Physiotherapy - Research Publications

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    Survey of neurodevelopmental allied health teams in Australian and New Zealand neonatal nurseries: Staff profile and standardised neurobehavioural/neurological assessment
    Allinson, LG ; Doyle, LW ; Denehy, L ; Spittle, AJ (WILEY, 2017-06-01)
    AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to establish how many neonatal nurseries in Australia and New Zealand had a neurodevelopmental allied health team, to ascertain the disciplines involved, their qualifications and experience. The secondary aim was to evaluate which standardised neurobehavioural/neurological assessments were currently being implemented, and the existing practice in relation to their use. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional survey, sampling 179 eligible public and private hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and special care nurseries (SCNs) throughout Australia and New Zealand, was purpose-developed and administered electronically from the 5th April to 23rd July 2013. RESULTS: A total of 117 units (65%) overall, and 26 of 26 (100%) NICUs responded to the survey. NICUs had more neurodevelopmental allied health staff than SCNs, with physiotherapists and speech pathologists the most common disciplines. Physiotherapists were more likely to administer standardised neurobehavioural/neurological assessments in NICUs, while medical staff were more likely to do so in SCNs. A wide variety of standardised neurobehavioural/neurological assessment tools were used, with Prechtl's General Movements Assessment the most common in the NICUs (50%) and the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination the most common in the special care units (25%). Standardised neurobehavioural assessments were not administered in 22% of SCNs. CONCLUSIONS: Although neurodevelopmental allied health teams and standardised neurobehavioural/neurological assessments are valued by many, there was little consistency across Australian and New Zealand neonatal nurseries.
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    How is physical activity measured in lung cancer? A systematic review of outcome measures and their psychometric properties
    Edbrooke, L ; Denehy, L ; Parry, SM ; Astin, R ; Jack, S ; Granger, CL (WILEY, 2017-02-01)
    Physical activity (PA) levels are low in patients with lung cancer. Emerging evidence supports the use of interventions to increase PA in this population. We aimed to (1) identify and synthesize outcome measures which assess PA levels in patients with lung cancer and (2) to evaluate, synthesize and compare the psychometric properties of these measures. A systematic review of articles from searches was conducted of five electronic databases and personal records. Eligible studies were those which assessed PA using either performance-based or patient-reported measures. For aim 2, studies identified in aim 1 reporting on at least one psychometric property (validity, reliability, responsiveness or measurement error) were included. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments. Thirty-four studies using 21 different measures of PA were identified. Seventeen studies used performance-based measures. The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) was the most frequently used patient-reported measure. Psychometric properties were reported for 13 of these measures and most frequently for movement sensors. Two studies reported on properties of the GLTEQ. Quality ratings for risk of bias were low. There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding method of PA measurement along the lung cancer continuum. Greater consensus could be achieved by using a consensus approach such as a Delphi process. Future studies should include assessment of psychometric properties of the measurement tool being used. Currently, it is recommended where feasible, both performance-based and patient-reported measurements of PA should be undertaken.
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    The Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire is a valid measure of pelvic floor symptoms in patients following surgery for colorectal cancer
    Lin, K-Y ; Frawley, HC ; Granger, CL ; Denehy, L (WILEY, 2017-06-01)
    AIMS: This study evaluated the construct validity of the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire against two alternative measures of the severity of bladder and bowel symptoms. METHODS: This was an exploratory analysis of data from two prospective studies. Patients who had undergone surgery for colorectal cancer were analysed. Bladder and bowel symptoms were measured using three validated questionnaires: the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form Questionnaire for urinary incontinence and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel Module post-cancer treatment. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 44 participants, including 25 men and 19 women. The Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire bladder and bowel domain scores demonstrated moderate positive correlations with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form Questionnaire for urinary incontinence (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel Module (r = 0.69-0.78, P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained in each gender subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire may be a valid measurement tool for use in colorectal cancer populations in clinical trials and practice. Future research using larger cohorts is warranted.
