activity; using physical activity to facilitate return to activities of daily living; the impact of symptoms, capacity and motivation; family and peer support; access to services; health professionals; and enjoyment of different types of physical activity. Patients suggested several factors that could improve their healthcare experience. These include access to exercise professionals particularly after cancer treatment; access to information about physical activity in different formats; supervision from health professionals and peer support; and use of behaviour change strategies to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our results should be considered in the improvement of lung cancer care pathways as we strive to implement physical activity services into routine clinical care.
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    Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Risk Factors in Patients With Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Observational Study
    Ni, J ; Feng, J ; Denehy, L ; Wu, Y ; Xu, L ; Granger, CL (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-12-01)
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to measure symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese patients following a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Secondary aims were to explore factors at diagnosis that may predict PTSD symptoms at 6 months. METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal observational study that included 93 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. PTSD symptomology was assessed using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire. Measures were completed at diagnosis and 6 months. RESULTS: No patient had PTSD at baseline or 6 months as measured by a score of ⩾50 in the PCL-C. However, at diagnosis, 44% of patients had "mild" symptoms of PTSD. At 6 months, 64% of patients had "mild" and 8% had "moderate" PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptom scores significantly worsened over 6 months (mean difference [95% CI] = 7.2 [5.4 to 9.0]). Six months after diagnosis, higher PTSD scores were seen in people who at diagnosis were younger ( P = .003), had a lower smoking pack history ( P = .012), displayed less sedentary behavior ( P < .005), or initially had worse cancer symptoms, including fatigue ( P = .001) and poorer HRQoL ( P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Mild PTSD symptoms are common in patients with lung cancer 6 months after treatment; however, a full diagnosis of PTSD is uncommon. Screening for PTSD symptoms may be considered for at-risk patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.
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    Functional outcomes in ICU - what should we be using? - an observational study
    Parry, SM ; Denehy, L ; Beach, LJ ; Berney, S ; Williamson, HC ; Granger, CL (BMC, 2015-03-29)
    INTRODUCTION: With growing awareness of the importance of rehabilitation, new measures are being developed specifically for use in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are currently 26 measures reported to assess function in ICU survivors. The Physical Function in Intensive care Test scored (PFIT-s) has established clinimetric properties. It is unknown how other functional measures perform in comparison to the PFIT-s or which functional measure may be the most clinically applicable for use within the ICU. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the criterion validity of the Functional Status Score for the ICU (FSS-ICU), ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) against the PFIT-s; (2) the construct validity of these tests against muscle strength; (3) predictive utility of these tests to predict discharge to home; and (4) the clinical applicability. This was a nested study within an ongoing controlled study and an observational study. METHODS: Sixty-six individuals were assessed at awakening and ICU discharge. Measures included: PFIT-s, FSS-ICU, IMS and SPPB. Bivariate relationships (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and predictive validity (logistic regression) were determined. Responsiveness (effect sizes); floor and ceiling effects; and minimal important differences were calculated. RESULTS: Mean ± SD PFIT-s at awakening was 4.7 ± 2.3 out of 10. On awakening a large positive relationship existed between PFIT-s and the other functional measures: FSS-ICU (rho = 0.87, p < 0.005), IMS (rho = 0.81, p < 0.005) and SPPB (rho = 0.70, p < 0.005). The PFIT-s had excellent construct validity (rho = 0.8, p < 0.005) and FSS-ICU (rho = 0.69, p < 0.005) and IMS (rho = 0.57, p < 0.005) had moderate construct validity with muscle strength. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU had small floor/ceiling effects <11% at awakening and ICU discharge. The SPPB had a large floor effect at awakening (78%) and ICU discharge (56%). All tests demonstrated responsiveness; however highest effect size was seen in the PFIT-s (Cohen's d = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: There is high criterion validity for other functional measures against the PFIT-s. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU are promising functional measures and are recommended to measure function within the ICU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02214823. Registered 7 August 2014).
