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    "Sounds a Bit Crazy, But It Was Almost More Personal:" A Qualitative Study of Patient and Clinician Experiences of Physical Therapist-Prescribed Exercise For Knee Osteoarthritis Via Skype
    Hinman, RS ; Nelligan, RK ; Bennell, KL ; Delany, C (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of patients and physical therapists with Skype for exercise management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The Donabedian model for quality assessment in health care (structure, process, and outcomes) informed semistructured individual interview questions. The study involved 12 purposively sampled patients with knee OA who received physical therapist-prescribed exercise over Skype, and all therapists (n = 8) who delivered the intervention in a clinical trial were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Two investigators undertook coding and analysis using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Six themes arose from both patients and therapists. The themes were Structure: technology (easy to use, variable quality, set-up assistance helpful) and patient convenience (time efficient, flexible, increased access); Process: empowerment to self-manage (facilitated by home environment and therapists focusing on effective treatment) and positive therapeutic relationships (personal undivided attention from therapists, supportive friendly interactions); and Outcomes: satisfaction with care (satisfying, enjoyable, patients would recommend, therapists felt Skype more useful as adjunct to usual practice) and patient benefits (reduced pain, improved function, improved confidence and self-efficacy). A seventh theme arose from therapists regarding process: adjusting routine treatment (need to modify habits, discomfort without hands-on, supported by research environment). CONCLUSION: Patients and physical therapists described mostly positive experiences using Skype as a service delivery model for physical therapist-supervised exercise management of moderate knee OA. Such a model is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to increase access to supervised exercise management for people with knee OA, either individually or in combination with traditional in-clinic visits.
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    Patient Knowledge and Beliefs About Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction
    Bennell, KL ; van Ginckel, A ; Kean, CO ; Nelligan, RK ; French, SD ; Stokes, M ; Pietrosimone, B ; Blackburn, T ; Batt, M ; Hunter, DJ ; Spiers, L ; Hinman, RS (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' knowledge and beliefs about osteoarthritis (OA) and OA risk following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, to explore the extent to which information about these risks is provided by health professionals, and to examine associations among participant characteristics, knowledge, and risk beliefs and health professional advice. METHODS: A custom-designed survey was conducted in Australian and American adults who sustained an ACL injury, with or without reconstruction, 1-5 years prior. The survey comprised 3 sections: participant characteristics, knowledge about OA and OA risk, and health professional advice. RESULTS: Complete data sets from 233 eligible respondents were analyzed. Most (70%, n = 164) rated themselves as being at greater risk of OA than their healthy peers, although only 56% (n = 130) were able to identify the correct OA definition. While most agreed that ACL (73%, n = 168) and/or meniscal injuries (n = 181, 78%) increase the risk of OA, 65% (n = 152) believed that ACL reconstruction reduced the risk of OA, or they did not know. A total of 27% (n = 62) recalled discussing their OA risk with a health professional. Participants who were female, younger, or had a lower body mass index or higher physical activity level were more likely to recognize meniscal tears and meniscectomy as risk factors of OA. A history of professional advice was associated with beliefs about increased OA risks. CONCLUSION: Patients sustaining an ACL injury require better education from health professionals about OA as a disease entity and their elevated risk of OA, irrespective of whether or not they undergo surgical reconstruction.
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    A Short Message Service Intervention to Support Adherence to Home-Based Strengthening Exercise for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: Intervention Design Applying the Behavior Change Wheel
    Nelligan, RK ; Hinman, RS ; Atkins, L ; Bennell, KL (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2019-10-18)
    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic condition with no known cure. Treatment focuses on symptom management, with exercise recommended as a core component by all clinical practice guidelines. However, long-term adherence to exercise is poor among many people with knee osteoarthritis, which limits its capacity to provide sustained symptom relief. To improve exercise outcomes, scalable interventions that facilitate exercise adherence are needed. SMS (short message service) interventions show promise in health behavior change. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) is a widely used framework that provides a structured approach to designing behavior change interventions and has been used extensively in health behavior change intervention design. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the development of, and rationale for, an SMS program to support exercise adherence in people with knee osteoarthritis using the BCW framework. METHODS: The intervention was developed in two phases. Phase 1 involved using the BCW to select the target behavior and associated barriers, facilitators, and behavior change techniques (BCTs). Phase 2 involved design of the program functionality and message library. Messages arranged into a 24-week schedule were provided to an external company to be developed into an automated SMS program. RESULTS: The target behavior was identified as participation in self-directed home-based strengthening exercise 3 times a week for 24 weeks. A total of 13 barriers and 9 facilitators of the behavior and 20 BCTs were selected to use in the intervention. In addition, 198 SMS text messages were developed and organized into a 24-week automated program that functions by prompting users to self-report the number of home exercise sessions completed each week. Users who reported ≥3 exercise sessions/week (adherent) received positive reinforcement messages. Users who reported <3 exercise sessions/week (nonadherent) were asked to select a barrier (from a list of standardized response options) that best explains why they found performing the exercises challenging in the previous week. This automatically triggers an SMS containing a BCT suggestion relevant to overcoming the selected barrier. Users also received BCT messages to facilitate exercise adherence, irrespective of self-reported adherence. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates application of the BCW to guide development of an automated SMS intervention to support exercise adherence in knee osteoarthritis. Future research is needed to assess whether the intervention improves adherence to the prescribed home-based strengthening exercise.