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    Physiological stress responses in infants at 29-32 weeks' postmenstrual age during clustered nursing cares and standardised neurobehavioural assessments
    Allinson, LG ; Denehy, L ; Doyle, LW ; Eeles, AL ; Dawson, JA ; Lee, KJ ; Spittle, AJ (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-11-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiological stress responses of infants born <30 weeks' gestational age when undergoing clustered nursing cares with standardised neurobehavioural assessments in neonatal nurseries. DESIGN/METHODS: Thirty-four infants born <30 weeks' gestation were recruited from a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation were recorded during clustered nursing cares and during standardised neurobehavioural assessments (including the General Movements Assessment, Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination and Premie-Neuro Assessment). Two assessors extracted HR and oxygen saturations at 5 s intervals, with HR instability defined either as tachycardia (HR >180 beats per minute (bpm)) or bradycardia (HR <100 bpm). Oxygen desaturations were defined as SpO2<90%. Physiological stability was compared between nursing cares and neurobehavioural assessments using linear (for continuous outcomes) and logistic (HR instability and oxygen desaturation) regression. RESULTS: Compared with clustered nursing cares HR was lower (mean difference -5.9 bpm; 95% CI -6.5 to 5.3; P<0.001) and oxygen saturation higher (mean difference 2.4%; 95% CI 2.1% to 2.6%; P<0.001) during standardised neurobehavioural assessments. Compared with clustered nursing cares neurobehavioural assessments were also associated with reduced odds of tachycardia (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.86), HR instability (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.85) and oxygen desaturation (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Standardised neurobehavioural assessments are associated with less physiological stress than clustered nursing cares in infants aged 29-32 weeks' postmenstrual age, and are therefore possible without causing undue physiological disturbance in medically stable infants.
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    The Sternal Management Accelerated Recovery Trial (SMART) - standard restrictive versus an intervention of modified sternal precautions following cardiac surgery via median sternotomy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Katijjahbe, MA ; Denehy, L ; Granger, CL ; Royse, A ; Royse, C ; Bates, R ; Logie, S ; Clarke, S ; El-Ansary, D (BMC, 2017-06-23)
    BACKGROUND: The routine implementation of sternal precautions to prevent sternal complications that restrict the use of the upper limbs is currently worldwide practice following a median sternotomy. However, evidence is limited and drawn primarily from cadaver studies and orthopaedic research. Sternal precautions may delay recovery, prolong hospital discharge and be overly restrictive. Recent research has shown that upper limb exercise reduces post-operative sternal pain and results in minimal micromotion between the sternal edges as measured by ultrasound. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effects of modified sternal precautions on physical function, pain, recovery and health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a phase II, double-blind, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinding of patients and assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. Patients (n = 72) will be recruited following cardiac surgery via a median sternotomy. Sample size calculations were based on the minimal important difference (two points) for the primary outcome: Short Physical Performance Battery. Thirty-six participants are required per group to counter dropout (20%). All participants will be randomised to receive either standard or modified sternal precautions. The intervention group will receive guidelines encouraging the safe use of the upper limbs. Secondary outcomes are upper limb function, pain, kinesiophobia and health-related quality of life. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarise data. The primary hypothesis will be examined by repeated-measures analysis of variance to evaluate the changes from baseline to 4 weeks post-operatively in the intervention arm compared with the usual-care arm. In all tests to be conducted, a p value <0.05 (two-tailed) will be considered statistically significant, and confidence intervals will be reported. DISCUSSION: The Sternal Management Accelerated Recovery Trial (S.M.A.R.T.) is a two-centre randomised controlled trial powered and designed to investigate whether the effects of modifying sternal precautions to include the safe use of the upper limbs and trunk impact patients' physical function and recovery following cardiac surgery via median sternotomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier: ACTRN12615000968572 . Registered on 16 September 2015 (prospectively registered).
