Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    What are the core recommendations for gout management in first line and specialist care? Systematic review of clinical practice guidelines
    Conley, B ; Bunzli, S ; Bullen, J ; O'Brien, P ; Persaud, J ; Gunatillake, T ; Dowsey, MM ; Choong, PF ; Nikpour, M ; Grainger, R ; Lin, I (SPRINGERNATURE, 2023-06-15)
    BACKGROUND: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, increasing in prevalence and burden. Of the rheumatic diseases, gout is the best-understood and potentially most manageable condition. However, it frequently remains untreated or poorly managed. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) regarding gout management, evaluate their quality, and to provide a synthesis of consistent recommendations in the high-quality CPGs. METHODS: Gout management CPGs were eligible for inclusion if they were (1) written in English and published between January 2015-February 2022; focused on adults aged ≥ 18 years of age; and met the criteria of a CPG as defined by the Institute of Medicine; and (2) were rated as high quality on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Gout CPGs were excluded if they required additional payment to access; only addressed recommendations for the system/organisation of care and did not include interventional management recommendations; and/or included other arthritic conditions. OvidSP MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and four online guideline repositories were searched. RESULTS: Six CPGs were appraised as high quality and included in the synthesis. Clinical practice guidelines consistently recommended education, commencement of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, colchicine or corticosteroids (unless contraindicated), and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, renal function, and co-morbid conditions for acute gout management. Consistent recommendations for chronic gout management were urate lowering therapy (ULT) and continued prophylaxis recommended based on individual patient characteristics. Clinical practice guideline recommendations were inconsistent on when to initiate ULT and length of ULT, vitamin C intake, and use of pegloticase, fenofibrate and losartan. CONCLUSION: Management of acute gout was consistent across CPGs. Management of chronic gout was mostly consistent although there were inconsistent recommendations regarding ULT and other pharmacological therapies. This synthesis provides clear guidance that can assist health professionals to provide standardised, evidence-based gout care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this review was registered with Open Science Framework (DOI https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/UB3Y7 ).
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    Patterns of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity and Their Association with Changes in Physical and Functional Performance in Geriatric Rehabilitation Inpatients
    Rojer, AGM ; Ramsey, KA ; Trappenburg, MC ; Meskers, CGM ; Twisk, JWR ; Goonan, R ; Marston, C ; Kay, J ; Lim, WK ; Turbic, A ; Island, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Reijnierse, EM ; Pijnappels, M ; Maier, AB (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2023-05)
    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether The Ending PyJama (PJ) Paralysis campaign, focused on increasing in-hospital physical activity, affects objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity patterns and if these are associated with changes in physical and functional performance in geriatric rehabilitation inpatients. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Within the REStORing health of acutely unwell adulTs (RESORT) observational, longitudinal cohort of geriatric rehabilitation inpatients, the Ending PJ Paralysis campaign was implemented on 2 out of 4 wards. METHODS: Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity were measured by an inertial sensor (ActivPAL4) for 1 week, comparing control (non-PJ) and intervention (PJ) groups using linear mixed models. Mean sedentary behavior and physical activity measures and their association with physical and functional performance changes were investigated by linear regression analyses, stratified by low vs high performance at admission using the median as a cut-off. RESULTS: A total of 145 (n = 68 non-PJ and n = 77 PJ) inpatients with a mean age of 83.0 (7.7) years (55.9% female inpatients) were included. The median nonupright time was 23.1 [22.1-23.6] and 23.0 [21.8-23.6] hours/day for non-PJ and PJ groups, respectively. Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity measures did not significantly change over measurement days and were independent of the Ending PJ Paralysis campaign. For inpatients with low performance at admission, lower sedentary behavior [B(SE) -0.013 (0.005) to -0.157 (0.045), P < .01] and higher physical activity [B(SE) 0.033 (0.007) to 0.814 (0.200), P < .01] measures were associated with improved physical performance. In addition, lower sedentary behaviour [B(SE) = -0.058 (0.024), P < .05 and higher physical activity [B (SE) 0.060 (0.024) to 0.683 (0.182), P < .05] were associated with improved instrumental functional performance. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In geriatric rehabilitation inpatients, the Ending PJ Paralysis campaign did not affect objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity patterns. Lower mean sedentary behaviour and higher physical activity measures were associated with improved physical and functional performance in inpatients with low performance.