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    Moderators of Effects of Internet-Delivered Exercise and Pain Coping Skills Training for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Analysis of the IMPACT Randomized Controlled Trial
    Lawford, BJ ; Hinman, RS ; Kasza, J ; Nelligan, R ; Keefe, F ; Rini, C ; Bennell, KL (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2018-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training is effective for people with knee osteoarthritis, yet it is not clear whether this treatment is better suited to particular subgroups of patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore demographic and clinical moderators of the effect of an internet-delivered intervention on changes in pain and physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of data from 148 people with knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training to internet-delivered education alone. Primary outcomes were changes in knee pain while walking (11-point Numerical Rating Scale) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index function subscale) at 3 and 9 months. Separate regression models were fit with moderator variables (age, gender, expectations of outcomes, self-efficacy [pain], education, employment status, pain catastrophizing, body mass index) and study group as covariates, including an interaction between the two. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention group who were currently employed had significantly greater reductions in pain at 3 months than similar participants in the control group (between-group difference: mean 2.38, 95% CI 1.52-3.23 Numerical Rating Scale units; interaction P=.02). Additionally, within the intervention group, pain at 3 months reduced by mean 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.78) Numerical Rating Scale units per unit increase in baseline self-efficacy for managing pain compared to mean 0.11 Numerical Rating Scale units (95% CI -0.13 to 0.35; interaction P=.02) for the control group. CONCLUSIONS: People who were employed and had higher self-efficacy at baseline were more likely to experience greater improvements in pain at 3 months after an internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training program. There was no evidence of a difference in the effect across gender, educational level, expectation of treatment outcome, or across age, body mass index, or tendency to catastrophize pain. Findings support the effectiveness of internet-delivered care for a wide range of people with knee osteoarthritis, but future confirmatory research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000243617; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365812&isReview=true (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6z466oTPs).
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    Factors Influencing Cane Use for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey
    Hart, J ; Hinman, RS ; van Ginckel, A ; Hall, M ; Nelligan, R ; Bennell, KL (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic, symptom-related, and cognitive determinants of cane use for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and prioritize the factors that could facilitate cane use in people with no previous cane use. METHODS: A survey of people ages ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of knee OA was conducted. The survey consisted of the following two sections: 1) demographic and cognitive determinants of cane use assessed via subscales of the Cane Cognitive Mediator Scale, and 2) 19 statements, underpinned by the Behaviour Change Wheel theoretical framework, relating to factors that could facilitate regular cane use. Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of cane use, while a priority pairwise ranking activity (1000minds software) determined the rank order of the 19 statements that could facilitate cane use. RESULTS: A total of 529 people completed Part 1 (80% females; 35% cane users) and 231 people completed Part 2. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03- 1.09), body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), knee pain ≥3 years (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.63-4.21) and numeric rating scale pain level while walking (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.30) were significant independent determinants of cane use. In people who had never used a cane, statements relating to cane-use technique, fitting, knowledge of benefits, and motivation were ranked highest overall. CONCLUSION: Independent determinants of cane use include older age, higher BMI, greater pain duration, and greater severity of knee pain. Strategies targeting an individual's capability and motivation to use a cane may increase cane use among people with knee OA.
