Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    Physical Therapists' Perceptions of Telephone- and Internet Video-Mediated Service Models for Exercise Management of People With Osteoarthritis
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Kasza, J ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2018-03-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical therapists' perceptions of, and willingness to use, telephone- and internet-mediated service models for exercise therapy for people with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis. METHODS: This study used an internet-based survey of Australian physical therapists, comprising 3 sections: 1 on demographic information and 2 with 16 positively framed perception statements about delivering exercise via telephone and video over the internet, for people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Levels of agreement with each statement were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to determine therapist characteristics influencing interest in delivering telerehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 217 therapists spanning metropolitan, regional, rural, and remote Australia completed the survey. For telephone-delivered care, there was consensus agreement that it would not violate patient privacy (81% agreed/strongly agreed) and would save patient's time (76%), but there was less than majority agreement for 10 statements. There was consensus agreement that video-delivered care would save a patient's time (82%), be convenient for patients (80%), and not violate patient privacy (75%). Most agreed with all other perception statements about video-delivered care, except for liking no physical contact (14%). Low confidence using internet video technologies, and inexperience with telerehabilitation, were significantly associated with reduced interest in delivering telephone and/or video-based services. CONCLUSION: Physical therapists agree that telerehabilitation offers time-saving and privacy advantages for people with osteoarthritis and perceive video-delivered care more favorably than telephone-delivered services. However, most do not like the lack of physical contact with either service model. These findings may inform the implementation of telerehabilitation osteoarthritis services and the training needs of clinicians involved in delivering care.
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    "Sounds a Bit Crazy, But It Was Almost More Personal:" A Qualitative Study of Patient and Clinician Experiences of Physical Therapist-Prescribed Exercise For Knee Osteoarthritis Via Skype
    Hinman, RS ; Nelligan, RK ; Bennell, KL ; Delany, C (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of patients and physical therapists with Skype for exercise management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The Donabedian model for quality assessment in health care (structure, process, and outcomes) informed semistructured individual interview questions. The study involved 12 purposively sampled patients with knee OA who received physical therapist-prescribed exercise over Skype, and all therapists (n = 8) who delivered the intervention in a clinical trial were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Two investigators undertook coding and analysis using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Six themes arose from both patients and therapists. The themes were Structure: technology (easy to use, variable quality, set-up assistance helpful) and patient convenience (time efficient, flexible, increased access); Process: empowerment to self-manage (facilitated by home environment and therapists focusing on effective treatment) and positive therapeutic relationships (personal undivided attention from therapists, supportive friendly interactions); and Outcomes: satisfaction with care (satisfying, enjoyable, patients would recommend, therapists felt Skype more useful as adjunct to usual practice) and patient benefits (reduced pain, improved function, improved confidence and self-efficacy). A seventh theme arose from therapists regarding process: adjusting routine treatment (need to modify habits, discomfort without hands-on, supported by research environment). CONCLUSION: Patients and physical therapists described mostly positive experiences using Skype as a service delivery model for physical therapist-supervised exercise management of moderate knee OA. Such a model is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to increase access to supervised exercise management for people with knee OA, either individually or in combination with traditional in-clinic visits.
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    Consumer Perceptions of and Willingness to Use Remotely Delivered Service Models For Exercise Management of Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions of people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA) about the remote delivery of exercise therapy by a physical therapist. METHODS: A survey of people age ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of hip and/or knee OA was conducted. The survey comprised 3 sections, including 1) demographic information, 2) statements about receiving exercise via the telephone, and 3) statements about receiving exercise via video over the internet. Data were analyzed by calculating response proportions and evaluating levels of agreement with each statement. Exploratory binomial regression analyses were performed to determine whether participant characteristics influenced perceptions of tele-rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 330 people spanning metropolitan, regional, and rural Australia completed the survey. Respondents were in majority (≥50%) agreement with 13 of 17 statements, with most agreement about tele-rehabilitation saving time (telephone versus video: 78% versus 81%), being easy to use (79% versus 78%), and maintaining privacy (86% versus 82%). There was no consensus agreement with liking the lack of physical contact (telephone versus video: 20% agreement versus 22%), willingness to pay (32% versus 46%), belief that telephone-delivered exercise would be effective (45%), and belief that a physical therapist could adequately monitor OA over the telephone (42%). CONCLUSION: People with knee and/or hip OA hold mostly positive perceptions about tele-rehabilitation, delivered via the telephone or by video over the internet, for provision of physical therapist-prescribed exercise services. There was concern about the lack of physical contact with the therapist when using tele-rehabilitation.
