Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    "Sounds a Bit Crazy, But It Was Almost More Personal:" A Qualitative Study of Patient and Clinician Experiences of Physical Therapist-Prescribed Exercise For Knee Osteoarthritis Via Skype
    Hinman, RS ; Nelligan, RK ; Bennell, KL ; Delany, C (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of patients and physical therapists with Skype for exercise management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The Donabedian model for quality assessment in health care (structure, process, and outcomes) informed semistructured individual interview questions. The study involved 12 purposively sampled patients with knee OA who received physical therapist-prescribed exercise over Skype, and all therapists (n = 8) who delivered the intervention in a clinical trial were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Two investigators undertook coding and analysis using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Six themes arose from both patients and therapists. The themes were Structure: technology (easy to use, variable quality, set-up assistance helpful) and patient convenience (time efficient, flexible, increased access); Process: empowerment to self-manage (facilitated by home environment and therapists focusing on effective treatment) and positive therapeutic relationships (personal undivided attention from therapists, supportive friendly interactions); and Outcomes: satisfaction with care (satisfying, enjoyable, patients would recommend, therapists felt Skype more useful as adjunct to usual practice) and patient benefits (reduced pain, improved function, improved confidence and self-efficacy). A seventh theme arose from therapists regarding process: adjusting routine treatment (need to modify habits, discomfort without hands-on, supported by research environment). CONCLUSION: Patients and physical therapists described mostly positive experiences using Skype as a service delivery model for physical therapist-supervised exercise management of moderate knee OA. Such a model is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to increase access to supervised exercise management for people with knee OA, either individually or in combination with traditional in-clinic visits.
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    Consumer Perceptions of and Willingness to Use Remotely Delivered Service Models For Exercise Management of Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey
    Lawford, BJ ; Bennell, KL ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions of people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA) about the remote delivery of exercise therapy by a physical therapist. METHODS: A survey of people age ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of hip and/or knee OA was conducted. The survey comprised 3 sections, including 1) demographic information, 2) statements about receiving exercise via the telephone, and 3) statements about receiving exercise via video over the internet. Data were analyzed by calculating response proportions and evaluating levels of agreement with each statement. Exploratory binomial regression analyses were performed to determine whether participant characteristics influenced perceptions of tele-rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 330 people spanning metropolitan, regional, and rural Australia completed the survey. Respondents were in majority (≥50%) agreement with 13 of 17 statements, with most agreement about tele-rehabilitation saving time (telephone versus video: 78% versus 81%), being easy to use (79% versus 78%), and maintaining privacy (86% versus 82%). There was no consensus agreement with liking the lack of physical contact (telephone versus video: 20% agreement versus 22%), willingness to pay (32% versus 46%), belief that telephone-delivered exercise would be effective (45%), and belief that a physical therapist could adequately monitor OA over the telephone (42%). CONCLUSION: People with knee and/or hip OA hold mostly positive perceptions about tele-rehabilitation, delivered via the telephone or by video over the internet, for provision of physical therapist-prescribed exercise services. There was concern about the lack of physical contact with the therapist when using tele-rehabilitation.
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    Telephone Coaching to Enhance a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Bennell, KL ; Campbell, PK ; Egerton, T ; Metcalf, B ; Kasza, J ; Forbes, A ; Bills, C ; Gale, J ; Harris, A ; Kolt, GS ; Bunker, SJ ; Hunter, DJ ; Brand, CA ; Hinman, RS (WILEY, 2017-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether simultaneous telephone coaching improves the clinical effectiveness of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A total of 168 inactive adults ages ≥50 years with knee pain on a numeric rating scale ≥4 (NRS; range 0-10) and knee OA were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a physiotherapy (PT) and coaching group (n = 84) or PT-only (n = 84) group. All participants received five 30-minute consultations with a physiotherapist over 6 months for education, home exercise, and physical activity advice. PT+coaching participants also received 6-12 telephone coaching sessions by clinicians trained in behavioral-change support for exercise and physical activity. Primary outcomes were pain (NRS) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC; score range 0-68]) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were these same measures at 12 and 18 months, as well as physical activity, exercise adherence, other pain and function measures, and quality of life. Analyses were intent-to-treat with multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS: A total of 142 (85%), 136 (81%), and 128 (76%) participants completed 6-, 12-, and 18-month measurements, respectively. The change in NRS pain (mean difference 0.4 unit [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.4, 1.3]) and in WOMAC function (1.8 [95% CI -1.9, 5.5]) did not differ between groups at 6 months, with both groups showing clinically relevant improvements. Some secondary outcomes related to physical activity and exercise behavior favored PT+coaching at 6 months but generally not at 12 or 18 months. There were no between-group differences in most other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The addition of simultaneous telephone coaching did not augment the pain and function benefits of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program.
