Physiotherapy - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 769
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Machine Learning Derived Lifting Techniques and Pain Self-Efficacy in People with Chronic Low Back Pain
    Phan, TC ; Pranata, A ; Farragher, J ; Bryant, A ; Nguyen, HT ; Chai, R (MDPI, 2022-09-01)
    This paper proposes an innovative methodology for finding how many lifting techniques people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) can demonstrate with camera data collected from 115 participants. The system employs a feature extraction algorithm to calculate the knee, trunk and hip range of motion in the sagittal plane, Ward's method, a combination of K-means and Ensemble clustering method for classification algorithm, and Bayesian neural network to validate the result of Ward's method and the combination of K-means and Ensemble clustering method. The classification results and effect size show that Ward clustering is the optimal method where precision and recall percentages of all clusters are above 90, and the overall accuracy of the Bayesian Neural Network is 97.9%. The statistical analysis reported a significant difference in the range of motion of the knee, hip and trunk between each cluster, F (9, 1136) = 195.67, p < 0.0001. The results of this study suggest that there are four different lifting techniques in people with CLBP. Additionally, the results show that even though the clusters demonstrated similar pain levels, one of the clusters, which uses the least amount of trunk and the most knee movement, demonstrates the lowest pain self-efficacy.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity, Function, and Quality of Life
    Said, CM ; Batchelor, F ; Duque, G (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2022-08-01)
    It is now more than 2 years since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected people around the globe, particularly older persons, who are at the highest risk of severe disease. In addition, many of those who survive will have symptoms that persist after the initial infection. COVID-19 infection severely affects function and mobility through its impact on the musculoskeletal system. This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity in older people and subsequent effects and implications for function and quality of life.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Episodic and prospective memory difficulties in 13-year-old children born very preterm
    Stedall, PM ; Spencer-Smith, MM ; Lah, S ; Doyle, LW ; Spittle, AJ ; Burnett, AC ; Anderson, PJ (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-04-07)
    OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (VP) are susceptible to a range of cognitive impairments, yet the effects of VP birth on long-term, episodic, and prospective memory remains unclear. This study examined episodic and prospective memory functioning in children born VP compared with their term-born counterparts at 13 years. METHOD: VP (n = 81: born <30 weeks' gestation) and term (n = 26) groups were aged between 12 and 14 years. Children completed: (i) standardized verbal and visuospatial episodic memory tests; and (ii) an experimental time- and event-based prospective memory test that included short-term (within assessment session) and long-term (up to 1-week post-session) tasks. Parents completed a questionnaire assessing memory functions in everyday life. RESULTS: The VP group performed worse on all measures of verbal and visuospatial episodic memory than the term group. While there were no group differences in event-based or long-term prospective memory, the VP group performed worse on time-based and short-term prospective memory tasks than term-born counterparts. Parents of children born VP reported more everyday memory difficulties than parents of children born at term, with parent-ratings indicating significantly elevated rates of everyday memory challenges in children born VP. CONCLUSIONS: Children born VP warrant long-term surveillance, as challenges associated with VP birth include memory difficulties at 13 years. This study highlights the need for greater research and clinical attention into childhood functional memory outcomes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Automated volumetric and statistical shape assessment of cam-type morphology of the femoral head-neck region from clinical 3D magnetic resonance images.