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    Early intervention treatment in the first 2 weeks following concussion in adults: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
    Moore, S ; Musgrave, C ; Sandler, J ; Bradley, B ; Jones, JRA (Elsevier BV, 2024-01)
    Objective: International guidelines support a repertoire of therapeutic interventions that may assist recovery following concussion. We aimed to systematically review the efficacy of early pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions initiated within two weeks of injury on symptoms and functional recovery of adults with concussion. Methods ; We conducted a Systematic Review (SR) of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) without meta-analysis utilising the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search was performed of four databases. Study inclusion criteria were adult participants diagnosed with concussion and commencing active intervention within 14 days of injury. Results and conclusions: Of 7531 studies identified, 11 were included in the final review. Six studies were rated as high-risk of bias, three with some concerns and two as low-risk of bias. We found no evidence to support specific pharmacotherapeutic management to hasten the natural recovery time-course. Two studies reported significant improvement in selected concussion symptoms following manual therapy (at 48–72 hours post-treatment) or telephone counselling interventions (at 6 months post-injury). No high quality RCTs demonstrate superior effects of early therapeutic interventions on concussion recovery in the first 2 weeks. We advocate future research to examine impacts of health-clinician contact points aligned with symptom-specific interventions.
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    Removing Pathoanatomical Content From Information Pamphlets About Knee Osteoarthritis Did Not Affect Beliefs About Imaging or Surgery, but Led to Lower Perceptions That Exercise Is Damaging and Better Osteoarthritis Knowledge: An Online Randomised Controlled Trial
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Hall, M ; Egerton, T ; Filbay, S ; Mcmanus, F ; Lamb, KE ; Hinman, RS (J O S P T, 2023-04)
    OBJECTIVE: Compare the effects of osteoarthritis information, with or without pathoanatomical content, on people's beliefs about managing osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Online randomized controlled trial involving 556 participants. METHODS: Participants considered a hypothetical scenario where their doctor informed them that they had knee osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to a control condition, where they received currently available osteoarthritis information with pathoanatomical content or an experimental condition, where they received the same osteoarthritis information but without pathoanatomical content. Primary outcomes were participants' beliefs about the need for x-ray to confirm diagnosis and joint replacement surgery in the future. RESULTS: There were no between-group differences in primary outcomes for x-ray (mean difference [MD], -0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.9, 0.4) and surgery (MD, -0.2; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.2), each rated on an 11-point numeric rating scale. Participants in the experimental group had lower perceptions that exercise would damage the knee (MD, -0.4; 95% CI: -0.8, 0.0; rated on an 11-point numeric rating scale) and better osteoarthritis knowledge (MD, 0.9; 95% CI: 0.0, 1.9; rated on a scale ranging from 11 to 55). Among those without tertiary education, participants in the experimental group had lower perceptions that x-ray was necessary than control (MD, -0.8; 95% CI: -1.5, -0.1). Among those who had never sought care for knee pain, participants in the experimental group had lower perceptions about the need for surgery (MD, -0.7; 95% CI: -1.2, -0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Removing pathoanatomical content may not change beliefs about imaging and surgery but may lead to lower perceptions that exercise is damaging and may improve osteoarthritis knowledge. However, effects were small and of unclear clinical relevance. Tertiary education or a history of care seeking for knee pain may moderate effects on primary outcomes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2023;53(4):1-15. Epub: 12 December 2022. doi:10.2519/jospt.2022.11618.