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    Coordination of deep hip muscle activity is altered in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement
    Diamond, LE ; Van den Hoorn, W ; Bennell, KL ; Wrigley, TV ; Hinman, RS ; O'Donnell, J ; Hodges, PW (WILEY, 2017-07-01)
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    Efficacy of combined conservative therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with thumb base osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (COMBO)
    Deveza, LA ; Hunter, DJ ; Wajon, A ; Bennell, KL ; Vicenzino, B ; Hodges, P ; Eyles, JP ; Jongs, R ; Riordan, EA ; Duong, V ; Min Oo, W ; O'Connell, R ; Meneses, SRF (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Management of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA) using a combination of therapies is common in clinical practice; however, evidence for the efficacy of this approach is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a combination of conservative therapies for the treatment of thumb base OA compared with an education control group. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised, controlled, single-centre, two-arm superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio; with assessor and statistician blinded. Participants are blinded to the trial's hypothesis and to the interventions received by the opposite group. A total of 204 participants will be recruited from the community and randomised using a computer-generated schedule. The intervention group will receive education for joint protection and OA, a splint for the base of the thumb, hand exercises and topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel over 6 weeks. The control group will receive education for joint protection and OA alone. Main inclusion criteria are pain ≥40 mm (Visual Analogue Scale, 0-100) at the base of the thumb, impairment in hand function ≥6 (Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis, 0-30) and radiographic thumb base OA (Kellgren Lawrence grade ≥2). Participants currently receiving any of the intervention components will be excluded. Outcomes will be measured at 2, 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is change in pain and hand function from baseline to 6 weeks. Other outcomes include changes in grip and pinch strength, quality of life, presence of joint swelling and tenderness, duration of joint stiffness, patient's global assessment and use of rescue medication. Analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (HREC/15/HAWKE/479). Dissemination will occur through presentations at international conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000353493; Pre-results.
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    Relationships Between Tibiofemoral Contact Forces and Cartilage Morphology at 2 to 3 Years After Single-Bundle Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and in Healthy Knees
    Saxby, DJ ; Bryant, AL ; Wang, X ; Modenese, L ; Gerus, P ; Konrath, JM ; Bennell, KL ; Fortin, K ; Wrigley, T ; Cicuttini, FM ; Vertullo, CJ ; Feller, JA ; Whitehead, T ; Gallie, P ; Lloyd, DG (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2017-08-31)
    BACKGROUND: Prevention of knee osteoarthritis (OA) following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and reconstruction is vital. Risk of postreconstruction knee OA is markedly increased by concurrent meniscal injury. It is unclear whether reconstruction results in normal relationships between tibiofemoral contact forces and cartilage morphology and whether meniscal injury modulates these relationships. HYPOTHESES: Since patients with isolated reconstructions (ie, without meniscal injury) are at lower risk for knee OA, we predicted that relationships between tibiofemoral contact forces and cartilage morphology would be similar to those of normal, healthy knees 2 to 3 years postreconstruction. In knees with meniscal injuries, these relationships would be similar to those reported in patients with knee OA, reflecting early degenerative changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Three groups were examined: (1) 62 patients who received single-bundle hamstring reconstruction with an intact, uninjured meniscus (mean age, 29.8 ± 6.4 years; mean weight, 74.9 ± 13.3 kg); (2) 38 patients with similar reconstruction with additional meniscal injury (ie, tear, repair) or partial resection (mean age, 30.6 ± 6.6 years; mean weight, 83.3 ± 14.3 kg); and (3) 30 ligament-normal, healthy individuals (mean age, 28.3 ± 5.2 years; mean weight, 74.9 ± 14.9 kg) serving as controls. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging to measure the medial and lateral tibial articular cartilage morphology (volumes and thicknesses). An electromyography-driven neuromusculoskeletal model determined medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces during walking. General linear models were used to assess relationships between tibiofemoral contact forces and cartilage morphology. RESULTS: In control knees, cartilage was thicker compared with that of isolated and meniscal-injured ACL-reconstructed knees, while greater contact forces were related to both greater tibial cartilage volumes (medial: R2 = 0.43, β = 0.62, P = .000; lateral: R2 = 0.19, β = 0.46, P = .03) and medial thicknesses (R2 = 0.24, β = 0.48, P = .01). In the overall group of ACL-reconstructed knees, greater contact forces were related to greater lateral cartilage volumes (R2 = 0.08, β = 0.28, P = .01). In ACL-reconstructed knees with lateral meniscal injury, greater lateral contact forces were related to greater lateral cartilage volumes (R2 = 0.41, β = 0.64, P = .001) and thicknesses (R2 = 0.20, β = 0.46, P = .04). CONCLUSION: At 2 to 3 years postsurgery, ACL-reconstructed knees had thinner cartilage compared with healthy knees, and there were no positive relationships between medial contact forces and cartilage morphology. In lateral meniscal-injured reconstructed knees, greater contact forces were related to greater lateral cartilage volumes and thicknesses, although it was unclear whether this was an adaptive response or associated with degeneration. Future clinical studies may seek to establish whether cartilage morphology can be modified through rehabilitation programs targeting contact forces directly in addition to the current rehabilitation foci of restoring passive and dynamic knee range of motion, knee strength, and functional performance.