    Bugeja, JM ; Xia, Y ; Chandra, SS ; Murphy, NJ ; Eyles, J ; Spiers, L ; Crozier, S ; Hunter, DJ ; Fripp, J ; Engstrom, C (AME Publishing Company, 2022-10)
    BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) cam morphology is routinely assessed using manual measurements of two-dimensional (2D) alpha angles which are prone to high rater variability and do not provide direct three-dimensional (3D) data on these osseous formations. We present CamMorph, a fully automated 3D pipeline for segmentation, statistical shape assessment and measurement of cam volume, surface area and height from clinical magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip in FAI patients. METHODS: The novel CamMorph pipeline involves two components: (I) accurate proximal femur segmentation generated by combining the 3D U-net to identify both global (region) and local (edge) features in clinical MR images and focused shape modelling to generate a 3D anatomical model for creating patient-specific proximal femur models; (II) patient-specific anatomical information from 3D focused shape modelling to simulate 'healthy' femoral bone models with cam-affected region constraints applied to the anterosuperior femoral head-neck region to quantify cam morphology in FAI patients. The CamMorph pipeline, which generates patient-specific data within 5 min, was used to analyse multi-site clinical MR images of the hip to measure and assess cam morphology in male (n=56) and female (n=41) FAI patients. RESULTS: There was excellent agreement between manual and CamMorph segmentations of the proximal femur as demonstrated by the mean Dice similarity index (DSI; 0.964±0.006), 95% Hausdorff distance (HD; 2.123±0.876 mm) and average surface distance (ASD; 0.539±0.189 mm) values. Compared to female FAI patients, male patients had a significantly larger median cam volume (969.22 vs. 272.97 mm3, U=240.0, P<0.001), mean surface area [657.36 vs. 306.93 mm2, t(95)=8.79, P<0.001], median maximum-height (3.66 vs. 2.15 mm, U=407.0, P<0.001) and median average-height (1.70 vs. 0.86 mm, U=380.0, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The fully automated 3D CamMorph pipeline developed in the present study successfully segmented and measured cam morphology from clinical MR images of the hip in male and female patients with differing FAI severity and pathoanatomical characteristics.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Automated 3D Analysis of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Images Demonstrates Significant Reductions in Cam Morphology Following Arthroscopic Intervention in Contrast to Physiotherapy.
    Bugeja, JM ; Xia, Y ; Chandra, SS ; Murphy, NJ ; Eyles, J ; Spiers, L ; Crozier, S ; Hunter, DJ ; Fripp, J ; Engstrom, C (Elsevier BV, 2022-08)
    PURPOSE: To obtain automated measurements of cam volume, surface area, and height from baseline (preintervention) and 12-month magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired from male and female patients allocated to physiotherapy (PT) or arthroscopic surgery (AS) management for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in the Australian FASHIoN trial. METHODS: An automated segmentation pipeline (CamMorph) was used to obtain cam morphology data from three-dimensional (3D) MR hip examinations in FAI patients classified with mild, moderate, or major cam volumes. Pairwise comparisons between baseline and 12-month cam volume, surface area, and height data were performed within the PT and AS patient groups using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were included with 15 PT patients (9 males, 6 females) and 28 AS patients (18 males, 10 females) for premanagement and postmanagement cam morphology assessments. Within the PT male and female patient groups, there were no significant differences between baseline and 12-month mean cam volume (male: 1269 vs 1288 mm3, t[16] = -0.39; female: 545 vs 550 mm,3 t[10] = -0.78), surface area (male: 1525 vs 1491 mm2, t[16] = 0.92; female: 885 vs 925 mm,2 t[10] = -0.78), maximum height (male: 4.36 vs 4.32 mm, t[16] = 0.34; female: 3.05 vs 2.96 mm, t[10] = 1.05) and average height (male: 2.18 vs 2.18 mm, t[16] = 0.22; female: 1.4 vs 1.43 mm, t[10] = -0.38). In contrast, within the AS male and female patient groups, there were significant differences between baseline and 12-month cam volume (male: 1343 vs 718 mm3, W = 0.0; female: 499 vs 240 mm3, t[18] = 2.89), surface area (male: 1520 vs 1031 mm2, t(34) = 6.48; female: 782 vs 483 mm2, t(18) = 3.02), maximum-height (male: 4.3 vs 3.42 mm, W = 13.5; female: 2.85 vs 2.24 mm, t(18) = 3.04) and average height (male: 2.17 vs 1.52 mm, W = 3.0; female: 1.4 vs 0.94 mm, W = 3.0). In AS patients, 3D bone models provided good visualization of cam bone mass removal postostectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Automated measurement of cam morphology from baseline (preintervention) and 12-month MR images demonstrated that the cam volume, surface area, maximum-height, and average height were significantly smaller in AS patients following ostectomy, whereas there were no significant differences in these cam measures in PT patients from the Australian FASHIoN study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, cohort study.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Evaluation of two electronic-rehabilitation programmes for persistent knee pain: protocol for a randomised feasibility trial