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    Youth With a Sport-Related Knee Injury Exhibit Significant and Persistent Knee-Related Quality-of-Life Deficits at 12-Month Follow-up Compared to Uninjured Peers
    Le, CY ; Galarneau, J-M ; Filbay, SR ; Emery, CA ; Manns, PJ ; Whittaker, JL (J O S P T, 2023-08)
    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare knee-related quality of life (QOL) between youth with and without an intra-articular, sport-related knee injury at baseline (≤4 months postinjury), 6-month, and 12-month follow-up, and assess the association between clinical outcomes and knee-related QOL. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We recruited 86 injured and 64 uninjured youth (similar age, sex, sport). Knee-related QOL was assessed with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) QOL subscale. Linear mixed models (95% confidence interval [CI]; clustered on sex and sport) compared KOOS QOL between study groups over the study period, considering sex-based differences. We also explored the association of injury type (anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]/meniscus injury or other), knee extensor strength (dynamometry), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (accelerometer), intermittent knee pain (Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain [ICOAP] measure), and fear of reinjury (17-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia) with knee-related QOL. RESULTS: Participant median (range) age was 16.4 (10.9-20.1) years, 67% were female, and 56% of injuries were ACL ruptures. Injured participants had lower mean KOOS QOL scores at baseline (-61.05; 95% CI: -67.56, -54.53), 6-month (-41.37; 95% CI: -47.94, -34.80), and 12-month (-33.34; 95% CI: -39.86, -26.82) follow-up, regardless of sex. Knee extensor strength (6- and 12-month follow-up), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (12-month follow-up), and ICOAP (all time points) were associated with KOOS QOL in injured youth. Additionally, having an ACL/meniscus injury and higher Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia scores were associated with worse KOOS QOL in injured youth. CONCLUSION: Youth with a sport-related knee injury have significant, persistent knee-related QOL deficits at 12-month follow-up. Knee extensor strength, physical activity, pain, and fear of reinjury may contribute to knee-related QOL. JOSPT 2023;53(8):1-10. Epub: 20 June 2023. doi:10.2519/jospt.2023.11611.
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    Patients' Views on AI for Risk Prediction in Shared Decision-Making for Knee Replacement Surgery: Qualitative Interview Study
    Gould, DJ ; Dowsey, MM ; Glanville-Hearst, M ; Spelman, T ; Bailey, JA ; Choong, PFM ; Bunzli, S (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2023-09-18)
    BACKGROUND: The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision-making around knee replacement surgery is increasing, and this technology holds promise to improve the prediction of patient outcomes. Ambiguity surrounds the definition of AI, and there are mixed views on its application in clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the understanding and attitudes of patients who underwent knee replacement surgery regarding AI in the context of risk prediction for shared clinical decision-making. METHODS: This qualitative study involved patients who underwent knee replacement surgery at a tertiary referral center for joint replacement surgery. The participants were selected based on their age and sex. Semistructured interviews explored the participants' understanding of AI and their opinions on its use in shared clinical decision-making. Data collection and reflexive thematic analyses were conducted concurrently. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Thematic saturation was achieved with 19 interviews and confirmed with 1 additional interview, resulting in 20 participants being interviewed (female participants: n=11, 55%; male participants: n=9, 45%; median age: 66 years). A total of 11 (55%) participants had a substantial postoperative complication. Three themes captured the participants' understanding of AI and their perceptions of its use in shared clinical decision-making. The theme Expectations captured the participants' views of themselves as individuals with the right to self-determination as they sought therapeutic solutions tailored to their circumstances, needs, and desires, including whether to use AI at all. The theme Empowerment highlighted the potential of AI to enable patients to develop realistic expectations and equip them with personalized risk information to discuss in shared decision-making conversations with the surgeon. The theme Partnership captured the importance of symbiosis between AI and clinicians because AI has varied levels of interpretability and understanding of human emotions and empathy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent knee replacement surgery in this study had varied levels of familiarity with AI and diverse conceptualizations of its definitions and capabilities. Educating patients about AI through nontechnical explanations and illustrative scenarios could help inform their decision to use it for risk prediction in the shared decision-making process with their surgeon. These findings could be used in the process of developing a questionnaire to ascertain the views of patients undergoing knee replacement surgery on the acceptability of AI in shared clinical decision-making. Future work could investigate the accuracy of this patient group's understanding of AI, beyond their familiarity with it, and how this influences their acceptance of its use. Surgeons may play a key role in finding a place for AI in the clinical setting as the uptake of this technology in health care continues to grow.