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    Protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic hip surgery to physiotherapy-led care for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI): the Australian FASHIoN trial
    Murphy, NJ ; Eyles, J ; Bennell, KL ; Bohensky, M ; Burns, A ; Callaghan, FM ; Dickenson, E ; Fary, C ; Grieve, SM ; Griffin, DR ; Hall, M ; Hobson, R ; Kim, YJ ; Linklater, JM ; Lloyd, DG ; Molnar, R ; O'Connell, RL ; O'Donnell, J ; O'Sullivan, M ; Randhawa, S ; Reichenbach, S ; Saxby, DJ ; Singh, P ; Spiers, L ; Phong, T ; Wrigley, TV ; Hunter, DJ (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017-09-26)
    BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI), a hip disorder affecting active young adults, is believed to be a leading cause of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Current management approaches for FAI include arthroscopic hip surgery and physiotherapy-led non-surgical care; however, there is a paucity of clinical trial evidence comparing these approaches. In particular, it is unknown whether these management approaches modify the future risk of developing hip OA. The primary objective of this randomised controlled trial is to determine if participants with FAI who undergo hip arthroscopy have greater improvements in hip cartilage health, as demonstrated by changes in delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) index between baseline and 12 months, compared to those who undergo physiotherapy-led non-surgical management. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, multi-centre, two-arm superiority randomised controlled trial comparing hip arthroscopy to physiotherapy-led management for FAI. A total of 140 participants with FAI will be recruited from the clinics of participating orthopaedic surgeons, and randomly allocated to receive either surgery or physiotherapy-led non-surgical care. The surgical intervention involves arthroscopic FAI surgery from one of eight orthopaedic surgeons specialising in this field, located in three different Australian cities. The physiotherapy-led non-surgical management is an individualised physiotherapy program, named Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT), developed by a panel to represent the best non-operative care for FAI. It entails at least six individual physiotherapy sessions over 12 weeks, and up to ten sessions over six months, provided by experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapists trained to deliver the PHT program. The primary outcome measure is the change in dGEMRIC score of a ROI containing both acetabular and femoral head cartilages at the chondrolabral transitional zone of the mid-sagittal plane between baseline and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include patient-reported outcomes and several structural and biomechanical measures relevant to the pathogenesis of FAI and development of hip OA. Interventions will be compared by intention-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION: The findings will help determine whether hip arthroscopy or an individualised physiotherapy program is superior for the management of FAI, including for the prevention of hip OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12615001177549 . Trial registered 2/11/2015 (retrospectively registered).
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    No abatement of steroid injections for tennis elbow in Australian General Practice: A 15-year observational study with random general practitioner sampling
    Vicenzino, B ; Britt, H ; Pollack, AJ ; Hall, M ; Bennell, KL ; Hunter, DJ ; Kumar, S (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-07-20)
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate general practitioner (GP) management of tennis elbow (TE) in Australia. METHODS: Data about the management of TE by GPs from 2000 to 2015 were extracted from the Bettering the Evaluation of Care of Health program database. Patient and GP characteristics and encounter management data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, version 2, and reported using descriptive statistics with point estimates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: TE was managed by GPs 242,000 times per year on average. Patients were mainly female (52.3%), aged between 35 and 64 years (mean: 49.3 yrs), had higher relative risks of concomitant disorders (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome and other tendonitis) and their TE was 10 times more likely to be work related than problems managed for patients who did not have TE. Use of diagnostic tests was low, implying a clinical examination based diagnosis of TE. Management was by procedural treatments (36 per 100 TE problems), advice, education or counselling (25 per 100), and referral to other health care providers (14 per 100, mainly to physiotherapy). The rate of local injection did not change over the 15 years and was performed at similar rates as physiotherapy referral. CONCLUSION: The high risk of comorbidities and work relatedness and no abatement in the reasonably high rate of local injections (which is contrary to the evidence from clinical trials) provides support for the development and dissemination of TE clinical guidelines for GPs.