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    Which field walking test should be used to assess functional exercise capacity in lung cancer? an observational study
    Granger, CL ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Martin, J ; Dimitriadis, T ; Sorohan, M ; Irving, L (BMC, 2015-08-12)
    BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence regarding the efficacy of exercise training to improve exercise capacity for individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard measure of exercise capacity; however this laboratory test has limitations for use in research and clinical practice. Alternative field walking tests are the six-minute walk test (6MWT), incremental-shuttle walk test (ISWT) and endurance-shuttle walk test (ESWT); however there is limited information about their clinimetric properties in NSCLC. AIMS: In NSCLC to determine the 1) criterion validity of the 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT against CPET; 2) construct validity of the 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT against measures of function, strength, respiratory function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and 3) clinical applicability of the tests. METHODS: Twenty participants (40 % male, mean ± SD age 66.1 ± 6.5 years) with stage I-IIIb NSCLC completed the 6MWT, ISWT, ESWT and CPET within six months of treatment. Testing order was randomised. Additional measures included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance-Status (ECOG-PS, function), respiratory function, hand-grip dynamometry and HRQoL. Correlations and regression analyses were used to assess relationships. RESULTS: The ISWT demonstrated criterion validity with a moderate relationship between ISWT distance and CPET peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.61, p = 0.007). Relationships between CPET and six minute walk distance (6MWD) (r = 0.24, p = 0.329) or ESWT time (r = 0.02, p = 0.942) were poor. Moderate construct validity existed for the 6MWD and respiratory function (forced vital capacity % predicted r = 0.53, p = 0.019; forced expiratory volume in the first second % predicted r = 0.55, p = 0.015). There were no relationships between the walking tests and measures of function, strength or HRQoL. The ESWT had a ceiling effect with 18 % reaching maximum time. No floor effects were seen in the tests. The mean ± SD time required to perform the individual 6MWT, ISWT and ESWT was 12.8 ± 2.5, 14.7 ± 3.7 and 16.3 ± 5.0 min respectively; in comparison to CPET which was 51.2 ± 12.7 min. Only one assessor was required to perform all field walking tests and no adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The ISWT is a promising measure of functional exercise capacity in lung cancer. Findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample prior to translation into practice.
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    Physical Activity Behavior After a Diagnosis of Lung Cancer Differs Between Countries: An Observational Cohort Study
    Ni, J ; Denehy, L ; Feng, J ; Xu, L ; Wu, Y ; Granger, CL (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is important in lung cancer. OBJECTIVES: To investigate PA levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with lung cancer in China and compare this to a similar cohort in Australia. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. 71 patients from China (group CH) and 90 patients from Australia (group AU) with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Questionnaires assessed self-reported PA levels and HRQoL at baseline (diagnosis) and 8 weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, group CH were engaged in less overall PA than group AU (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [PASE] total score: median [IQR] group CH, 56 [32-59]; group AU, 66 [38-116]; P < .005), and less occupational and household activity ( P < .005). However, at baseline, group CH reported significantly more walking time than group AU (median [IQR]: group CH, 210 [150-315] min/wk; group AU, 55[0-210] min/wk; P < .0005). Global HRQoL scores were similar between groups (P = .038). Over 8 weeks, group CH increased their overall PA levels ( P < .005) and walking time ( P = .008), and HRQoL remained unchanged. The comparison group AU experienced a reduction in PA levels ( P = .02) and HRQoL ( P < .005). CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis, patients in China were less physically active than those in Australia. Following diagnosis, patients in China increased their PA levels, whereas those in Australia reduced their PA levels. Research is required to explore potential reasons behind differences, and this may inform research/clinical services to facilitate patients with lung cancer to be more active.