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    Understanding factors influencing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: a systematic review
    Granger, CL ; Connolly, B ; Denehy, L ; Hart, N ; Antippa, P ; Lin, K-Y ; Parry, SM (SPRINGER, 2017-03-01)
    PURPOSE: Despite evidence and clinical practice guidelines supporting physical activity (PA) for people with lung cancer, this evidence has not translated into clinical practice. This review aims to identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for patients with lung cancer to participate in PA from the perspective of patients, carers and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: Systematic review of articles using electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2016), CINAHL (1982-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Scopus (2004-2016) and Cochrane (2016). Quantitative and qualitative studies, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, which assessed the barriers or enablers to PA for patients with lung cancer were included. Registered-PROSPERO (CRD4201603341). RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (n = 9 cross-sectional, n = 4 case series, n = 11 qualitative) including 1074 patients, 23 carers and 169 HCPs were included. Barriers and enablers to PA were identified (6 major themes, 18 sub-themes): Barriers included patient-level factors (physical capability, symptoms, comorbidities, previous sedentary lifestyle, psychological influences, perceived relevance), HCP factors (time/knowledge to deliver information) and environmental factors (access to services, resources, timing relative to treatment). Enablers included anticipated benefits, opportunity for behaviour change and influences from HCPs and carers. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has identified the volume of literature demonstrating that barriers and enablers to PA in lung cancer are multidimensional and span diverse factors. These include patient-level factors, such as symptoms, comorbidities, sedentary lifestyle, mood and fear, and environmental factors. These factors should be considered to identify and develop suitable interventions and clinical services in attempt to increase PA in patients with lung cancer.
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    Factors influencing physical activity and rehabilitation in survivors of critical illness: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies
    Parry, SM ; Knight, LD ; Connolly, B ; Baldwin, C ; Puthucheary, Z ; Morris, P ; Mortimore, J ; Hart, N ; Denehy, L ; Granger, CL (SPRINGER, 2017-04-01)
    PURPOSE: To identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for survivors of critical illness to participate in physical activity in the ICU and post-ICU settings from the perspective of patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. METHODS: Systematic review of articles using five electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus. Quantitative and qualitative studies that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal and assessed barriers or enablers for survivors of critical illness to perform physical activity were included. Prospero ID: CRD42016035454. RESULTS: Eighty-nine papers were included. Five major themes and 28 sub-themes were identified, encompassing: (1) patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, including delirium, sedation, illness severity, comorbidities, weakness, anxiety, confidence and motivation; (2) safety influences, including physiological stability and concern for lines, e.g. risk of dislodgement; (3) culture and team influences, including leadership, interprofessional communication, administrative buy-in, clinician expertise and knowledge; (4) motivation and beliefs regarding the benefits/risks; and (5) environmental influences, including funding, access to rehabilitation programs, staffing and equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The main barriers identified were patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, safety concerns, lack of leadership and ICU culture of mobility, lack of interprofessional communication, expertise and knowledge, and lack of staffing/equipment and funding to provide rehabilitation programs. Barriers and enablers are multidimensional and span diverse factors. The majority of these barriers are modifiable and can be targeted in future clinical practice.
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    Benefits of home-based multidisciplinary exercise and supportive care in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer - protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Irving, L ; Braat, S ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Denehy, L (BMC, 2017-09-29)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and is a leading cause of cancer mortality world-wide. Due to lack of early specific symptoms, the majority of patients present with advanced, inoperable disease and five-year relative survival across all stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 14%. People with lung cancer also report higher levels of symptom distress than those with other forms of cancer. Several benefits for survival and patient reported outcomes are reported from physical activity and exercise in other tumour groups. We report the protocol for a study investigating the benefits of exercise, behaviour change and symptom self-management for patients with recently diagnosed, inoperable, NSCLC. METHODS: This multi-site, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, aims to assess functional and patient-reported outcomes of a multi-disciplinary, home-based exercise and supportive care program for people commencing treatment. Ninety-two participants are being recruited from three tertiary-care hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Following baseline testing, participants are randomised using concealed allocation, to receive either: a) 8 weeks of home-based exercise (comprising an individualised endurance and resistance exercise program and behaviour change coaching) and nurse-delivered symptom self-management intervention or b) usual care. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in the change in functional exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance) from baseline to post-program assessment. Secondary outcomes include: objective and self-reported physical activity levels, physical activity self-efficacy, behavioural regulation of motivation to exercise and resilience, muscle strength (quadriceps and grip), health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression and symptom interference. DISCUSSION: There is a lack of evidence regarding the benefit of exercise intervention for people with NSCLC, particularly in those with inoperable disease receiving treatment. This trial will contribute to evidence currently being generated in national and international trials by implementing and evaluating a home-based program including three components not yet combined in previous research, for people with inoperable NSCLC receiving active treatment and involving longer-term follow-up of outcomes. This trial is ongoing and currently recruiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614001268639 : (4/12/14).