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    Telephone Coaching to Enhance a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Bennell, KL ; Campbell, PK ; Egerton, T ; Metcalf, B ; Kasza, J ; Forbes, A ; Bills, C ; Gale, J ; Harris, A ; Kolt, GS ; Bunker, SJ ; Hunter, DJ ; Brand, CA ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether simultaneous telephone coaching improves the clinical effectiveness of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A total of 168 inactive adults ages ≥50 years with knee pain on a numeric rating scale ≥4 (NRS; range 0-10) and knee OA were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a physiotherapy (PT) and coaching group (n = 84) or PT-only (n = 84) group. All participants received five 30-minute consultations with a physiotherapist over 6 months for education, home exercise, and physical activity advice. PT+coaching participants also received 6-12 telephone coaching sessions by clinicians trained in behavioral-change support for exercise and physical activity. Primary outcomes were pain (NRS) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC; score range 0-68]) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were these same measures at 12 and 18 months, as well as physical activity, exercise adherence, other pain and function measures, and quality of life. Analyses were intent-to-treat with multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS: A total of 142 (85%), 136 (81%), and 128 (76%) participants completed 6-, 12-, and 18-month measurements, respectively. The change in NRS pain (mean difference 0.4 unit [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.4, 1.3]) and in WOMAC function (1.8 [95% CI -1.9, 5.5]) did not differ between groups at 6 months, with both groups showing clinically relevant improvements. Some secondary outcomes related to physical activity and exercise behavior favored PT+coaching at 6 months but generally not at 12 or 18 months. There were no between-group differences in most other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The addition of simultaneous telephone coaching did not augment the pain and function benefits of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program.
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    Coordination of deep hip muscle activity is altered in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement
    Diamond, LE ; Van den Hoorn, W ; Bennell, KL ; Wrigley, TV ; Hinman, RS ; O'Donnell, J ; Hodges, PW (WILEY, 2017-07-01)
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    Patient Knowledge and Beliefs About Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction
    Bennell, KL ; van Ginckel, A ; Kean, CO ; Nelligan, RK ; French, SD ; Stokes, M ; Pietrosimone, B ; Blackburn, T ; Batt, M ; Hunter, DJ ; Spiers, L ; Hinman, RS (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' knowledge and beliefs about osteoarthritis (OA) and OA risk following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, to explore the extent to which information about these risks is provided by health professionals, and to examine associations among participant characteristics, knowledge, and risk beliefs and health professional advice. METHODS: A custom-designed survey was conducted in Australian and American adults who sustained an ACL injury, with or without reconstruction, 1-5 years prior. The survey comprised 3 sections: participant characteristics, knowledge about OA and OA risk, and health professional advice. RESULTS: Complete data sets from 233 eligible respondents were analyzed. Most (70%, n = 164) rated themselves as being at greater risk of OA than their healthy peers, although only 56% (n = 130) were able to identify the correct OA definition. While most agreed that ACL (73%, n = 168) and/or meniscal injuries (n = 181, 78%) increase the risk of OA, 65% (n = 152) believed that ACL reconstruction reduced the risk of OA, or they did not know. A total of 27% (n = 62) recalled discussing their OA risk with a health professional. Participants who were female, younger, or had a lower body mass index or higher physical activity level were more likely to recognize meniscal tears and meniscectomy as risk factors of OA. A history of professional advice was associated with beliefs about increased OA risks. CONCLUSION: Patients sustaining an ACL injury require better education from health professionals about OA as a disease entity and their elevated risk of OA, irrespective of whether or not they undergo surgical reconstruction.
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    Knee and ankle biomechanics with lateral wedges with and without a custom arch support in those with medial knee osteoarthritis and flat feet
    Hatfield, GL ; Cochrane, CK ; Takacs, J ; Krowchuk, NM ; Chang, R ; Hinman, RS ; Hunt, MA (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-09-01)
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    Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise Participation in People with Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis: Synthesis of the Literature Using Behavior Change Theory
    Dobson, F ; Bennell, KL ; French, SD ; Nicolson, PJA ; Klaasman, RN ; Holden, MA ; Atkins, L ; Hinman, RS (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016-05-01)
    Exercise is recommended for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patient initiation of, and adherence to, exercise is key to the success of managing symptoms. This study aimed to (1) identify modifiable barriers and facilitators to participation in intentional exercise in hip and/or knee OA, and (2) synthesize findings using behavior change theory. A scoping review with systematic searches was conducted through March 2015. Two reviewers screened studies for eligibility. Barriers and facilitators were extracted and synthesized according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) by two independent reviewers. Twenty-three studies (total of 4633 participants) were included. The greatest number of unique barriers and facilitators mapped to the Environmental Context and Resources domain. Many barriers were related to Beliefs about Consequences and Beliefs about Capabilities, whereas many facilitators were related to Reinforcement. Clinicians should take a proactive role in facilitating exercise uptake and adherence, rather than trusting patients to independently overcome barriers to exercise. Strategies that may be useful include a personalized approach to exercise prescription, considering environmental context and available resources, personalized education about beneficial consequences of exercise and reassurance about exercise capability, and use of reinforcement strategies. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of behavior change interventions that specifically target these factors.