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    Effect of a short message service (SMS) intervention on adherence to a physiotherapist-prescribed home exercise program for people with knee osteoarthritis and obesity: protocol for the ADHERE randomised controlled trial
    Nelligan, RK ; Hinman, RS ; Kasza, J ; Schwartz, S ; Kimp, A ; Atkins, L ; Bennell, KL (BMC, 2019-09-14)
    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent condition. People with knee OA often have other co-morbidities such as obesity. Exercise is advocated in all clinical guidelines for the management of knee OA. It is often undertaken as a home-based program, initially prescribed by a physiotherapist or other qualified health care provider. However, adherence to home-based exercise is often poor, limiting its ability to meaningfully change clinical symptoms of pain and/or physical function. While the efficacy of short message services (SMS) to promote adherence to a range of health behaviours has been demonstrated, its ability to promote home exercise adherence in people with knee OA has not been specifically evaluated. Hence, this trial is investigating whether the addition of an SMS intervention to support adherence to prescribed home-based exercise is more effective than no SMS on self-reported measures of exercise adherence. METHODS: We are conducting a two-arm parallel-design, assessor-and participant-blinded randomised controlled trial (ADHERE) in people with knee OA and obesity. The trial is enrolling participants exiting from another randomised controlled trial, the TARGET trial, where participants are prescribed a 12-week home-based exercise program (either weight bearing functional exercise or non-weight bearing quadriceps strengthening exercise) for their knee by a physiotherapist and seen five times over the 12 weeks for monitoring and supervision. Following completion of outcome measures for the TARGET trial, participants are immediately enrolled into the ADHERE trial. Participants are asked to continue their prescribed home exercise program unsupervised three times a week for 24-weeks and are randomly allocated to receive a behaviour change theory-informed SMS intervention to support home exercise adherence or to have no SMS intervention. Outcomes are measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence measures. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of knee pain, physical function, quality-of-life, physical activity, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophising, participant-perceived global change and an additional adherence measure. DISCUSSION: Findings will provide new information into the potential of SMS to improve longer-term exercise adherence and ultimately enhance exercise outcomes in knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Reference: ACTR N12617001243303 Date/version: August 2019/two.
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    Effectiveness of internet-delivered education and home exercise supported by behaviour change SMS on pain and function for people with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol
    Nelligan, RK ; Hinman, RS ; Kasza, J ; Bennell, KL (BMC, 2019-07-27)
    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent and chronic condition with no known cure. Exercise is advocated in all clinical guidelines due to its positive effects on symptoms. Despite this, exercise participation is often poor in people with knee OA with access to exercise treatments a known barrier. Internet-delivered exercise interventions have the potential to improve access to evidence-based exercise treatments and can benefit OA outcomes, although non-usage and low adherence potentially limit their effectiveness. Short message services (SMS) show promise in facilitating exercise adherence and may be one solution to improve adherence to internet-delivered exercise interventions. The combination of internet-delivered exercise and SMS adherence support has not been specifically evaluated in people with knee OA. METHODS: This protocol reports a two-arm parallel-design, assessor- and participant-blinded randomised controlled trial. This trial is recruiting 206 people aged 45 years and older, with a clinical diagnosis of knee OA from the Australian-wide community. Eligible and consenting participants are enrolled and randomised to receive access to either i) 'My Knee Education', an education control website containing OA and exercise information only or ii) a combined intervention that includes a website, 'My Knee Exercise', containing the same educational information as the control, guidance to increase general physical activity, and the prescription of a 24-week self-directed home-based lower-limb strengthening program in addition to a 24-week behaviour change SMS exercise adherence program. Outcome measures are being collected at baseline and 24-weeks. Primary outcomes are self-reported knee pain and physical function. Secondary outcomes include another self-reported measure of knee pain, function in sport and recreation, quality-of-life, physical activity, self-efficacy, participant satisfaction and perceived global change. DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will provide evidence about the effectiveness of a combined intervention of internet-delivered OA and exercise education, physical activity guidance and prescription of a 24-week lower-limb strengthening exercise program supported by a behaviour change SMS program compared to internet delivered OA and exercise education alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12618001167257/13th July 2018.
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    Comparison of weight bearing functional exercise and non-weight bearing quadriceps strengthening exercise on pain and function for people with knee osteoarthritis and obesity: protocol for the TARGET randomised controlled trial
    Bennell, KL ; Nelligan, RK ; Kimp, AJ ; Wrigley, TV ; Metcalf, B ; Kasza, J ; Hodges, PW ; Hinman, RS (BMC, 2019-06-18)
    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend exercise as a core treatment for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the best type of exercise for clinical benefits is not clear, particularly in different OA subgroups. Obesity is a common co-morbidity in people with knee OA. There is some evidence suggesting that non-weight bearing exercise may be more effective than weight bearing exercise in patients with medial knee OA and obesity. METHODS: To compare the efficacy of two different exercise programs (weight bearing functional exercise and non-weight bearing quadriceps strengthening) on pain and physical function for people ≥50 years with painful medial knee OA and obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) 128 people in Melbourne, Australia will be recruited for a two group parallel-design, assessor- and participant-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomly allocated to undertake a program of either weight bearing functional exercise or non-weight bearing quadriceps strengthening exercise. Both groups will attend five individual sessions with a physiotherapist who will teach, monitor and progress the exercise program. Participants will be asked to perform the exercises at home four times per week for 12 weeks. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Primary outcomes are self-reported knee pain and physical function. Secondary outcomes include other measures of knee pain, physical function, quality-of-life, participant-perceived global change, physical performance, and lower limb muscle strength. DISCUSSION: This study will compare the efficacy of two different 12-week physiotherapist-prescribed, home-based exercise programs for people with medial knee OA and obesity. Findings will provide valuable information to help inform exercise prescription in this common OA patient subgroup. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12617001013358 , 14/7/2017.