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    Inflammation and altered metabolism impede efficacy of functional electrical stimulation in critically ill patients.
    Jameson, TSO ; Caldow, MK ; Stephens, F ; Denehy, L ; Lynch, GS ; Koopman, R ; Krajcova, A ; Urban, T ; Berney, S ; Duska, F ; Puthucheary, Z (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-11-06)
    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients suffer from acute muscle wasting, which is associated with significant physical functional impairment. We describe data from nested muscle biopsy studies from two trials of functional electrical stimulation (FES) that did not shown improvements in physical function. METHODS: Primary cohort: single-centre randomized controlled trial. Additional healthy volunteer data from patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Validation cohort: Four-centre randomized controlled trial. INTERVENTION: FES cycling for 60-90min/day. ANALYSES: Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of 223 genes underwent hierarchal clustering for targeted analysis and validation. RESULTS: Positively enriched pathways between healthy volunteers and ICU participants were "stress response", "response to stimuli" and "protein metabolism", in keeping with published data. Positively enriched pathways between admission and day 7 ICU participants were "FOXO-mediated transcription" (admission = 0.48 ± 0.94, day 7 = - 0.47 ± 1.04 mean log2 fold change; P = 0.042), "Fatty acid metabolism" (admission = 0.50 ± 0.67, day 7 = 0.07 ± 1.65 mean log2 fold change; P = 0.042) and "Interleukin-1 processing" (admission = 0.88 ± 0.50, day 7 = 0.97 ± 0.76 mean log2 fold change; P = 0.054). Muscle mRNA expression of UCP3 (P = 0.030) and DGKD (P = 0.040) decreased in both cohorts with no between group differences. Changes in IL-18 were not observed in the validation cohort (P = 0.268). Targeted analyses related to intramuscular mitochondrial substrate oxidation, fatty acid oxidation and intramuscular inflammation showed PPARγ-C1α; (P < 0.001), SLC25A20 (P = 0.017) and UCP3 (P < 0.001) decreased between admission and day 7 in both arms. LPIN-1 (P < 0.001) and SPT1 (P = 0.044) decreased between admission and day 7. IL-18 (P = 0.011) and TNFRSF12A (P = 0.009) increased in both arms between admission and day 7. IL-1β (P = 0.007), its receptor IL-1R1 (P = 0.005) and IL-6R (P = 0.001) decreased in both arms between admission and day 7. No between group differences were seen in any of these (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular inflammation and altered substrate utilization are persistent in skeletal muscle during first week of critical illness and are not improved by the application of Functional Electrical Stimulation-assisted exercise. Future trials of exercise to prevent muscle wasting and physical impairment are unlikely to be successful unless these processes are addressed by other means than exercise alone.
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    Control intervention design for preclinical and clinical trials: Consensus-based core recommendations from the third Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable
    Hayward, KS ; Dalton, EJ ; Barth, J ; Brady, M ; Cherney, LR ; Churilov, L ; Clarkson, AN ; Dawson, J ; Dukelow, SP ; Feys, P ; Hackett, M ; Zeiler, SR ; Lang, CE (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2024-01)
    Control comparator selection is a critical trial design issue. Preclinical and clinical investigators who are doing trials of stroke recovery and rehabilitation interventions must carefully consider the appropriateness and relevance of their chosen control comparator as the benefit of an experimental intervention is established relative to a comparator. Establishing a strong rationale for a selected comparator improves the integrity of the trial and validity of its findings. This Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (SRRR) taskforce used a graph theory voting system to rank the importance and ease of addressing challenges during control comparator design. "Identifying appropriate type of control" was ranked easy to address and very important, "variability in usual care" was ranked hard to address and of low importance, and "understanding the content of the control and how it differs from the experimental intervention" was ranked very important but not easy to address. The CONtrol DeSIGN (CONSIGN) decision support tool was developed to address the identified challenges and enhance comparator selection, description, and reporting. CONSIGN is a web-based tool inclusive of seven steps that guide the user through control comparator design. The tool was refined through multiple rounds of pilot testing that included more than 130 people working in neurorehabilitation research. Four hypothetical exemplar trials, which span preclinical, mood, aphasia, and motor recovery, demonstrate how the tool can be applied in practice. Six consensus recommendations are defined that span research domains, professional disciplines, and international borders.