    Groves-Williams, D ; McHugh, GA ; Bennell, KL ; Comer, C ; Hensor, EMA ; Conner, M ; Nelligan, RK ; Hinman, RS ; Kingsbury, SR ; Conaghan, PG (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Persistent, knee pain is a common cause of disability. Education and exercise treatment are advocated in all clinical guidelines; however, the increasing prevalence of persistent knee pain presents challenges for health services regarding appropriate and scalable delivery of these treatments. Digital technologies may help address this, and this trial will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two electronic-rehabilitation interventions: 'My Knee UK' and 'Group E-Rehab'. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a non-blinded, randomised feasibility trial with three parallel groups. The trial aims to recruit 90 participants (45 years or older) with a history of persistent knee pain consistent with a clinical diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Participants will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. The 'My Knee UK' intervention arm will receive a self-directed unsupervised internet-based home exercise programme plus short message service support (targeting exercise behaviour change) for 12 weeks; the 'Group E-Rehab' intervention arm will receive group-based physiotherapist-prescribed home exercises delivered via videoconferencing accompanied by internet-interactive educational sessions for 12 weeks; the control arm will receive usual physiotherapy care or continue with their usual self-management (depending on their recruitment path). Feasibility variables, patient-reported outcomes and clinical findings measured at baseline, 3 and 9 months will be assessed and integrated with qualitative interview data from a subset of Group E-Rehab and My Knee UK participants. If considered feasible and acceptable, a definitive randomised controlled trial can be conducted to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of one or both interventions with a view to implementation in routine care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee 5 (Reference: 20/WS/0006). The results of the study will be disseminated to study participants, the study grant funder and will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15564385.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Physical Therapist and Physical Therapist Student Knowledge, Confidence, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Providing Care for People With Dementia: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review
    Quick, SM ; Snowdon, DA ; Lawler, K ; McGinley, JL ; Soh, S-E ; Callisaya, ML (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2022-05-05)
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine physical therapists' and physical therapist students' attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and confidence in working with people with dementia. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods systematic review. Participants included physical therapists working in any clinical specialty and physical therapist students who had completed at least 1 clinical placement. Eleven databases were searched. The evidence was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists. Data synthesis followed a convergent integrated approach according to Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for mixed-methods systematic reviews. Quantitative data were "qualitized" using thematic analysis and synthesized with qualitative data using thematic synthesis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included (9 quantitative and 6 qualitative studies). Seven key themes evolved. Five related to the belief that (1) working with people with dementia is complex and challenging; (2) opportunities for education in dementia care are lacking; (3) working with people with dementia is a specialized area of practice; (4) there are unsupportive systems for working with people with dementia; and (5) people with dementia deserve rehabilitation, but their potential to improve is less certain. One theme related to knowledge (lack of knowledge in some areas of dementia care), and 1 theme related to confidence (lack of confidence in working with people with dementia). CONCLUSIONS: Physical therapists and physical therapist students believe that working with people with dementia can be challenging. The low levels of knowledge and confidence in areas important to working with people who have dementia suggest that more education about dementia is needed. IMPACT: This mixed-methods systematic review highlights that physical therapists and physical therapist students believe that working with people who have dementia is complex and challenging. Physical therapists want more training and support in this growing area of practice.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Attenuating Muscle Mass Loss in Critical Illness: the Role of Nutrition and Exercise
    Chapple, L-AS ; Parry, SM ; Schaller, SJ (SPRINGER, 2022-08-31)
