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    Ballistic resistance training has a similar or better effect on mobility than non-ballistic exercise rehabilitation in people with a traumatic brain injury: a randomised trial
    Williams, G ; Hassett, L ; Clark, R ; Bryant, AL ; Morris, ME ; Olver, J ; Ada, L (AUSTRALIAN PHYSIOTHERAPY ASSOC, 2022-10)
    QUESTIONS: In people recovering from traumatic brain injury, is a 3-month ballistic resistance training program targeting three lower limb muscle groups more effective than non-ballistic exercise rehabilitation for improving mobility, strength and balance? Does improved mobility translate to better health-related quality of life? DESIGN: A prospective, multicentre, randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded measurement. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 144 people with a neurological movement disorder affecting mobility as a result of traumatic brain injury. INTERVENTION: For 3 months, the experimental group had three 60-minute sessions of non-ballistic exercise rehabilitation per week replaced by ballistic resistance training. The control group had non-ballistic exercise rehabilitation of equivalent time. The non-ballistic exercise rehabilitation consisted of balance exercises, lower limb stretching, conventional strengthening exercises, cardiovascular fitness training and gait training. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was mobility measured using the High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT). Secondary outcomes were walking speed, strength, balance and quality of life. They were measured at baseline (0 months), after completion of the 3-month intervention (3 months) and 3 months after cessation of intervention (6 months). RESULTS: After 3 months of ballistic resistance training, the experimental group scored 3 points (95% CI 0 to 6) higher on the 54-point HiMAT than the control group and remained 3 points (95% CI -1 to 6) higher at 6 months. Although there was a transient decrement in balance at 3 months in the experimental group, the interventions had similar effects on all secondary outcomes by 6 months. Participants with a baseline HiMAT < 27 gained greater benefit from ballistic training: 6 points (1 to 10) on the HiMAT. CONCLUSION: This randomised trial shows that ballistic resistance training has a similar or better effect on mobility than non-ballistic training in people with traumatic brain injury. It may be better targeted towards those with more severe mobility limitations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12611001098921.
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    Banky, M ; Clark, RA ; Mentiplay, BF ; Olver, JH ; Williams, G (FOUNDATION REHABILITATION INFORMATION, 2021-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Spasticity assessment is often used to guide treatment decision-making. Assessment tool limitations may influence the conflicting evidence surrounding the relationship between spasticity and walking. This study investigated whether testing speeds and joint angles during a Modified Tardieu assessment matched lower-limb angular velocity and range of motion during walking. DESIGN: Observational study. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five adults with a neurological condition and 34 assessors. METHODS: The Modified Tardieu Scale was completed. Joint angles and peak testing speed during V3 (fast) trials were compared with these variables during walking in healthy people, at 0.400.59, 0.600.79 and 1.401.60 m/s. The proportion of trials in which the testing speed, start angle, and angle of muscle reaction matched the relevant joint angles and angular velocity during walking were analysed. RESULTS: The Modified Tardieu Scale was completed faster than the angular velocities seen during walking in 88.7% (0.400.59 m/s), 78.9% (0.600.79 m/s) and 56.2% (1.401.60 m/s) of trials. When compared with the normative dataset, 4.2%, 9.5% and 13.7% of the trials met all criteria for each respective walking speed. CONCLUSION: When applied according to the standardized procedure and compared with joint angular velocity during walking, clinicians performed the Modified Tardieu Scale too quickly.