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    Subgrouping and TargetEd Exercise pRogrammes for knee and hip OsteoArthritis (STEER OA): a systematic review update and individual participant data meta-analysis protocol
    Holden, MA ; Burke, DL ; Runhaar, J ; van der Windt, D ; Riley, RD ; Dziedzic, K ; Legha, A ; Evans, AL ; Abbott, JH ; Baker, K ; Brown, J ; Bennell, KL ; Bossen, D ; Brosseau, L ; Chaipinyo, K ; Christensen, R ; Cochrane, T ; de Rooij, M ; Doherty, M ; French, HP ; Hickson, S ; Hinman, RS ; Hopman-Rock, M ; Hurley, MV ; Ingram, C ; Knoop, J ; Krauss, I ; McCarthy, C ; Messier, SP ; Patrick, DL ; Sahin, N ; Talbot, LA ; Taylor, R ; Teirlinck, CH ; van Middelkoop, M ; Walker, C ; Foster, NE (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-12-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Therapeutic exercise is a recommended core treatment for people with knee and hip OA, however, the observed effect sizes for reducing pain and improving physical function are small to moderate. This may be due to insufficient targeting of exercise to subgroups of people who are most likely to respond and/or suboptimal content of exercise programmes. This study aims to identify: (1) subgroups of people with knee and hip OA that do/do not respond to therapeutic exercise and to different types of exercise and (2) mediators of the effect of therapeutic exercise for reducing pain and improving physical function. This will enable optimal targeting and refining the content of future exercise interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Systematic review and individual participant data meta-analyses. A previous comprehensive systematic review will be updated to identify randomised controlled trials that compare the effects of therapeutic exercise for people with knee and hip OA on pain and physical function to a non-exercise control. Lead authors of eligible trials will be invited to share individual participant data. Trial-level and participant-level characteristics (for baseline variables and outcomes) of included studies will be summarised. Meta-analyses will use a two-stage approach, where effect estimates are obtained for each trial and then synthesised using a random effects model (to account for heterogeneity). All analyses will be on an intention-to-treat principle and all summary meta-analysis estimates will be reported as standardised mean differences with 95% CI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethical or governance approval is exempt as no new data are being collected and no identifiable participant information will be shared. Findings will be disseminated via national and international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals and summaries posted on websites accessed by the public and clinicians. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017054049.
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    Efficacy of adding a physiotherapy rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: a randomised controlled trial (FAIR)
    Bennell, KL ; Spiers, L ; Takla, A ; O'Donnell, J ; Kasza, J ; Hunter, DJ ; Hinman, RS (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-06-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Although several rehabilitation programmes following hip arthroscopy for femoracetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome have been described, there are no clinical trials evaluating whether formal physiotherapy-prescribed rehabilitation improves recovery compared with self-directed rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding a physiotherapist-prescribed rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: People aged ≥16 years with FAI syndrome scheduled for hip arthroscopy were recruited and randomly allocated to physiotherapy (PT) or control. The PT group received seven PT sessions (one preoperative and six postoperative) incorporating education, manual therapy and a progressive rehabilitation programme of home, aquatic and gym exercises while the control group did not undertake PT rehabilitation. Measurements were taken at baseline (2 weeks presurgery) and 14 and 24 weeks postsurgery. The primary outcomes were the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) and the sport subscale of the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) at week 14. RESULTS: Due to slower than expected recruitment and funding constraints, recruitment was ceased after 23 months. Thirty participants (14 PT and 16 control) were randomised and 28 (14 PT and 14 control; 93%) and 22 (11 PT and 11 control; 73%) completed week 14 and 24 measurements, respectively. For the 14-week primary outcomes, the PT group showed significantly greater improvements on the iHOT-33 (mean difference 14.2 units; 95% CI 1.2 to 27.2) and sport subscale of the HOS (13.8 units; 95% CI 0.3 to 27.3). There were no significant between-group differences at week 24. CONCLUSIONS: An individual PT treatment and rehabilitation programme may augment improvements in patient-reported outcomes following arthroscopy for FAI syndrome. However, given the small sample size, larger trials are needed to validate the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Trial registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry :ACTRN12613000282785, Results.