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    Uptake of telehealth implementation for COPD patients in a high-poverty, inner-city environment: A survey
    Granger, CL ; Wijayarathna, R ; Suh, E-S ; Arbane, G ; Denehy, L ; Murphy, P ; Hart, N (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-02-01)
    This study aimed to investigate computer and internet access and education attained in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as potential barriers to implementation of telemedicine. We prospectively assessed 98 patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of COPD (mean age: 70.5 ± 9.3 years; force expired volume in the first second: 0.75 ± 0.39 L; 59% male) recording educational level attained and home computer and internet access. Hospital readmission surveillance occurred up to 2.7 (2.6-2.8) years following the index hospital admission. Only 16% of patients had a computer and only 14% had internet access; this group were younger and more educated than those without a computer. There was no difference in hospital readmissions over 2 years between those with and without access to a computer or internet. Only 12% of the whole cohort were educated to a school leaving age of 16 years and this group were more likely to be still working. School leaving age was directly associated with fewer hospital readmissions ( r = 0.251, p = 0.031). In conclusion, these data highlight the current challenges to the widespread implementation of telehealth in COPD patients as there is limited availability of computer and internet access with such patients demonstrating a lower level of education achievement.
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    Multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation in inoperable lung cancer: a randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Irving, L ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and high symptom burden. This trial aimed to assess the efficacy of home-based rehabilitation versus usual care in inoperable lung cancer. METHODS: A parallel-group, assessor-blinded, allocation-concealed, randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were allocated (1:1) to usual care (UC) plus 8 weeks of aerobic and resistance exercise with behaviour change strategies and symptom support (intervention group (IG)) or UC alone. Assessments occurred at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome, change in between-group 6 min walk distance (6MWD), was analysed using intention-to-treat (ITT). Subsequent analyses involved modified ITT (mITT) and included participants with at least one follow-up outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included HRQoL and symptoms. RESULTS: Ninety-two participants were recruited. Characteristics of participants (UC=47, IG=45): mean (SD) age 64 (12) years; men 55%; disease stage n (%) III=35 (38) and IV=48 (52); radical treatment 46%. There were no significant between-group differences for the 6MWD (n=92) at 9 weeks (p=0.308) or 6 months (p=0.979). The mITT analyses of 6MWD between-group differences were again non-significant (mean difference (95% CI): 9 weeks: -25.4 m (-64.0 to 13.3), p=0.198 and 6 months: 41.3 m (-26.7 to 109.4), p=0.232). Significant 6-month differences, favouring the IG, were found for HRQoL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung: 13.0 (3.9 to 22.1), p=0.005) and symptom severity (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Lung Cancer: -2.2 (-3.6 to -0.9), p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based rehabilitation did not improve functional exercise capacity but there were improvements in patient-reported exploratory secondary outcomes measures observed at 6 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001268639).
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    Physical Activity Levels Are Low in Inoperable Lung Cancer: Exploratory Analyses from a Randomised Controlled Trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Granger, CL ; Clark, RA ; Denehy, L (MDPI AG, 2019-09-01)
    Background: In inoperable lung cancer, evidence is limited regarding physical activity (PA) and associations with other outcomes. Aims: in the usual care (UC) group of an RCT to (1) explore whether baseline PA was associated with improved follow-up outcomes, (2) identify baseline variables associated with higher follow-up PA and in all RCT participants, to (3) analyse patterns of objectively measured PA, and (4) report on characteristics of those who were able to maintain or increase PA levels. Methods: exploratory analyses of an assessor-blinded RCT. Outcomes, assessed at baseline, nine weeks and six months, included PA (seven-days of accelerometry), six-minute walk distance (6MWD), muscle strength, symptoms, mood and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: 92 participants were randomised, 80 completed baseline accelerometry (39 intervention group (IG), 41 UC), characteristics: mean (SD) age 63.0 (12.3) years, 56% male, 51% stage IV disease. Baseline PA: median (IQR) steps/day 2859.6 (2034.0–3849.2) IG versus 3195.2 (2161.2–4839.0) UC. Associations between baseline PA and six-month outcomes were significant for HRQoL and 6MWD. PA at six months was significantly associated with baseline age, 6MWD and quadriceps strength. Between-group change score (steps/day) mean differences (95% CI) at nine weeks (174.5 (−1504.7 to 1853.7), p = 0.84) and six months (574.0 (−1162.3 to 2310.3), p = 0.52). Conclusions: further research is required to determine patient subgroups deriving the greatest benefits from PA interventions.