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    A Short Message Service Intervention to Support Adherence to Home-Based Strengthening Exercise for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: Intervention Design Applying the Behavior Change Wheel
    Nelligan, RK ; Hinman, RS ; Atkins, L ; Bennell, KL (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2019-10-18)
    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic condition with no known cure. Treatment focuses on symptom management, with exercise recommended as a core component by all clinical practice guidelines. However, long-term adherence to exercise is poor among many people with knee osteoarthritis, which limits its capacity to provide sustained symptom relief. To improve exercise outcomes, scalable interventions that facilitate exercise adherence are needed. SMS (short message service) interventions show promise in health behavior change. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) is a widely used framework that provides a structured approach to designing behavior change interventions and has been used extensively in health behavior change intervention design. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the development of, and rationale for, an SMS program to support exercise adherence in people with knee osteoarthritis using the BCW framework. METHODS: The intervention was developed in two phases. Phase 1 involved using the BCW to select the target behavior and associated barriers, facilitators, and behavior change techniques (BCTs). Phase 2 involved design of the program functionality and message library. Messages arranged into a 24-week schedule were provided to an external company to be developed into an automated SMS program. RESULTS: The target behavior was identified as participation in self-directed home-based strengthening exercise 3 times a week for 24 weeks. A total of 13 barriers and 9 facilitators of the behavior and 20 BCTs were selected to use in the intervention. In addition, 198 SMS text messages were developed and organized into a 24-week automated program that functions by prompting users to self-report the number of home exercise sessions completed each week. Users who reported ≥3 exercise sessions/week (adherent) received positive reinforcement messages. Users who reported <3 exercise sessions/week (nonadherent) were asked to select a barrier (from a list of standardized response options) that best explains why they found performing the exercises challenging in the previous week. This automatically triggers an SMS containing a BCT suggestion relevant to overcoming the selected barrier. Users also received BCT messages to facilitate exercise adherence, irrespective of self-reported adherence. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates application of the BCW to guide development of an automated SMS intervention to support exercise adherence in knee osteoarthritis. Future research is needed to assess whether the intervention improves adherence to the prescribed home-based strengthening exercise.
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    Moderators of Effects of Internet-Delivered Exercise and Pain Coping Skills Training for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Analysis of the IMPACT Randomized Controlled Trial
    Lawford, BJ ; Hinman, RS ; Kasza, J ; Nelligan, R ; Keefe, F ; Rini, C ; Bennell, KL (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2018-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training is effective for people with knee osteoarthritis, yet it is not clear whether this treatment is better suited to particular subgroups of patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore demographic and clinical moderators of the effect of an internet-delivered intervention on changes in pain and physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of data from 148 people with knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training to internet-delivered education alone. Primary outcomes were changes in knee pain while walking (11-point Numerical Rating Scale) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index function subscale) at 3 and 9 months. Separate regression models were fit with moderator variables (age, gender, expectations of outcomes, self-efficacy [pain], education, employment status, pain catastrophizing, body mass index) and study group as covariates, including an interaction between the two. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention group who were currently employed had significantly greater reductions in pain at 3 months than similar participants in the control group (between-group difference: mean 2.38, 95% CI 1.52-3.23 Numerical Rating Scale units; interaction P=.02). Additionally, within the intervention group, pain at 3 months reduced by mean 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.78) Numerical Rating Scale units per unit increase in baseline self-efficacy for managing pain compared to mean 0.11 Numerical Rating Scale units (95% CI -0.13 to 0.35; interaction P=.02) for the control group. CONCLUSIONS: People who were employed and had higher self-efficacy at baseline were more likely to experience greater improvements in pain at 3 months after an internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training program. There was no evidence of a difference in the effect across gender, educational level, expectation of treatment outcome, or across age, body mass index, or tendency to catastrophize pain. Findings support the effectiveness of internet-delivered care for a wide range of people with knee osteoarthritis, but future confirmatory research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000243617; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365812&isReview=true (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6z466oTPs).