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    Exploring attitudes of people with chronic health conditions towards the use of group-based telerehabilitation: A qualitative study.
    Barry Walsh, C ; Cahalan, R ; Hinman, RS ; O'Sullivan, K (SAGE Publications, 2024-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The study explores the attitudes of people with chronic health conditions towards the use of group-based telerehabilitation. DESIGN: A qualitative research study. SETTING: The setting involved semi-structured focus groups via videoconferencing software. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 18 people with chronic health conditions including cardiorespiratory, neurological and musculoskeletal conditions was recruited via national patient advocacy and support groups in Ireland and clinical contacts. The sample included both those who had, and had not, previously engaged in telerehabilitation programmes. PROCEDURES: An online questionnaire collected demographic information and data regarding previous telerehabilitation participation and telerehabilitation preferences. Focus groups were conducted using videoconferencing software, in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) Checklist, and analysed using thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke's methodology. Findings were triangulated with quantitative questionnaire data. RESULTS: Four focus groups were conducted including participants with chronic cardiorespiratory (n = 8), neurological (n = 6) and musculoskeletal (n = 4) conditions. Three themes were identified regarding telerehabilitation: (a) benefits and facilitators (including convenience, increased service accessibility, social connection and technological support), (b) challenges and barriers (including technological access and literacy, limited 'hands-on' therapy, safety concerns and social limitations), and (c) preferences (regarding mode of delivery, content, duration and generic programmes for mixed-condition groups). CONCLUSIONS: Telerehabilitation is convenient for people with chronic conditions; however, concerns exist regarding the use of technology and the limitations of this healthcare delivery method. The role of telerehabilitation is valued, and future programmes should acknowledge patient preferences including a hybrid model of care, exercise and educational content, social interaction and synchronous components.
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    Harnessing neuroplasticity to improve motor performance in infants with cerebral palsy: a study protocol for the GAME randomised controlled trial
    Morgan, C ; Badawi, N ; Boyd, RN ; Spittle, AJ ; Dale, RC ; Kirby, A ; Hunt, RW ; Whittingham, K ; Pannek, K ; Morton, RL ; Tarnow-Mordi, W ; Fahey, MC ; Walker, K ; Prelog, K ; Elliott, C ; Valentine, J ; Guzzetta, A ; Olivey, S ; GAME, ST ; Novak, I (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2023-03)
    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability of childhood worldwide. Historically the diagnosis was made between 12 and 24 months, meaning data about effective early interventions to improve motor outcomes are scant. In high-income countries, two in three children will walk. This evaluator-blinded randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of an early and sustained Goals-Activity-Motor Enrichment approach to improve motor and cognitive skills in infants with suspected or confirmed CP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants will be recruited from neonatal intensive care units and the community in Australia across four states. To be eligible for inclusion infants will be aged 3-6.5 months corrected for prematurity and have a diagnosis of CP or 'high risk of CP' according to the International Clinical Practice Guideline criteria. Eligible participants whose caregivers consent will be randomly allocated to receive usual care or weekly sessions at home from a GAME-trained study physiotherapist or occupational therapist, paired with a daily home programme, until age 2. The study requires 150 participants per group to detect a 0.5 SD difference in motor skills at 2 years of age, measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2. Secondary outcomes include gross motor function, cognition, functional independence, social-emotional development and quality of life. A within-trial economic evaluation is also planned. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network Human Ethics Committee in April 2017 (ref number HREC/17/SCHN/37). Outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publications, presentations at international conferences and consumer websites. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617000006347.