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    Internet-mediated physiotherapy and pain coping skills training for people with persistent knee pain (IMPACT - knee pain): a randomised controlled trial protocol.
    Dobson, F ; Hinman, RS ; French, S ; Rini, C ; Keefe, F ; Nelligan, R ; Abbott, JH ; Bryant, C ; Staples, MP ; Dalwood, A ; Bennell, KL (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-08-13)
    BACKGROUND: Persistent knee pain in people over 50 years of age is often attributable to knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint condition that causes physical and psychological dysfunction. Exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST) can help reduce the impact of persistent knee pain, however, access to health professionals who deliver these services can be challenging. With increasing access to the Internet, remotely delivered Internet-based treatment approaches may provide alternatives for healthcare delivery. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate whether an Internet-delivered intervention that combines PCST and physiotherapist-guided exercise (PCST + Ex) is more effective than online educational material (educational control) in people with persistent knee pain. METHODS/DESIGN: We will recruit 148 people over 50 years of age with self-reported persistent knee pain consistent with knee OA from the Australian community. Following completion of baseline questionnaires, participants will be randomly allocated to access a 3-month intervention of either (i) online educational material, or (ii) the same online material plus an 8-module (once per week) Internet-based PCST program and seven Internet-delivered physiotherapy sessions with a home exercise programs to be performed 3 times per week. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3 months and 9 months with the primary time point at 3 months. Primary outcomes are average knee pain on walking (11-point numeric rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale). Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, health-related quality-of-life, perceived global change in symptoms, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts and pain catastrophising. Other measures of adherence, adverse events, harms, use of health services/co-interventions, and process measures including appropriateness and satisfaction of the intervention, will be collected at 3, 6 and 9 months. DISCUSSION: The findings will help determine the effectiveness and acceptability of Internet access to a combination of interventions that are known to be beneficial to people with persistent knee pain. This study has the potential to guide clinical practice towards innovative modes of healthcare provision. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12614000243617.
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    Effects of Adding an Internet-Based Pain Coping Skills Training Protocol to a Standardized Education and Exercise Program for People With Persistent Hip Pain (HOPE Trial): Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol
    Bennell, KL ; Rini, C ; Keefe, F ; French, S ; Nelligan, R ; Kasza, J ; Forbes, A ; Dobson, F ; Abbott, JH ; Dalwood, A ; Vicenzino, B ; Harris, A ; Hinman, RS (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2015-10-01)
    BACKGROUND: Persistent hip pain in older people is usually due to hip osteoarthritis (OA), a major cause of pain, disability, and psychological dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether adding an Internet-based pain coping skills training (PCST) protocol to a standardized intervention of education followed by physical therapist-instructed home exercise leads to greater reductions in pain and improvements in function. DESIGN: An assessor-, therapist-, and participant-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. SETTING: The study will be conducted in a community setting. PARTICIPANTS: The participants will be 142 people over 50 years of age with self-reported hip pain consistent with hip OA. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomly allocated to: (1) a control group receiving a 24-week standardized intervention comprising an 8-week Internet-based education package followed by 5 individual physical therapy exercise sessions plus home exercises (3 times weekly) or (2) a PCST group receiving an 8-week Internet-based PCST protocol in addition to the control intervention. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 8, 24, and 52 weeks, with the primary time point at 24 weeks. Primary outcomes are hip pain on walking and self-reported physical function. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, participant-perceived treatment response, self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts, pain catastrophizing, and physical activity. Measurements of adherence, adverse events, use of health services, and process measures will be collected at 24 and 52 weeks. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed at 52 weeks. LIMITATIONS: A self-reported diagnosis of persistent hip pain will be used. CONCLUSIONS: The findings will help determine whether adding an Internet-based PCST protocol to standardized education and physical therapist-instructed home exercise is more effective than education and exercise alone for persistent hip pain. This study has the potential to guide clinical practice toward innovative modes of psychosocial health care provision.