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impaired recovery following an intensive care unit (ICU) admission is thought related to muscle wasting. Nutrition and physical activity are considered potential avenues to attenuate muscle wasting. The aim of this review was to present evidence for these interventions in attenuating muscle loss or improving strength and function. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials on the impact of nutrition or physical activity interventions in critically ill adult patients on muscle mass, strength or function are presented. No nutrition intervention has shown an effect on strength or function, and the effect on muscle mass is conflicting. RCTs on the effect of physical activity demonstrate conflicting results; yet, there is a signal for improved strength and function with higher levels of physical activity, particularly when commenced early. Further research is needed to elucidate the impact of nutrition and physical activity on muscle mass, strength and function, particularly in combination.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Exploring experiences with telehealth-delivered allied healthcare services for people with permanent and significant disabilities funded through a national insurance scheme: a qualitative study examining challenges and suggestions to improve services
    Filbay, S ; Bennell, KL ; Morello, R ; Smith, L ; Hinman, RS ; Lawford, BJ (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-09-01)
    OBJECTIVES: In people with a disability, or their caregivers, who reported suboptimal experiences, the objectives were to explore: (1) challenges with telehealth-delivered allied health services during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) suggestions to improve such services. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on an interpretivist paradigm and a phenomenological approach. SETTING: Participants who accessed allied healthcare via telehealth during the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Data saturation was achieved after 12 interviews. The sample comprised three people with permanent or significant disabilities, and nine carers/partners/family members of people with permanent or significant disabilities, who were funded by the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme and had suboptimal experiences with telehealth. Semistructured one-on-one interviews explored experiences with telehealth and suggestions on how such services could be improved. An inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Six themes relating to the first study objective (challenges with telehealth) were developed: (1) evoked behavioural issues in children; (2) reliant on caregiver facilitation; (3) inhibits clinician feedback; (4) difficulty building rapport and trust; (5) lack of access to resources and (6) children disengaged/distracted. Five themes relating to the second study objective (suggestions to improve telehealth services) were developed: (1) establish expectations; (2) increase exposure to telehealth; (3) assess suitability of specific services; (4) access to support workers and (5) prepare for telehealth sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Some people with permanent and significant disabilities who accessed allied healthcare via telehealth during the pandemic experienced challenges, particularly children. These unique barriers to telehealth need customised solutions so that people with disabilities are not left behind when telehealth services become more mainstream. Increasing experience with telehealth, setting expectations before consultations, supplying resources for therapy and assessing the suitability of clients for telehealth may help overcome some of the challenges experienced.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Swedish version of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality Of Life measure (ACL-QOL): translation and measurement properties
    Filbay, SR ; Grevnerts, HT ; Sonesson, S ; Hedevik, H ; Kvist, J (SPRINGER, 2022-10-13)
    PURPOSE: To translate the ACL-QOL from English to Swedish and evaluate measurement properties for use after surgical and non-surgical management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. METHODS: The ACL-QOL was translated from English to Swedish and data were pooled from 13 cohorts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of measurement properties in line with COSMIN guidelines. We evaluated internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, measurement error, structural validity [confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)], construct validity and responsiveness (hypothesis testing), and floor/ceiling effects. Results were stratified by time since injury (≤ 1.5 years; 2-10 years, 15-25 years; > 30 years) and ACL management strategy [surgical (n = 1163), non-surgical (n = 570)]. RESULTS: The Swedish ACL-QOL had sufficient internal consistency (total and domain scores) for use in surgically managed (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.744) and non-surgically managed (≥ 0.770) ACL-injured individuals at all time-points. Test-re-test reliability was sufficient [intraclass correlation coefficients: all domains > 0.80, total score 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.96)]. The standard error of measurement was 5.6 for the total score and ranged from 7.0 to 10.3 for each domain. CFA indicated sufficient SRMR values when using the total score or five domains; however, CFI and RMSEA values did not meet cut-offs for good model fit. Hypothesis testing indicated sufficient construct validity and responsiveness. Floor effects were negligible and ceiling effects were negligible or minor. CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the ACL-QOL has sufficient internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, construct validity and responsiveness, for use in people with ACL injury managed with or without ACL surgery. Model fit could be improved and investigation into the source of misfit is warranted.